Saturday, July 6, 2019

Pakistan Ramps Up Nuclear Power to Boost Low-Carbon Electricity

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi has been completed by China National Nuclear Corporation, according to media reports. A similar reactor unit K3 will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid, bringing the total nuclear power installed capacity of Pakistan to 3,630 MW (12% of total power) by 2022.  Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  In addition, Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change.

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP):

With the placement of the outer containment shell, K2 is  now ready for containment and heat tests. It is scheduled to begin operations in 2020. It’s built using the Chinese HPR1000 technology, which features a dual containment design, with the outer containment providing additional protection for the primary containment.

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant K2 Unit Under Construction. Source: CNNC

KANUPP is Pakistan's first nuclear power plant where construction started in 1966 in Karachi. The plant was connected to the national grid on 18 October 1972. KANUPP, a pressurized heavy water reactor of 137 MW gross capacity was constructed by Canadian General Electric under a turnkey contract. In 1976, vendor support for spare parts and fuel was withdrawn. The PAEC undertook the task of indigenously manufacturing the required spare parts and nuclear fuel on an emergency basis and, since 1980, KANUPP has successfully operated using fuel manufactured by the PAEC, according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here is an except of IAEA's 2018 report on nuclear power in Pakistan:

"Despite the keen interest of Pakistan in building additional nuclear plants, it took more than two decades before the second nuclear power plant started construction. This delay was due to Pakistan’s lack of access to international nuclear technology coupled with a lack of indigenous industrial infrastructure. The construction of Pakistan’s second nuclear plant, C-1, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was made possible in 1993 with the help of the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The plant was connected to the national grid on 13 June 2000 and has a gross capacity of 325 MW. A third nuclear power plant, C-2, with 325 MW gross capacity started commercial operation on 18 May 2011. The fourth unit, C-3, started commercial operation on 6 December 2016. It has a gross capacity of 340 MW and a similar plant, C-4, sited beside C-3, was connected to the grid on 25 June 2017. The first concrete pours to mark the start of construction of Karachi Coastal Power Project, a project containing two nuclear units, K-2 and K-3 (1100 MW each), based on an improved PWR design, were 20 August 2015 and 31 May 2016, respectively."


Pakistan Power Generation Fuel Mix. Source: Third Pole



International Energy Agency:

International Energy Agency (IEA) has recently warned that "steep decline in nuclear power would threaten energy security and climate goals". "With nuclear power facing an uncertain future in many countries, the world risks a steep decline in its use in advanced economies that could result in billions of tonnes of additional carbon emissions", the IEA has said.

Pakistan Among 31 Countries Operating Nuclear Power Plants


Nuclear is the second-largest low-carbon power source in the world today, accounting for 10% of global electricity generation. It is second only to hydropower at 16%, according to International Energy Agency (IEA). Pakistan nuclear plants are expected to generate 3,630 MW  (12% of total power vs 10% global average) by 2022.  Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power vs 16% global average) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change.

Nuclear Plant Safety Concerns:

Activists in Pakistan have raised serious concerns about potential risks from K2 and K3 plants to the population in Karachi. Are such concerns valid?

The worst nuclear disaster in the history of nuclear power generation was at Chernobyl in present day Ukraine. One of the key reasons was that the Chernobyl plant did not have the fortified containment structure common to most nuclear power plants elsewhere in the world. KANUPP K-2 and K-3 reactors have two containment shells: primary and secondary. It is noteworthy that Bhopal Union Carbide disaster was history's worst industrial disaster, far bigger in terms of human toll than the Chernobyl disaster.

China signed a technology transfer deal with the United States in 2006 that put the Westinghouse AP1000 reactor design at the “core” of its atomic energy program. Chinese reactor manufacturers also resolved to build advanced third-generation technology in their safety review after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear plant disaster.

Unlike Fukushima where underground emergency cooling system failed due to flooding, the Hualong One design stores water above the reactor that can be gravity-fed to keep it cool if the pumps fail in the event of meltdown. The Chinese HPR1000 reactors employ multiple redundant generators and cooling systems to lower meltdown risk.

Hydropower Generation:

The biggest and most important source of low-carbon energy in Pakistan is its hydroelectric power plants. Pakistan ranked third in the world by adding nearly 2,500 MW of hydropower in 2018, according to Hydropower Status Report 2019.  China added the most capacity with the installation of 8,540 megawatts, followed by Brazil (3,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).

New Installed Hydroelectric Power Capacity in 2018. Source: Hydroworld.com

Pakistan's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) says commissioning of the 108-MW Golen Gol 2, 1,410-MW Tarbela 4th Extension and 969-MW Neelum Jhelum hydropower projects in 2018 boosted its hydroelectric generating capacity of 9,389 MW, an increase of 36% in just one year, according to Hydro Review. Hydropower now makes up about 28% of the total installed capacity of 33,836 MW as of February, 2019.   WAPDA reports contributing 25.63 billion units of hydroelectricity to the national grid during the year, “despite the fact that water flows in 2018 remained historically low.” This contribution “greatly helped the country in meeting electricity needs and lowering the electricity tariff for the consumers.”

Top 20 Countries by Newly Installed Hydropower Capacity. Source: IHA

Pakistan has the potential to generate 59,000 MW of hydropower, according to studies conducted by the nation's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Currently, it's generating only 9,389 MW of hydroelectric power, about 16% of the estimated potential. Media reports indicate that China is prepared to finance and build another 40,000MW capacity as part of the development of the Northern Indus Cascade region which begins in Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan and runs through to Tarbela, the site of Pakistan’s biggest dam, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.

Pakistan has made only a small contribution to climate change through carbon emissions.  And yet, it counts among the dozen or so nations considered most vulnerable to its damaging effects. These include rising temperatures, recurring cycles of floods and droughts and resulting disruption in food production.

Summary: 

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi has been completed by China National Nuclear Corporation, according to media reports. A similar reactor unit K3 will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid, bringing the total nuclear power installed capacity of Pakistan to 3,630 MW (12% of total power) by 2022.  Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  In addition, Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change. One of the ways Pakistan can help reduce carbon emissions is by realizing its full nuclear and hydroelectric power potential by building more nuclear plants and dams. The development of the Northern Indus Cascade region to generate 40,000MW of hydropower is a significant part of this effort.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

South Asia Investor Review

Nuclear Power in Pakistan

Recurring Cycles of Drought and Floods in Pakistan

Pakistan's Response to Climate Change

Massive Oil and Gas Discovery in Pakistan: Hype vs Reality

Renewable Energy for Pakistan

Digital BRI: China and Pakistan Building Fiber, 5G Networks

LNG Imports in Pakistan

Growing Water Scarcity in Pakistan

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

Ownership of Appliances and Vehicles in Pakistan

CPEC Transforming Pakistan

Pakistan's $20 Billion Tourism Industry Boom

Riaz Haq's YouTube Channel

PakAlumni Social Network

67 comments:

MB said...

Do you think Pakistan should also invest in solar and wind based electrical sources? I think a countries energy source should be treated like money and should be invested in different ventures. It can also give Pakistan a chance to dip its feet into RnD.

Riaz Haq said...

MB: " Do you think Pakistan should also invest in solar and wind based electrical sources?"

Pakistan to set 30 percent plus 30 percent Renewable Energy Target by 2030

The new government in Pakistan plans to increase the share of renewable energy in total power generation to 30 percent by 2030, particularly power from wind, solar, small hydro and biomass, with an additional 30 percent from large scale hydropower.

https://www.renewableenergymagazine.com/panorama/pakistan-to-set-30-percent-plus-30-20190403

Currently, the share of renewable energy stands at a meagre 4 percent, despite the fact that the country holds huge renewable energy potential particularly wind and solar. Large hydro currently provides around a fourth of the country’s electricity supply.

During the last week of February, The Cabinet Committee on Energy (CCoE), chaired by the Finance Minister, approved proposals from the Ministry of Energy (Power Division) for all future renewable energy projects to be treated under the Renewable Energy Policy 2019. The new policy, whose guiding principles have already been approved by CCoE, is being reviewed by different stakeholders and will be formally taken by CCoE later.

CCoE decided to permit renewable energy projects possessing a letter of support from the Alternative Energy Development Board to proceed towards achieving their required milestones in accordance with the Renewable Energy Policy 2006. The decision marks a positive effort by the government, which favours future renewable energy deployment. The Power Minister announced last week that the country will raise the share of renewable energy in the total power mix to 30 percent by 2030. The government also plans to increase the share of hydro power to 30 percent by the same period. This would translate into 60 percent overall share of renewable energy in the total power mix of the country. The targets set by the government are significant and in line with international climate change commitments, setting an example for other developing countries to follow.

“It is quite encouraging to observe that the government plans to set higher targets for renewable energy deployment for which he have been advocating for over a decade now” said Air Marshall Shahid Hamid (Retd.), Honorary Vice President of WWEA and Chair of WWEA Pakistan. “The main mission of WWEA Pakistan Office is to create a bridge between the efforts of the government, the private sector and development partners to advance renewable energy development in the country and beyond. WWEA will play its part in establishing concrete roadmap for smooth transition towards achieving the target of 30 percent renewable energy in Pakistan by 2030.”

The announcement comes against the backdrop of WWEA’s successful 17th World Wind Energy Conference that was organised in November 2018 in Karachi where more than 600 participants from 30 countries participated. The conference objectives included, inter alia, reviving blocked renewable energy projects in Pakistan and asking the government to set a fresh trajectory for renewable energy development in the country to meet its growing energy demands without aggravating climate change risks.

The government’s plan to generate around 18,000 MW of renewable energy by 2030 could hit a roadblock in the shape of a pipeline of more than 5 GW of coal fired projects. The previous renewable energy policy of 2006 provided multiple incentives to the private sector to develop renewable energy projects. However, the policy stopped short of achieving desirable results due to the absence of an action plan complementing the policy framework. The new policy should follow a strategic plan of action by creating a favourable environment for coordination mechanism between various departments dealing the renewable energy sector.

Riaz Haq said...

Special instruction issued for promotion of Solar Energy, Net-Metering

https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/490951-special-instruction-issued-for-promotion-of-solar-energy-net-metering

Power Division has issued special instructions to all DISCOs for promoting and further easing installation of net-metering in order to provide opportunity to all electricity consumers to curtail their monthly electricity bills besides optimal utilization of solar potential of the country.

The instructions were issued on Friday during one-point agenda on net-metering meeting of Central Power Purchasing Agency (CPPA).

As per the latest instructions, all the DISCOs have been directed to establish one window for interested net-metering electricity consumers. The appointment of focal persons will in this regard be ensured besides their active engagement on targets assigned by the Power Division.

Each officer at operational level will be assigned targets of net-metering which will be properly monitored. These targets and their results will count for greater points during their assessment for promotion and other benefits.

All the DISCOs are further directed to ensure proper briefing of consumers during open katcheris by the respective Superintending Engineers, XEN and SDOs.

All the DISCOs will also run a comprehensive awareness campaign for educating the consumers regarding benefits of net-metering.

The meeting while emphasizing the importance of net-metering in order to tap the solar energy potential of the country, also underscored the need to extend all out facilitation to the consumers by the DISCOs.

It was noted that although the rules and regulation for net-metering are adequate, however, the practical steps taken by DISCOs are not enough to promote it in order to fully and optimally utilize the potential.

It was further directed to strictly monitor all targets in this regard.

Earlier, the meeting was informed that a total of around 900 MW solar panels have been imported in the country. There are 1,190 electricity consumers with a cumulative capacity of 26MW who have installed net-metering so far.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan added 500MW of #solar power in 2018. #Asia topped with new installations, despite declines in top three markets (#China, #India and #Japan). China alone accounted for around 45% of global additions, but this was down from nearly 54% in 2017. https://www.evwind.es/2019/06/21/photovoltaic-cumulative-capacity-increased-approximately-25-to-at-least-505-gw/67686

Photovoltaic capacity increased to 505 GW
June 21, 2019 reve
The annual global market for solar photovoltaics (PV) increased only slightly in 2018, but enough to surpass the 100 GW level (including on- and off-grid capacity) for the first time. Cumulative capacity increased approximately 25% to at least 505 GW; this compares to a global total of around 15 GW only a decade earlier. igher demand in emerging markets and in Europe, due largely to ongoing price reductions, compensated for a substantial market decline in China that had consequences around the world.

Despite the single-digit growth rate of the global market in 2018, solar PV has become the world’s fastest-growing energy technology, with gigawatt-scale markets in an increasing number of countries.

Demand for solar PV is spreading and expanding as it becomes the most competitive option for electricity generation in a growing number of markets – for residential and commercial applications and increasingly for utility projects – even without accounting for the external costs of fossil fuels.
Eleven countries added more than 1 GW of new capacity during the year, up from 9 countries in 2017 and 7 countries in 2016, and markets around the world have begun to contribute significantly to global growth. By the end of 2018, at least 32 countries had a cumulative capacity of 1 GW or more, up from 29 countries one year earlier.
There are still challenges to address in order for solar PV to become a major electricity source worldwide, including policy and regulatory instability in many countries, financial and bankability challenges, and the need to integrate solar PV into electricity markets and systems in a fair and sustainable manner.

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Turkey followed, installing 1.6 GW for a total of 5.1 GW, already surpassing the national target for 2023. However, Turkey’s additions were down 37% relative to 2017 due to several factors, including uncertainties regarding national support schemes, issues related to land acquisition, permission and financing, as well as delays as project developers await further cost reductions.
Others in Asia to add capacity included Chinese Taipei (almost 1 GW), driven by a FIT and a target of 20 GW by 2025, as well as Pakistan (0.5 GW) and Malaysia (0.4 GW).

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan plans #renewables for a fifth of #energy supplies by 2025. Pakistan will build #wind and #solar plants to reduce reliance on gas and fuel imports and ease the burden on its #grid. #electricity #power @AJENews https://www.aljazeera.com/ajimpact/pakistan-plans-renewables-energy-supplies-2025-190723074101381.html

Pakistan is planning a wave of new wind and solar plants that will expand its clean energy capacity to about fifth of its total.

The South Asian nation plans to increase its renewables by more than four times by adding as much as 7 gigawatts to bring its total to 8-9 gigawatts by 2025, said Nadeem Babar, head of Pakistan’s energy task force. The new energy policy that targets lifting the country’s total generation capacity by 40% to 42-43 gigawatts is expected to be approved within a month, he said.

The shift to clean generation comes after Pakistan has nearly bridged a power deficit by adding 10 gigawatts of capacity in the past six years to ease long, unannounced blackouts in major cities. Most of that capacity was coal and natural gas fired plants that were financed by China as part of its Belt and Road Initiative.

“The general policy is to have much higher emphasis on renewables over the next 10 years,’’ Babar said in a phone interview this month. Hydroelectric generation isn’t included in the renewable figures and is expected to account for 35% of the nation’s capacity by 2025.

As Pakistan has beefed up power generation its grid has come under increasing pressure and many transmission lines are already operating at full capacity. To alleviate congestion the country is working with the World Bank to identify the best locations to site new renewable generation.

Pakistan plans to auction the right to build renewable capacity annually starting in December. It will also deregulate clean energy for companies that want to build a wind farm or use solar panels to supply private businesses, said Babar.

Renewable generation is also expected to reduce the country’s costs to import power generation fuels such as coal and natural gas. Pakistan’s petroleum product imports, which fuel both power plants and vehicles, accounted for about $13 billion of the country’s $50 billion total imports in the eleven months ended May.
As well, a $3.5 billion joint venture with China to dig up coal from Pakistan’s Thar desert generated electricity for the first time this month.

“Last year, 41% of generation was on imported fuels,” said Babar. “That is just way too high.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Chinese #investment in #renewables triples under Belt and Road initiative (#BRI). Biggest recipient of Belt & Road investment was #Pakistan, where equity investments from #China accounted for 36.8% of the country’s new #wind capacity from 2014 to 2018. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2019/07/30/chinese-investment-in-renewables-triples-under-belt-road-initiative/

A report by Greenpeace has found in the five years since China announced the continent spanning ‘One Belt, One Road’ infrastructure plan, investment in Belt & Road countries has supported 12.6 GW of wind and solar power generation capacity. That is almost three times the 450 MW that came online in the territories before 2014. The initiative has also supported 68 GW of new coal capacity.

A study published this week by environmental charity Greenpeace found China’s Belt & Road Initiative has led an investment surge in energy infrastructure in the regions covered by the plan – particularly south and Southeast Asia – over the past five years.

According to the NGO, Chinese equity investment in solar, wind and coal power projects in south and Southeast Asia rose 1,370% during 2014-2019, compared to the previous five years.

The Greenpeace study shows 12,622 MW of wind and solar power generation capacity along the Belt & Road route was supported by Chinese equity investment, alongside 67.9 GW of coal capacity. Some 93% of the wind and solar investment – and 94% of the coal projects – went to south and Southeast Asia.

“Solar now presents a serious rebuttal to any pattern of Chinese overseas pro-coal bias,” said Liu Junyan, a Beijing-based climate and energy campaigner with Greenpeace East Asia. “Chinese investors’ ratio of coal to solar is now the same at home and abroad – both are still six-to-one coal, unfortunately, but I’m amazed to see what five years of equity investment in solar made possible.”


Of the 12.6 GW of renewables capacity to be funded by Chinese investment, 1.7 GW has already been installed – 1.2 GW of it solar. For PV, that represents a 280% increase in capacity funded through equity investment. At the end of last year, a further 10.8 GW project pipeline in Belt & Road countries had received equity investment from Chinese companies. The largest single recipient of Belt & Road related investment was Pakistan, where equity investments from China accounted for 36.8% of the country’s new wind capacity from 2014 to 2018.

The Belt & Road route covers a wide corridor along the former overland Silk Road and maritime Spice Route from China to Europe across Asia and includes central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and southern Europe.

For renewables and coal, equity in projects is the primary form of investment. Greenpeace pointed out for coal the rise of renewables represents a serious threat.

“Equity ties Chinese investors to overseas coal projects for the long run,” said Wang Yan, of Greenpeace East Asia. “And there’s a slew of financial, environmental and regulatory risks on the horizon. But the equity model also gives Chinese enterprises license to invest in a variety of projects. It’s Beijing’s job to educate Chinese companies on coal risks and the potential of equity investment in renewables before a series of bad investments put a stink on the whole Belt & Road.”

Riaz Haq said...

Experts see space for ample growth in Pakistan’s civil nuclear energy sector

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/508871-experts-see-space-for-ample-growth-in-pakistan-s-civil-nuclear-energy-sector

Brigadier Kazmi said Pakistan’s nuclear energy sector had contributed to the socio-economic uplift of the county and there was ample space for growth in this industry.

“The nuclear energy sector has been playing a very important role in power generation, minerals exploration, developing high-yield stress-tolerant crops, cancer treatment, designing and fabrication of industrial plants and equipment and human resource development for many years.”

He said Pakistan is one of the countries in the world that have operated a complete nuclear fuel cycle and is amongst 30 countries that have nuclear power plants in operation. “Pakistan has a remarkable experience in safe and secure operation of nuclear power plants. We have the expertise and the ability to supply items, goods and services for a full range of nuclear applications for peaceful uses.”

Pakistan has established four agriculture centres that use energy for optimisation of important crop varieties, development of better methods for conservation of inputs and products, in addition to maximum use of innovation technologies.

Brigadier Kazmi further stated that safety and security were an integral part of any nuclear program and vital for saving humans from technology and ensuring that humans did not misuse the technology.

Vice Chancellor Professor Dr Khalid Mahmood Iraqi said that we all are convinced that Pakistan is a responsible state and uses its nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

“When we have a glance at the rapidly growing population of Pakistan and even the faster growing power needs of this population, one can convincingly understand that it is impossible to meet these needs by use of the conventional methods and techniques for power generation. Our nuclear plants are significantly (not sufficiently though) helping power requirements.”

He expressed that Pakistan became a nuclear power 21 years ago and acquiring this status was the only choice because the government and the people well understood the geo-political scenario and the history of its relations with the neighbours.

Prof Iraqi said that Pakistan consistently stands by its policy to develop an efficient and consumer- centric power generation, transmission and distribution system that meets the needs of its people and supports the country’s economy in a sustainable and affordable manner.

He further said that the main concern of our nuclear plants has been to completely eliminate power loadshedding, reducing the cost of electricity to affordable level for the citizens, and increasing revenue collection to support its economy.

During the recent years, according to the vice chancellors, our industries have faced a significant setback due to power deficit, which has ultimately placed a negative impact on the life of a considerable portion of our population in social and economic forms.

The nuclear power for peaceful use is our highly-deserved priority, he added. Professor Dr Zafar Nawaz Jaspal, Director Politics and International Relations, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, observed that whenever there is high alert at the boarders, Pakistan faces propaganda of being an irresponsible nuclear state despite the fact that Pakistan has never violated the Geneva Convention and always respects all international humanitarian laws and agreements.

He observed that Pakistan’s nuclear program is much better than its neighbouring country. The nuclear energy could be used for the benefit of civilians or to gain military power, he said, adding that Pakistan always gives priority to peaceful use of nuclear energy over the race to nuclear weapons.

]

Riaz Haq said...

How #cleantech can help power #Pakistan's #green #revolution. Pakistan is 8th-most affected country from #ClimateChange #CPEC must include #renewables in its integrated energy planning in Pakistan https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/09/how-cleantech-can-help-power-pakistans-green-revolution/ via @wef

Pakistan has been the 8th-most affected country when it comes to climate change. Although the government recognizes that vulnerability, there is a lot of room for forming an effective adaptation plan.

Pakistan has set aside 7.6 billion rupees ($47 million) for addressing climate change in its 2019-2020 budget. This will be spent on new initiatives and ongoing schemes including climate-resilient urban settlements, the establishment of a Geomatic Centre for Climate Change and of a Pakistan Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Strategic Planning and Coordination Cell, as well as sustainable land management projects to combat desertification. Pakistan planted a billion trees in the northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region, and there is a commitment to plant 10 billion trees over the next five-to-eight years.

But governments cannot achieve climate change targets by themselves. Increasing public-private partnerships are required. Global trends in innovation have led to the advent of ‘cleantech’ - technological innovations with sustainable aims, such as reducing our carbon footprint, meeting the demands for clean energy, cleaner air and water, producing healthy food for our ever-growing population, and the optimal utilization of finite resources.


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The government should provide basic funding for research by providing grants to universities and other researchers, and offering tax credits on private sector research. In Pakistan, which has many energy projects in the pipeline through the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, the government should include renewables in its integrated energy planning, in order to attract investment at scale in cleantech, and should include cleantech targets in primary legislation, provide green financing options and most importantly phase out fossil fuel subsidies. Its focus must now be on greening projects across all sectors throughout the country.

Riaz Haq said...

For the month of August 2019, 47.7% of Pakistan's electricity came from zero-carbon emissions sources (hydroelectricity, nuclear, wind, and solar), according to data from the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan cannot accelerate #economic growth without a robust #power production and supply system in place. It has plan to develop 120 new #electricity projects to add 74,448 megawatts to the system till 2040 from hydel, domestic coal and renewable sources https://tribune.com.pk/story/2073522/2-pakistan-draws-plan-add-74448mw-national-grid-2040/#

“In the year 2040, the nominal production capacity in the system will stand at 98,091MW against projected peak load (demand) of 80,425MW,” the National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC) said in a study titled “Indicative Generation Capacity Expansion Plan 2018-40”. In 2018, the nominal capacity and demand matched quite closely as the nominal capacity from all generation sources hovered around 27,715MW whereas the demand was close to 26,700MW.

In 2019, the gap between nominal capacity and demand is steadily widening and has started surpassing the peak load in the system. It can be observed that a significant surplus of around 17,600MW remains between the projected demand and installed capacity, according to the study. Sufficient generation has been planned to be added by 2040 to satisfy the 1% LOLP (loss of load probability) criteria and add sufficient reserves to the system.

The cumulative nominal capacity will be approximately 62,979MW whereas the peak load is projected at 50,306MW in the year 2032, thus a wide gap of around 13,000MW between the two parameters and the capacity will be in surplus compared to demand, according to the study.

The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) has uploaded the comprehensive study on its website to invite the stakeholders and public feedback, incorporate their concerns, if any, and give final shape to the document.

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It projected the peak power demand would grow by an average (compound annual growth rate) of 4.12% per year and supply by 5.22%, considering the gross domestic product (GDP) grows at a low rate of 4.5% per year from 2018-2040. In the scenario where GDP grows at a medium pace of 5.5% over the years, the peak power demand is estimated to rise by 5.13% per year and supply by 6.24%. Power demand and supply are anticipated to grow by 6.67% and 7.80% respectively if the GDP growth rate is high at 7% from 2018-2040.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan government inks deals for 560 MW of fresh #WindEnergy. The move is in line with the country’s 30% national #renewables goal by Year 2030. https://www.renewablesnow.com/news/pakistani-govt-inks-deals-for-560-mw-of-fresh-wind-676632/

Pakistan’s Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) on Friday signed contracts with the developers of projects that will see the country expand its wind power capacity by 560 MW.

The government agency, which is tasked with promoting renewables installation in Pakistan, has inked implementation and guarantee direct agreements with independent power producers (IPPs) regarding 11 projects. The move is in line with the country’s 30% national renewables goal by 2030 and efforts to cut dependence on fossil fuel imports. The new capacity is expected to lead to the production of over 1.8 billion kWh of clean power per year, AEDB said.

Six of the schemes will be supported by the International Finance Corp (IFC), which on Friday signed agreements to finance the so-called Super Six project portfolio with USD 450 million (EUR 406.9m) in debt. Those power plants, with a combined capacity of 310 MW, will be installed in the Jhimpir wind corridor in Sindh province and will be able to generate enough electricity to cover the annual needs of 450,000 homes while offsetting around 650,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions annually, IFC said in a separate statement. It will provide some USD 86 million in funds from its own account and USD 234 million mobilised from other lenders.

The 11 projects are expected to become operational by 2021.

(USD 1.0 = EUR 0.904)

Riaz Haq said...

IAEA Collaborating Centre
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and
Applied Sciences (PIEAS)


https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/19/09/collaborating-centres.pdf


Collaboration on
Research, development and capacity building for
multidisciplinary application of advanced and innovative
nuclear technologies
Objectives
• Contribute to creation of new and support of the IAEA ongoing activities on
the advancements and innovation in reactor designs and their applications
• Develop new experiments at nuclear engineering facilities to create new
benchmark databases in support of on-going and planned IAEA
programmatic activities in reactor simulation and modelling and
multipurpose applications of advanced and innovative reactor designs, and
the IAEA HOPS part-task simulator web-platform
• Co-organize/host workshops, training courses and seminars, including
development of training materials and IAEA relevant publications
• Host researchers and IAEA fellows wishing to conduct joint research
and/or training in supporting capacity building for multidisciplinary
applications of advanced and innovative nuclear reactor systems
(electrical and non-electrical applications, hybrid energy systems, large
power reactor design and their abilities for isotope production)
• Sharing the experience of PIEAS with IAEA Member States on laboratory
experiments, numerical modelling and nuclear education
• Providing experts to IAEA in the relevant areas of work
Main Activities of the Collaboration
• Research and development in the advancements and innovation of reactor
designs and reactor numerical modelling and simulations
• Contribute to technical development, system analysis, and optimization of
nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems
• Conduct new experiments at the research facilities creating new
experimental data for the validation of computer codes for modelling of
advanced and innovative reactor designs and contribute to the IAEA
HOPS platform in the development, validation and verification of the parttask simulators
• Train professionals on advanced and innovative reactor designs with the
use of IAEA basic principle simulators and contribute to the creation of
new IAEA relevant publications
• Develop educational and training materials for hands-on capacity building
Related IAEA Projects
All projects under IAEA’s sub-programme on Technology Development for
Advanced Reactors and Non-Electric Applications (1.1.5) and specific projects
under IAEA’s sub-programmes on Research Reactors, Nuclear Knowledge
Management, and NA-Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences.
Designation period
2019-2023

Riaz Haq said...

#WorldBank approves $700m for #renewableenergy in #Pakistan. #Dasu dam will produce 2,160 MW in phase 1 to 4,320 MW in phase 2. #Hydrolectric #power to help reduce imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2188561/3-world-bank-approves-700m-help-pakistan-generate-renewable-energy/

The World Bank on Wednesday approved $700 million additional financing to help Pakistan generate low cost, renewable energy to provide affordable electricity to millions of users.

The World Bank is also working with the federal and provincial governments to deal with the coronavirus pandemic as the confirmed coronavirus cases soar past 2,000.

The additional financing will be used to complete the first phase of the Dasu Hydropower project. It will install 2,160 megawatts capacity along the Indus River.

Stage two will double the installed capacity to 4,320 megawatts – making it the largest hydropower plant in the country.

“Pakistan’s energy sector is aiming to move away from high-cost and inefficient fossil fuels towards low-cost, renewable energy to power the national grid,” said Illango Patchamuthu, World Bank Country Director for Pakistan.

“Along with reforms in the tariff structure, the Dasu Hydropower Project will result in fewer imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance.”

The project will help lower the overall cost of energy generation in the country, which will benefit millions of energy users by making electricity more affordable for households, as well as the manufacturing and agricultural sector.

The powerplant will provide its electricity particularly in the summer to reduce blackouts when the demand is higher.


“The Dasu hydropower plant has a low environmental footprint and is considered to be one of the best hydropower projects in the world,” said Rikard Liden, Task Team Leader for the project.

“It will contribute to reducing Pakistan’s reliance on fossil-fuels and producing clean renewable energy.”

The Dasu hydropower plant will produce electricity at $0.03/kWh compared to Pakistan’s current cost of electricity generation of $0.08/kWh.

This investment will help Pakistan pave its way into becoming an upper middle-income country by 2047.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s 969 MW-Neelum Jhelum #Hydropower Project achieved yet another milestone, as its contribution to the National Grid crossed 8 billion units mark and earned Rs80 billion revenue. #lowcarbon #RenewableEnergy - UrduPoint

https://www.urdupoint.com/en/pakistan/neelum-jhelum-hydropower-project-earns-rs-80-923385.html

In terms of revenue, Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Project has yielded more than Rs 80 billion of hydel electricity into the National Grid with efficient operation of the project by Neelum Jhelum and WAPDA engineers and staff under tiring conditions, said a press release.

The project, satisfactorily meeting the design capacity energy production, achieved this land mark despite the fact that the shelling by India from across the Line of Control during July and October 2019 interrupted the working at the project, which forced evacuation of the Chinese workers from the project site and continue to be afflicted by COVID-19 pandemic.

Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Project, one of the engineering marvels, has been constructed in a very difficult mountainous terrain and being 90 percent of the project underground.

The project is comprised of a weir (dam), underground water way system of 52-kilometer long tunnels, an underground power house and a switch yard. The project, having four generating units of 242.25 MW capacity each, started electricity generation with commissioning of its first unit in April 2018. The project attained its maximum installed generation of 969 MW on August 14, 2018 with commissioning of its all four units.

It is worth mentioning here that Neelum Jhelum generated up to 1040MW on April 9, 2019 beyond installed capacity of 969 MW, which reflects the efficiency of its electro-mechanical equipment, the turbines in particular. Now-a-days, the project has been running on full load i.e. 969MW because the required quantum of water is available due to high-flow season.

Riaz Haq said...

GE bags #Pakistan #hydro deal. #Dasu #Hydroelectric project will be done in 2 stages. First stage consists of installing a 2,160MW hydropower plant on the Indus River, which could be expanded to 4,320MW in a second phase.- reNews - #RenewableEnergy News https://renews.biz/60392/ge-bags-pakistan-hydro-deal/#.XsQ3ku6M540.twitter

GE Renewable Energy, in consortium with Powerchina Zhongnan Engineering, has been selected by Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) to supply six Francis turbines and generators for stage one of the new Dasu hydropower plant in Pakistan.



The 2.2GW Dasu hydropower project is among the largest power generation projects in the country.



“The plant will help generate clean electricity, ushering in a new era of socio-economic potential and development in remote areas,” GE said in a statement.

The project will be completed in two stages. The first stage consists of installing a 2160MW hydropower plant on the Indus River, which could be expanded to 4320MW in a second phase.



This project is part of the Vision 2025 Programme launched by WAPDA in 2001 and the Government of Pakistan’s Power Policy 2013.



Once commissioned in 2026, the Dasu hydropower plant will power around four million households in Pakistan.



GE Renewable Energy’s hydro business is responsible for the design, supply, supervision, installation, and commissioning of the new turbines and generators, as well as the control and protection systems. GE Grid Solutions will provide the Generator Circuit Breaker.



WAPDA chairman Lt Gen Muzzammil Hussain (Retd) said: “The project is vital to add a major quantum of hydroelectricity to the national grid in order to minimise reliance on expensive thermal generation and lower the power tariff.”



President and chief executive of GE Renewable Energy Hydro Pascal Radue added: “We are proud to start this new collaboration with WAPDA and will support them to develop clean and sustainable electricity in Pakistan.



"We are also glad to be part of this new hydropower project that will facilitate access to electricity in remote areas.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's Suki Kinari #hydroelectric power project unaffected by #COVID19. 19.5% work on the 874 MW dam project completed on Kunhar River with an investment of
US $ 1.963 billion under the umbrella of #CPEC. #China #renewableenergy https://www.app.com.pk/progress-of-suki-kinari-power-project-remains-unaffected-during-covid-19-asim-bajwa/ via @appcsocialmedia

Special Assistant to Prime Minister on Information and Broadcasting General (retd) Asim Saleem Bajwa Wednesday said work on the Suki Kinari hydal power project was in full swing as progress on the project remained unaffected due to COVID-19.
In a tweet, Asim Bajwa who is also Chairman, China Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority (CPECA) said, 19.5 percent work on the 874 MW power project had been completed.
He said the project was being established at Kunhar River with an investment of
US $ 1.963 bn under the umbrella of China Pakistan Economic Corridor.
He informed that the project had so far created 4,250 job opportunities and
after completion it would help reducing cost of electricity.
“Bringing cost of electricity down is top priority of the government,” he added.

Riaz Haq said...

#WorldBank approves US $700m for 4,320 MW Dasu #hydropower project in #Pakistan. Loan will be used to build transmission line and complete the 2,160MW first phase of the plant. Total project cost: cost US $4.2 billion.
https://constructionreviewonline.com/2020/04/world-bank-approves-us-700m-for-4-32gw-dasu-hydropower-project-in-pakistan/ via @Construction Review Online

The World Bank has approved US $700m grant to finance the construction of the 32GW Dasu hydropower project in Pakistan. The hydroelectric power plant which is being built on the Indus River, approximately 7km upstream of the Dasu town, Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; is being implemented by Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA).

The World Bank’s additional financing will be used to construct the transmission line and complete the 2,160MW first phase of the plant. The entire project is estimated to cost US $4.2bn.

Upon completion, the Dasu hydropower plant will become the largest of its kind in the country, generating low-cost, renewable energy to power millions of users. The hydropower plant is expected to come online in 2023.

World Bank Pakistan country director Illango Patchamuthu said that Pakistan’s energy sector is aiming to move away from high-cost and inefficient fossil fuels towards low-cost, renewable energy to power the national grid. “Along with reforms in the tariff structure, the Dasu Hydropower Project will result in fewer imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance,” he said.

In addition to providing most of the clean electricity during the summer months, the Dasu hydropower plant is expected to contribute to the socioeconomic development in Dasu and surrounding areas of the Upper Kohistan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.

Furthermore, World Bank Task Team Leader Rikard Liden added that the Dasu hydropower plant has a low environmental footprint and is considered to be one of the best hydropower projects in the world. “It will contribute to reducing Pakistan’s reliance on fossil- fuels and producing clean renewable energy,” he affirmed.

Riaz Haq said...

Deal worth $2.4 billion signed with #China for 1,124 MW Kohala #hydropower project in #AJK. Signatories include Three Gorges Corporation, the government of Azad Jammu and #Kashmir (AJK) and #Pakistan’s Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB). #CPEC

Furthermore, another hydroelectric power project – the 102MW Gulpur project – located at Poonch River, Kotli district of AJK met the commercial operation date on March 10, 2020.

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2233400/2-deal-worth-2-4b-signed-kohala-power-project/

PPIB Managing Director Shah Jahan Mirza briefed PPIB on the status of upcoming IPPs, explaining that various projects may experience delay in achieving critical milestones primarily due to Covid-19 and project sponsors were requesting support from PPIB in combating the situation. The board, while considering the intensity of the matter, allowed extension in the validity of Letter of Support/ financial close date for the 1,124MW Kohala hydroelectric power project.

It also agreed to provide support for Thar coal-based power generation projects in getting required extension in the backdrop of the global pandemic.

Agreeing on a proposal, the board with the consensus of all provinces and AJK allowed extension in the validity of Letters of Interest in respect of 640MW Mahl, 450MW Athmuqam and 82.25MW Turtonas-Uzghor hydroelectric power projects for accommodating these IPPs under the Indicative Generation Capacity Expansion Plan.

Moreover, the board was apprised that PPIB had started processing small hydroelectric power projects for the first time, therefore, standard security package agreements including the implementation agreement (IA) were required to be in place.

PPIB had prepared a standard draft of IA, which needed approval, the board was told. A committee of the board has been constituted to review the draft of the standard IA for small hydroelectric power projects for its onward submission to the ECC for consideration and approval.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Govt signs tripartite agreement for 1124 MW $2.4 billion Kohala Hydro Power Project in Azad #Kashmir , the largest private #hydropower project (IPP) for the country. #China’s Three Gorges Power Company will build and own it - Dunya News


https://dunyanews.tv/en/Pakistan/551382-Govt-signs-tripartite-agreement-for-1124-MW-Kohala-Hydro-Power-Project-

Kohala Hydropower Project has reached a historic tripartite agreement, with an investment of 2.4billion dollars in the energy sector.

Prime Minister Imran Khan, Federal Ministers, Chinese Ambassador Yao Jing and others witnessed the ceremony.

Prime Minister Imran Khan addressed the signing ceremony of Kohala Hydropower Project Agreement and said that prices have gone up due to generation of electricity from imported fuel. Generating electricity from oil also affects the environment. Therefore government has focused on clean energy instead of imported fuel. Leading Three Gorges Company will develop Kohala Hydel project. The project will create employment opportunities in Azad Kashmir, he added.

He said the project has been the largest investment of $2.4 billion and Pakistan has great potential to generate electricity from water.

Earlier, retired Lieutenant General Asim Saleem Bajwa, chairman of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority (CPECA), described it as a historic day in a tweet and said that it has been the largest investment from an IPP of $ 2.4 billion towards the energy sector.

The Chairman CPEC Authority said that with the clear direction of the Prime Minister to expedite the work on the Economic Corridor projects, all parties have worked hard for this day.

Riaz Haq said...

Azad #Kashmir: 102 MW Gulpur #hydropower plant starts production. The project financing has been provided by Korea Exim Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Islamic Development Bank and ECO Bank.https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2020/07/08/102mw-gulpur-hydropower-plant-starts-production/ via @Profitpk

Gulpur Hydropower Project has achieved certified commercial operation and has started producing cheap electricity for the national grid, said NESPAK Managing Director Dr Tahir Masood in a press communiquƩ on Wednesday.

NESPAK, in a joint venture with MWH Inc USA, has provided consultancy services as ‘owner’s engineer’ to Mira Power Limited, a subsidiary of KOSEP South Korea, for the 102MW Gulpur Hydropower Project.

“NESPAK has played a very vital role in the successful completion of Gulpur Hydropower Project, as it provided complete technical support to Mira Power Limited in getting approvals from different government agencies as well as supporting the EPC contractor in resolving complex issues that arose during construction,” said a statement issued by the company.

The successful completion of this project has added another feather in NESPAK’s cap, as the company had recently played a major role in the development and completion of 84MW New Bong Escape Hydropower Project.

Gulpur Hydropower Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric generation project located on Poonch River, a major tributary of Jhelum River near Gulpur in Kotli District of Azad Kashmir. The project financing has been provided by Korea Exim Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Islamic Development Bank and ECO Bank.

The project is developed under the federal government’s ‘Policy for Power Generation Projects 2002’ as adopted in Azad Jammu & Kashmir.

The project has the capability of generating average annual energy of 102MW. It was developed in the shortest possible time and would play an important role in Pakistan’s national vision.

The project was completed at a total cost of Rs52 billion.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan PM #ImranKhan: 'Will build biggest dam in Pakistan's history'. Kicks off construction work at #DiamerBhashaDam to store 6.4 MAF, irrigate 1.2 M acres of farm land, generate 4500 MW Hydel power, add 16,000 jobs in steel/cement/construction sectors https://www.dawn.com/news/1569151

Prime Minister Imran Khan on Wednesday vowed to build the "biggest dam in Pakistan's history" after kicking off construction work at the Diamer-Bhasha Dam project, adding that the project will also benefit the people living in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB).

The prime minister made the remarks while addressing a public gathering in Chilas.

Earlier, the PM had visited the site of the dam along with Chief of Army Staff Gen Qamar Javed Bajwa and Federal Minister for Water Resources Faisal Vawda, where they were briefed on the mega project.

---
The premier, during his address, vowed that with this project, the government was going towards building the "biggest dam in Pakistan's history".

"This will be our third big dam. China has made around 5,000 big dams, but have a total of about 80,000 dams. From this you can gauge the massive mistakes we have made in the past.

"The decision to build this dam was taken 50 years ago. There can be no better site for constructing a dam, it is a natural dam. Forty, 50 years ago this was decided, and work on the project has begun today. This is one of the biggest reasons why we haven't progressed."

The premier maintained that the government will now move towards building more dams on rivers, which will lessen pressure on foreign exchange and allow Pakistan to generate its own fuel.

He added that generating electricity from water instead of furnace oil or coal will also prevent negative impacts of global warming and climate change. "The benefits are dual. We won't have to import fuel and it won't affect our climate negatively."

Imran said that the project would also generate job opportunities for people living in the region. "I am familiar with GB and have visited Chilas on multiple occasions in the past 30 years. I am well aware how much the area depends on tourism and how much they need tourism during the summer months."

He said that he will speak to the chief minister to prepare standard operating procedures (SOPs) for resurrecting the tourism industry that has been severely impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic.

"We can learn from the world, tourism is slowly resuming. It won't be the same as it was before the pandemic hit, but we can start opening it slowly and start developing SOPs for it," he said, adding that help will also be extended by the National Command and Control Centre (NCOC) in this regard.

The premier added that the project was a huge opportunity for the people of Chilas and GB. Addressing the people of GB, he said: "We didn't increase your budget out of obligation. It is our government's policy to prioritise those areas that have been left behind.

"Thus far, our development has been restricted to a few cities. We will be left behind until we spend on uplifting less-developed areas."

Therefore, the government is investing in GB, merged districts and Balochistan, he said. He concluded his speech by congratulating the people of GB. "Time will prove that this dam will change the fortune of the people of GB, especially those living in Chilas."

The premier had began his speech by stressing that nations only progress when they think of the future and when they invest in their resources, uplifting those segments of society that have been left behind.

"The decisions made in the 90s to generate electricity using imported furnace oil affected our current account deficit. When there is pressure on foreign exchange, [the country's] economic conditions start deteriorating."

Riaz Haq said...

#DiamerBhashaDam, world's tallest dam at 272 meters, will change #Pakistan's destiny by addressing its #energy & #water problems. Located in #GilgitBaltistan, it will store 6.4 million acre-feet of water, generate 4,500 MW of cheap #renewable #electricity https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202007/20/WS5f14f269a31083481725a98f.html

Project, to be ready in 2028, expected to meet water, energy needs in Gilgit-Baltistan region

A new mega project in northern Pakistan is expected to meet both water and energy needs of the region, according to officials and experts.

Work on the construction of Diamer Bhasha Dam near Chilas, a city in the Diamer district in the Gilgit-Baltistan region, has started.

"Diamer Bhasha Dam is set to change the destiny of Pakistan by addressing its energy and irrigation problems," Faisal Vawda, Pakistan's federal minister for water resources, said. "It's Pakistan's lifeline."

The dam's reservoir will be 272 meters in height, and it is said to be the tallest roller compact concrete dam in the world.

Roller compacted concrete is a special blend of concrete that has the same ingredients as conventional concrete but in different ratios, and with a partial substitution of fly ash for Portland cement. This reduces thermal loads on the dam and reduces chances of thermal cracking.

The dam has a proposed spillway with 14 gates and five outlets for flushing out silt. The diversion system comprises two tunnels and a diversion canal. It will also include the construction of powerhouses.

Asim Saleem Bajwa, chairman of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority, said the dam will generate 4,500 megawatt of hydroelectric power.

It was a historic moment as Prime Minister Imran Khan kicked off the construction work on Diamer Bhasha Dam, he said. "Around 16,000 jobs will be created during the construction of the dam."

Imran Khan officially launched the construction work on Wednesday, with Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff Qamar Bajwa by his side.

The biggest

"Diamer Bhasha Dam will be the biggest dam in Pakistan's history," the prime minister said while addressing the public during the launch. "The dam will benefit the country both economically and environmentally, especially the people of Gilgit-Baltistan," he said.

The multibillion-dollar project is estimated to be completed in 2028. It is a multipurpose project that will be used for water storage, flood mitigation, irrigation and power generation.

"This is no ordinary project. There is a reason why both Pakistan's prime minister and the army chief were present at the site for the project launch. It will have an impact on Pakistan's economy, security and politics," said Ahmed Quraishi, a senior fellow at Project Pakistan 21, an independent research organization based in national capital Islamabad.

Feather in the cap

It is another feather in the cap for the Chinese engineers who are known for undertaking challenging international projects, he said.

The project is being jointly constructed by Power China and Pakistan's Frontier Works Organization.

The Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan approved the award of civil works for construction of the dam and the 21-MW Tangir Hydropower Project to the joint venture partners.

The two companies signed a contract in June with a local company for the construction of the diversion system, main dam and access bridge as well as the hydropower project.

"We are grateful to our all-weather friend China for its support in the construction of the mega project," said Faisal Vawda, the water resources minister.

Quraishi said the technical specifications of the project suggest it will be something that engineers worldwide will be studying due to the region's terrain. "China's experience in the dam construction is unparalleled," he said.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan has recently re-entered into some important hydropower project deals with Chinese companies.

https://thewire.in/south-asia/pakistan-china-hydropower-projects-cpec-debts


On May 13, 2020, Pakistan signed a deal worth 442 billion Pakistani Rupees (USD 2.64 billion) with the Chinese state-run firm China Power for building the 272 meters high DBD. The total financial outlay of the DBD is PKR 1,406 .5 billion (USD 8.3 billion). This project is on the river Indus in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) – which India claims is illegally occupied territory – and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is likely to be completed by 2028.

Earlier, it was a part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project but the tough conditions, particularly regarding the transfer of ownership, were unacceptable and not “doable” for Pakistan. Afterwards, the Pakistani government tried to raise money for the DBD along with the Mohmand dam through crowdfunding. However, Pakistan then re-entered into a deal with the Chinese firm.

Under the new terms of the deal, China Power will hold 70% of the share while the remaining 30% will be with Frontier Works Organisation – a commercial arm of the Armed Forces of Pakistan. The DBD’s construction is expected to create about 16,500 jobs. Once in operation, it will irrigate around 1.23 million acres of agriculture land and generate 18.1 billion units of electricity annually.


The second project the Chinese are constructing in Pakistan is at Kohala. It was listed under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor since August 2014. The Kohala project is on the Jhelum river on the Pakistani-administered side of Kashmir which India claims is illegally occupied territory since 1947-48. This 1,124-Megawatt project was to be developed by the Kohala Hydropower Company Private Limited. Disputes over this project took place in 2019 between Pakistan and China, which they tried to resolve but the Chinese firm refused to accept the dispute resolution plan approved by the government of Pakistan.

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On June 25, 2020, a “tripartite” agreement for implementing the Kohala project was signed between the China Three Gorges Corporation, the government of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Private Power and Infrastructure Board. The project is likely to cost USD 2.4 billion. International Finance Corporation and Silk Road Fund are also sponsors of this project.

The third hydropower project agreed upon between Pakistan and China was in July 2020 and is at Azad Pattan. It is located on the River Jhelum near the village of Muslimabad in the district of Sudhnoti, in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK). This will be carried out by the Power Universal Company Limited which is owned and controlled by the China Gezhouba group.


The Indus at the site of the proposed Diamer-Basha dam. Photo: Water and Power Development Authority, Pakistan

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For the government of Pakistan, both the Kohala and the Azad Pattan projects are likely to bring about USD 4 billion in the form of investments, produce around 1800 MW of hydel power and create 8,000 jobs.

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One of the major reasons Pakistan is entering into such a deal is to use the available water efficiently, as the country is experiencing water shortage and its yearly water availability is now less than 1000 cubic meters per person. Through dams, it is trying to manage its water resources, mainly for agricultural purpose on which the country’s economy depends.

Second, Pakistan faces a shortage of electricity. In 2019, the transmission and distribution capacity of Pakistan was stalled at approximately 22,000 MW while the maximum demand from the residential and industrial areas was about 25,000 MW. This implied a deficit of 3000 MW. Hydroelectricity will add to the total electricity generated and will help in reducing the supply-demand deficit.

Riaz Haq said...

Power generation in Pakistan declined by 1% year-on-year to 121,867 gigawatt-hours (GWh), or 23,618 megawatts (MW) during fiscal year 2020. In 2019, power generation stoof at 122,708 GWh, or 23,781 MW. Most of this decline can be attributed to the overall slower economic activity during fiscal year 2020, leading to less usage of power, but also the specific time period between March and May 2020, when the Covid-19 necessitated lockdowns and restrictions.

https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2020/07/26/electricity-generation-in-pakistan-rising-despite-the-pandemic/

The lockdown’s effect can also be seen in the monthly data from this year. In March 2020, power generation fell 9% year-on-year to 6,911 GWh, compared to the 7,621 GWh recorded in March 2019. This was also the lowest generation recorded in 2020. Though power generation picked up in subsequent months, on a yearly basis it was still falling, such as in April 2020, where power generation fell 14% year-on-year, and in May 2020, where power generation fell by 5% year-on-year.

However, starting in June 2020, power generation was recorded at 13,288 GWh, which is a 1% year-on-year increase from the 13,157 GWh recorded in June 2019. Even better, it was almost double that of the figure in March 2020 (at 92%). The sector itself is also doing better, with the installed Capacity in the country touching 34,157MW in June 2020, compared to the 30,590 MW of installed capacity in June 2019.

In fact, these factors together mean that the power sector is well positioned in the future for any increase in demand. And demand will increase, as industries have opened up after the lockdowns imposed due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and there has been a pick up in economic activity in the country. The summer and monsoon seasons also typically see an uptick in demand for power, which will help the sector at least until October 2020.

The fiscal year 2020 was marked by a move towards hydropower and coal based power generation, over gas and furnace oil. Hydel power made up 32% of total power in fiscal year 2020, compared to 26% in 2019, while coal’s share went up from 13% in 2019 to 21% in 2020. Gas generated power’s share however, fell from 18% in fiscal year 2019 to 12% in fiscal year 2020, while furnace oil’s share fell from 7% last year to 3% this year. RLNG, or regasified liquefied natural gas, contributed 20% to the overall power mix, nuclear generation took up 8%, wind-based power took up 2%, while ‘other’ (solar, bagasse) took up 2%.



In terms of power generation, hydel generation went from 32,356 GWh in fiscal year 2019, to 38,000 GWh in fiscal year 2020, or a 20% year-on-year jump. According to Kumar, hydel power generation increased because there was more water available this year compared to previous years. Incidentally, this particular statistic was recently picked up by Asad Umar, the Minister for Planning, Development and Special Initiatives, who tweeted: “Massive hydel capacity increase taking place with Dasu, Mohmand and Diamir Basha being built. We need to rely on local renewable energy instead of expensive imported thermal fuels.”

Coal power generation went up from 16,312 GWh in 2019 to 25,553 GWh in 2020, a massive jump of 57% year-on-year. This section has increased because of two new projects finally commencing this fiscal year: the China Hub Power Generation, with production of around 1,220 MW, and Engro Powergen Thar, which can produce 660 MW.

Meanwhile, furnace oil generation went from 9,092 GWh in fiscal 2019 to 4,178 GWh, or a fall of 54% year-on-year. Similarly, gas generated power went from 22,034 GWh last year to 15,064 GWh this year, or a decline of 15%. According to Kumar, the demand for both fell because of their higher costs of producing power demand.

Riaz Haq said...

(Bloomberg) — As developed nations turn away from coal-fired power, Chinese funding has helped the dirtiest fossil fuel take off in Pakistan.


https://financialpost.com/pmn/business-pmn/china-push-sees-coal-fired-generation-rise-to-record-in-pakistan


Coal’s surge in the South Asian nation is symbolic of the difficult choice that the region’s developing countries face as they seek affordable energy to support economic growth while trying to limit chronic air pollution. Asian demand is expected to support the commodity as its usage drops in most of the developed world in a transition to cleaner or renewable energy sources.

Is Canada's real estate forecast too optimistic?



Pakistan’s coal-fired power generation jumped 57% to a record in the fiscal year through June, according to data from the government’s National Electric Power Regulatory Authority. Coal accounted for about a fifth of total output, backed by supplies from the country’s first coal mine in its Thar region, developed as part of China’s Belt and Road plan.

Coal is set to expand further as China pushes funds into building more power plants in the country and mines to feed them. Pakistan is one of the flagship markets for China’s Belt and Road initiative, with more than $70 billion of projects including coal and liquefied natural gas fired power plants helping the nation end decades of electricity shortfalls.


“China has been cutting back on coal at home but it has no compunction about using coal in things that it funds outside of China,” said James Dorsey, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. “Chinese can be willing but they need a partner to go along with them. In this case it’s the Pakistani government.”

Belt and Road progress has slowed recently with overseas energy spending last year dropping to the lowest in a decade, dogged by accusations that China is luring poor countries into debt traps for its own political and strategic gain. China’s President Xi Jinping has publicly urged more clean energy as part of the program, and the plan found new life in Pakistan recently with an agreement to build two hydro-power generation projects.

Until 2016, Pakistan had just one coal-burning power plant. It now has at least nine and more are in the making. The first target of these plants has been to replace expensive fuel oil-based generation facilities that burdened the nation’s economy with heavy costs and pollution.

The rise in coal power has come because of supplies from the Thar coal mine, Power Ministry spokesman Zafar Yab Khan said. The country will balance rising coal use with more renewable energy and its coal plants will use low-emissions technology, he said.

Read: A Hole in Pakistan’s Desert Shows Why Coal Won’t Go Away

With the shift to coal, average generation costs dropped 11% during the fiscal year, according to data from Karachi-based brokerage Arif Habib.

“Pakistan has increased coal-based generation to make it its new base to replace its previous expensive fuel oil-powered power plants,” said Tahir Abbas, head of research at Arif Habib. “This has also helped bring down the power prices, energy import bill and increase the share of an indigenous energy source.”

Riaz Haq said...

Hot testing completed at #Pakistan’s 1100 MW #Karachi 2 #nuclear power plant. Construction of Karachi 2 began in August 2015, followed by Karachi 3 in May 2016. Outer containment dome of Karachi 3 was installed in August 2020. Nuclear Engineering


https://www.neimagazine.com/news/newshot-testing-completed-at-pakistans-karachi-2-8128090


Unit 2 at Pakistan’s Karachi Nuclear Power Plant has completed hot functional tests, according to China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which is constructing two units (2&3) at the plant.

Karachi 2 is the first overseas unit to use China's Hualong One technology. The thermal testing will be followed by nuclear fuel loading, grid connection and power generation.

The tests, lasting several weeks, includes simulating nuclear power plant operations to verify reliability of the main equipment and systems under thermal conditions before the reactor is loaded with nuclear fuel. They were completed on 4 September, CNNC said. Cold functional tests were completed at Karachi 2 in December 2019.

After the completion of hot tests, the Karachi 2 came close to the stage of physical launch, the message says.

Construction of the 1100MW Hualong One reactor Karachi 2 began in August 2015, followed by Karachi 3 in May 2016.

The outer containment dome of the Karachi 3 was installed at the end of August, CNNC said.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's 300 MW Chashma 4 #Nuclear Power Plant officially accepted. Chasnupp is home to two #Chinese-supplied 300 MWe PWRs as well: unit 1, in commercial operation since 2000, and unit 2, since 2011.: New Nuclear.
#electricity - World Nuclear News https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Pakistans-Chashma-4-officially-accepted

Chashma unit 4 was connected to the grid on 29 June, 2017. The Chinese-supplied pressurised water reactor (PWR) is the second of two CNP-300 units to enter service at the site, following unit 3 which entered commercial operation in December 2016. The Chashma site - also referred to as Chasnupp - is home to two Chinese-supplied 300 MWe PWRs as well: unit 1, in commercial operation since 2000, and unit 2, since 2011.

For the final acceptance ceremony, held at Chashma on 23 September, CNNC set up video connections at construction subsidiary China Zhongyuan Engineering Company's headquarters in Beijing and at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) headquarters in Islamabad. Participants in the ceremony included PAEC Chairman Muhammad Naeem and CNNC President Gu Jun.

CNNC said China and Pakistan have maintained a strong partnership in the nuclear power sector since the two countries signed an agreement in 1986 to facilitate the transfer of civil nuclear technology.

Regarding future cooperation, Gu Jun said: "CNNC will, as always, assist Pakistan in the operation and maintenance of its plants, provide full-life and full-service services, and commit to providing clean, efficient and safe energy to the Pakistani people."

Pakistan also has a 125 MWe Canadian-supplied pressurised heavy water reactor, Karachi unit 1, which has been in commercial operation since 1972. Two 1161 MWe Chinese-supplied Hualong One (HPR1000) plants are under construction as units 2 and 3 of the Karachi plant. Construction of unit 2 began in 2015 and unit 3 in 2016. The units are scheduled for commercial operation in 2021 and 2022, respectively.

In November 2017, CNNC and PAEC signed a cooperation agreement on the construction of a Hualong One reactor as unit 5 of the Chashma plant.


Riaz Haq said...

Energy crisis have devastated Pakistan’s economy through the country’s energy sector offered investment opportunities of over $100 billion a government estimate said. This included about $45 billion in power generation, $20 billion in transmission and $15-20 billion in distribution

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/739524-govt-set-to-expedite-foreign-funded-energy-projects

The NCC-FFP reviewed progress of the development projects of power sector funded by ADB (Asian Development Bank), WB World Bank), IsDB (Islamic Development Bank), Japan, France, Germany and the USA” a statement said.

At present, 14 foreign-funded projects including power generation, transmission and distribution amounting to $3.418 billion are under implementation. “The purpose of high-level meeting was to track physical and financial progress and identify issues and bottlenecks hampering smooth implementation of foreign-funded projects in power sector,” the statement quoted Bakhtyar as saying. Bakhtyar said the government is focusing on energy sector reforms and energy efficiency through development of renewable and clean energy at affordable prices, reliable transmission system and improved distribution network.

Energy crisis have devastated Pakistan’s economy through the country’s energy sector offered investment opportunities of over $100 billion a government estimate said. This included about $45 billion in power generation, $20 billion in transmission and $15-20 billion in distribution

Energy minister Khan directed the line departments of power division to fast track implementation of the projects and prompt redressal of issues for expeditious execution of projects in energy sector. “He especially emphasized on the major problematic projects including Jamshoro Power Generation Project, Advance Metering Infrastructure and CASA 1000 & Other Transmission Lines and set the timelines to resolve the bottlenecks.”

Both ministers agreed to hold follow-up meeting of National Coordination Committee on Energy sector in next month.

Earlier, Prime Minister Imran Khan constituted the high-level “National Coordination Committee on Foreign-Funded Projects” in order to fast track the disbursement & implementation of external economic assistance.

Ministry of economic affairs was assigned to convene the meetings of this committee and submit a progress report to Prime Minister on monthly basis. Minister Bakhtyar would be chairperson of the committee. Deputy chairman, Planning Commission, secretary EAD, representatives of PM’s Office, finance division and provincial P&D departments and boards of revenues also attended the meeting.

Riaz Haq said...

First Hualong One #nuclear reactor achieves criticality in #China. 2 HPR1000 units, each 1100MW, are under construction at #Pakistan's #Karachi nuclear power plant.began. They are planned to enter commercial operation in 2021 and 2022.- World Nuclear News


https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/First-Hualong-One-reactor-achieves-criticality

China's Ministry of Ecology and Environment issued the operating licence for Fuqing 5 on 4 September. The process of loading the 177 fuel assemblies into the reactor core began the same day and was completed on 10 September. Yesterday, at 3.09pm, the reactor achieved first criticality after the boron concentration in the primary loop was diluted and the control rods were withdrawn.

Various commissioning tests will now be carried out at the Hualong One, prior to it being connected to the electricity grid. It will then undergo tests at increasing power output levels before entering a full-power demonstration operating assessment. During this assessment stage, the performance indicators of the unit will need to meet design standards and the relevant requirements of the power grid, which will indicate that the unit has achieved formal commercial operating conditions.

China's State Council gave final approval for construction of Fuqing units 5 and 6 in April 2015. The pouring of first concrete for Fuqing 5 began in May that year, marking the official start of construction of the unit. Construction of unit 6 began in December the same year. The inner dome of unit 5 was installed on the containment building in May 2017, with the outer dome installed in January 2018.


Hot testing at Fuqing 5 was completed on 2 March. These tests involved increasing the temperature of the reactor coolant system and carrying out comprehensive tests to ensure that coolant circuits and safety systems are operating as they should. Such testing simulates the thermal working conditions of the power plant and verifies that nuclear island and conventional equipment and systems meet design requirements.

Construction of two demonstration Hualong One (HPR1000) units is also under way at China General Nuclear's Fangchenggang plant in the Guangxi Autonomous Region. Those units are expected to start up in 2022. CNNC has also started construction of two Hualong units at the Zhangzhou plant in Fujian province, plus the first of two units at Taipingling in Guangdong.

Two HPR1000 units are under construction at Pakistan's Karachi nuclear power plant. Construction began on Karachi unit 2 in 2015 and unit 3 in 2016; the units are planned to enter commercial operation in 2021 and 2022.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s Peaceful Uses Of Nuclear Energy – OpEd
November 27, 2020
By Sher Bano

https://www.eurasiareview.com/27112020-pakistans-peaceful-uses-of-nuclear-energy-oped/


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), established in 1956 is the pioneer government agency to oversee the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country. It was established to contribute to Pakistan’s overall economic development through the utilization of nuclear energy in various public fields. These include; medical diagnosis/therapy, agricultural production, nuclear energy for power generation, and some other functions that involve peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In the early ’70s, PAEC constructed the first-ever 135 Megawatts (MWs) nuclear power plant at Karachi KANUPP. This was also the first-ever nuclear power generation plant in the developing or underdeveloped world. The successful launch of this power plant later led to the development of four more nuclear plants at Chashma, the CHASNUPP-1, CHASNUPP-2, CHASHNUPP-3, and CHASHNUPP-4. Furthermore, Pakistan also intends to build two nuclear power plants known as K-2 and K-3 at Karachi, one at Chashma, and two at Muzaffargarh. This is part of Pakistan’s long-term plan to produce 40,000 Megawatts MWs of electricity by using nuclear energy by the year 2050. Here it is quite noteworthy to specify that nuclear power generation is believed to be one of the economical and reliable sources of electricity generation. Such credentials have included Pakistan among the list of 30 countries that have fully operational nuclear plants. Along with this, Pakistan is also among the only ten countries in the world that have completed the nuclear fuel cycle.

Likewise, in the field of agriculture, nuclear technology has contributed to various landmark achievements for Pakistan. In this regard, the PAEC has developed multiple facilities for the advancements in the field of agriculture and food in collaboration with the IAEA. It has also launched various programs to increase the nutritional value of staple foods so that it can meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eliminate malnutrition and hunger. Furthermore, various irradiation techniques have been used in the agriculture sector to enhance the quality of food and to extend the shelf life of products at the farms. Also, PAEC is working on various food fortification initiatives to enhance the vitamin and mineral content in the food and to eradicate malnutrition. This is further evident from the fact that nearly 98 new high-yielding and stress-tolerant crops have been created by using nuclear technology. For the availability of clean water in the country, PAEC for years has been collaborating with IAEA to analyze and detect pollutants in water by using isotopic and nuclear techniques. Pakistan has also built laboratories by collaborating with IAEA for mass breeding of insects that fight pests attacking the crops and thus the use of pesticides is decreased.

In Pakistan, nuclear technology has significant use in the field of medical science especially for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer disease. In this regard, over the years, 18 cancer treatment centers have been developed by PAEC where nearly 0.7 million cancer patients have been treated to date. This counts for almost 80% of the total cancer patients from all over the country. Radiation and various other nuclear techniques are used for treating cancer. Likewise, various cancer awareness campaigns are being run by the PAEC so that cancer gets diagnosed at the early stages. Other than these, PAEC has been collaborating with international organizations like the WHO, IRC, IAEA, and UICC, etc. This has facilitated the access of Pakistani scientists and doctors to the relevant international institutions and provides opportunities for training in the field of nuclear medicines. Taking part in various seminars and workshops also keeps the nuclear medical professionals updated about the latest developments in this field.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s Peaceful Uses Of Nuclear Energy – OpEd
November 27, 2020
By Sher Bano

https://www.eurasiareview.com/27112020-pakistans-peaceful-uses-of-nuclear-energy-oped/

Moreover, in the field of technical industry, the Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) Taxila is one of the leading organizations in Pakistan’s engineering sector. It works with an aim of indigenization, self-reliance, and import substitution and to give technical support to the country’s industrial sector. It also focuses on enhancing manufacturing, design, testing, and inspection capabilities to produce high-tech parts, components, and equipment for the thermal, hydel, and nuclear power plants and alternate energy projects. It is a state-of-the-art facility for forging, fabrication, machining, welding, and heat treatment. It is Pakistan’s first engineering establishment that is certified by PNRA (Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority) to develop Nuclear Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 components and equipment in the country.

Hence it is quite comprehensible that Pakistan has successfully demonstrated its commitment towards using nuclear energy for the socio-economic development of the country. This implies that there is another side of the nuclear coin of Pakistan’s nuclear program and that is the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Based on this, the international community needs to admit Pakistan’s continuous efforts of compliance with the international practices of nuclear safety and security and regulatory control. The international arrangements like the NSG and other such cartels, which are supposed to facilitate and promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, need to acknowledge Pakistan’s achievements in this regard. The grant of NSG waiver to India while ignoring Pakistan’s outstanding track record in peaceful uses of nuclear technology has raised questions on the credibility of international arrangements. There is a dire need for openness to new contenders with a non-discriminatory approach. Last but not the least, there should be discrimination between proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear technology at the international level.

Riaz Haq said...

Fuel loading starts for 1,100 MW K-2 #nuclear power plant in #Karachi. The other plant, 1,100 MW K-3, is expected to become operational by the end of 2021. Both have remained on schedule despite disruption from #COVID19 pandemic. #Pakistan #China #CPEC https://www.dawn.com/news/1593541

A spokesperson for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) said fuel loading for the newly built Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Unit-2 (K-2) was started on Tuesday after obtaining fuel load permit from the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority.

K-2 is a pressurised water reactor based on the Chinese HPR-1000 technology and a third generation plant equipped with advanced safety features, according to the spokesperson. The construction of K-2 plant started on Aug 31, 2015 and its commercial operation will begin in April 2021 after undergoing several operational and safety tests.

Agreements signed with Chinese firm for construction of hydropower project in Azad Kashmir

K-2 is one of the two 1,100MW nuclear power plants being constructed at Karachi. The other plant, K-3, is expected to become operational by the end of 2021. The completion of these nuclear power plants has remained largely on schedule despite the difficult times due to Covid-19 pandemic. The fuel loading was witnessed by Director General of the Strategic Plan Division Lt Gen Nadeem Zaki Manj, PAEC Chairman Mohammad Naeem and senior Chinese and Pakistani officials.

Separately, the AJK government and Chinese firm China Gezhouba Group and its local partner Laraib Group signed implementation agreement and water use charges agreement for construction of Azad Pattan Hydropower Project as part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

With an investment of over $1.35 billion, the 700.7MW project would involve no fuel import and enable the country to move towards cheaper and greener power generation, said AJK Prime Minister Raja Farooq Haider Khan on the occasion.

Federal Minister for Power Omer Ayub Khan, Minister for Planning Asad Umar, Chairman of defunct-CPEC Authority retd Lt Gen Asim Saleem Bajwa, AJK Chief Secretary Dr Shahzad Khan Bangash and Managing Director of Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) Shah Jahan Mirza attended the agreement signing ceremony.

The project agreements — GoAJ&K Implementation Agreement and GoAJ&K Water Use Agreement — were signed by Zafar Mahmood Khan, electricity secretary of AJK, and Li Xiaotao, CEO of Azad Pattan Power Private Limited.

The Government of Pakistan Implemen­tation Agreement, Government of Punjab Water Use Agreement and Tripartite Power Purchase Agreements of the project had already been signed in the presence of Prime Minister Imran Khan in July this year. Tuesday’s agreement signing will enable the achievement of financial close of the project.

The letter of support (LOS) for the project was issued by the PPIB to Azad Pattan Power Project Limited. It is a run-off-the river scheme on River Jhelum located at the dual boundary between AJK (Bagh district) and Punjab (Rawalpindi district).

China Gezhouba Group and Laraib Group Pakistan are the shareholders of the project. The consortium of lenders consists of China Development Bank, China Construction Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and Bank of China.

Azad Pattan Project is being implemented by the PPIB under the Policy for Power Generation Projects 2002 on built, own, operate and transfer basis for a term of 30 years after which it will be transferred to the AJK government free of cost. The project is expected to provide about 3,266 GWh electricity per year to the national grid by 2027.

The project would a play crucial role in stimulating local economy by providing employment and business opportunities during its construction periods, said the ministry of power. The governments of AJK and Punjab would earn significant amount of revenue on account of taxes, fees, etc.

Riaz Haq said...

Going carbon free
By Engr. Hussain Ahmad Siddiqui Mon, 12, 20

https://www.thenews.com.pk/magazine/money-matters/754611-going-carbon-free


Now known as Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (or CHASNUPP-1 or C-1), it has PWR (pressurised water reactor) type reactor of 325MWe gross or 300MWe net capacity. Since then, there has been a series of nuclear power plants constructed at Chashma site with the generous help of China. These are CHASNUPP-2 (or C-2) of 325MWe gross or 300MWe net capacity, grid-connected in 2011, CHASNUPP-3 (or C-3) of 340MWe gross or 315MWe net capacity, grid-connected in 2016, and CHASNUPP-4 (C-4) of 340MWe or 313MWe net capacity, which was grid connected in 2017.

Today, cumulative capacity of these nuclear power plants is 1,467MWe gross or 1,318MWe net, generating 9,705GWh (Gigawatt-hours) with a share of over seven percent in power generation mix of total 134,745GWh generated during last fiscal year ending June 30, 2020. Overall capacity factor of these nuclear power plants is at par with global levels. All these nuclear power plants are operating under international safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Pakistan being an IAEA Member State since 1957.

In January 2018, the IAEA launched a four-year technical cooperation project titled “Strengthening and Enhancing Capabilities of Pakistan’s National Institutions to Support a Safe, Reliable and Sustainable Nuclear Power Programme”. Subsequently, Pakistan signed in September 2019 the fourth “IAEA Country Programme Framework for 2020-2025”, which is a medium-term plan of technical cooperation for transfer of nuclear technology. Based on this document, the IAEA technical cooperation resources will be directed to support national development goals in the areas of, inter alia, nuclear power development and nuclear safety and security.

Currently, there are two nuclear power plants under construction at Karachi—KANUPP-2 (K-2) and KANUPP-3 (K-3), each of 1,145MWe capacity. These are Chinese third-generation Hualong One (also known as HPR 1000) reactors based on PWR technology. The first nuclear power plant based on Hualong One technology has been tested and grid-connected in China ten days ago, on November 27. The power plant located in Fuqing city in Fujian province meets the strictest safety standards in the world and meets designed requirements for technical performance, China claims.

Construction of K-2 and K-3 started in August 2015 and May 2016, respectively. K-2 is in advanced stage of construction. Cold testing of K-2 was completed in December 2019. Concreting of outer dome of the double-layer containment of K-3 was completed in April 2020. Thus, K-2 is scheduled for commercial operations by the end of 2021, whereas K-3 is expected to complete in 2022. The Chinese have committed to supply reactors fuel (uranium) for design lifetime of sixty years of these plants. The two projects are covered under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) programme. The IAEA applies safeguards to K-2 and K-3 as well under the agreement concluded in May 2017. With the completion of K-2 and K-3 total installed capacity of nuclear power generation would be 3,757MWe.

To meet energy needs for socio-economic development, Pakistan plans to enhance nuclear-based power generation to 8,800MWe total installed capacity by 2030 targeting 25 percent share in overall power generation mix by then. It is decided that China’s Hualong One unit of 1,145MWe capacity, as installed at K-2 and K-3, will be replicated for future projects. In November 2017, Pakistan signed Cooperation Agreement with the Chinese on the construction of CHASNUPP-5 as a Hualong One unit. It is planned to construct another unit at Muzaffargarh, near Taunsa-Punjnad Canal, while four other sites have been identified, in consultation with the IAEA, for the remaining projects planned for completion by 2030.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s power restored after massive #blackout.
#Poweroutage highlights long-term challenges surrounding electricity transmission networks. Between 80 to 90% electricity supply lost in a few seconds. It's never happened before. https://www.ft.com/content/47c4ca69-918c-4cc2-bdcd-38849a6bec73 via @financialtimes


Pakistan’s power supply was gradually being restored on Sunday after a massive power cut plunged almost the entire country into darkness over the weekend.

Prime minister Imran Khan’s government said the blackouts, which started late on Saturday night, were caused by a “technical fault” stemming from a failure at a power plant in the country’s south.

The breakdown highlights Pakistan’s chronic infrastructure challenges, especially the inability of successive governments to resolve long-term challenges surrounding its electricity transmission networks.

Although power outages are common in Pakistan, a senior government official told the Financial Times the weekend disruption was unprecedented in Pakistan’s history. “Between 80 to 90 per cent electricity supply was suspended in a few seconds. This has never happened before”.

The government urged citizens to remain calm as airports, hospitals and other key locations across the country of more than 200m people experienced blackouts.

Hafeez Pasha, a former finance minister and respected economist, said the latest blackout “represents a complete breakdown of governance in the power sector”.

Pakistan’s local media have pointed to the widespread theft of electricity as illegal power connections proliferate. There have been allegations that some electricity company officials have colluded with consumers to set up connections linked straight to power transmission lines rather than going through a meter.

The country’s main electricity supply companies have repeatedly run at a loss, prompting Pakistan’s western lenders to urge immediate remedial measures.

A $6bn loan from the IMF agreed in 2019 to help Pakistan stave off a debt crisis has been stalled, partly because of the prime minister’s refusal to accept an increase in electricity prices that would be unpopular with voters.

Analysts say Mr Khan has become increasingly averse to adopting unpopular measures as Pakistan’s political opposition has stepped up its protests against his two-year-old government, accusing him of winning the 2018 elections with the backing of the powerful army.

Opposition parties have threatened en masse resignations from parliament and a march to Islamabad unless Mr Khan resigns by the end of January.

Mr Pasha said the problem with Pakistan’s electricity grid was the result of under-investment in transmission and distribution networks, which means that about a third of electricity generated is lost during transmission or due to discrepancies in the billing system.

“How can you ever run the electricity network in a sustainable way?” Mr Pasha said. “There are bound to be growing problems.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi 1100 MW K-2 #nuclear power plant achieves criticality. Expected to be connected the the national grid in May 2021. Another 1100 MW K-3 nuclear power plant to go online in 2022. #Pakistan - Newspaper - DAWN.COM

https://www.dawn.com/news/1610351

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) on Tuesday announced it had achieved criticality of its 1,100MW nuclear power station in Karachi, one of the two major nuclear plants in the city.

The commission said the 1,100MW plant, called K-2, would go through certain safety tests and procedures before it is connected to the national grid by the end of March.

K-2 is one of the two similar under-construction nuclear power plants (NPPs) located near Karachi and will be inaugurated for commercial operation by the end of May this year. The other one, K-3, is expected to become operational in 2022.

K-2 is the first nuclear power plant in Pakistan with a generation capacity of over 1,000MW and will help reduce loadshedding in summers by generating environment friendly, affordable and reliable base load electricity for the country.

The PAEC was previously running five NPPs in the country (one at Karachi and four at Chashma) with collective generation capacity of nearly 1,400MW. Therefore, the K-2 would almost double the capacity of the country’s NPPs, improving considerably the share of nuclear power in the overall energy mix.

The loading of nuclear fuel onto the plant was started on December 1 last year after clearance from the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The PAEC had at the time announced that it would achieve COD commercial operations of K-2 in April 2021 and that of K-3 by the end of 2021.

On Tuesday, the PAEC spokesperson said that the first plant was expected to reach COD by the end of May and the K-3 in 2022.

Riaz Haq said...

On August 10 (2020), a powerful storm called a derecho swept through the Midwest (predominately eastern Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana in the United States) with wind gusts of up to 130 miles per hour, cutting off the external power supply to the Duane Arnold Energy Center, a General Electric reactor of the same type and vintage as the doomed Fukushima Daiichi units. A pandemic-weary nation didn’t pay much attention, but it should have. According to a preliminary Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) analysis, this was the most serious US nuclear power plant incident in at least 18 years.

https://thebulletin.org/2021/03/fukushima-10-years-later-it-still-could-happen-here/

Duane Arnold, which its owner, NextEra, had been planning to shut down at the end of October 2020 for economic reasons, was already in a vulnerable state. It was operating at only 80 percent of capacity because the primary containment had been overheating due to a cooling system leak, and there was a ruptured nuclear fuel element in the core. In addition, major pieces of safety equipment were out of service for maintenance.

At 12:49 p.m. local time, Duane Arnold automatically shut down after the derecho took down all six power lines supplying the plant. The reactor’s two emergency diesel generators started up as expected. However, the nuclear fuel remained hot, and it took plant operators 14 hours of deft maneuvering to stabilize and cool down the reactor—a process that was not trouble-free. Operators violated technical restrictions several times, one of the two spent fuel pool cooling pumps blew a fuse, and a strainer that filtered potentially damaging debris from the cooling water supply to one of the diesel generators became clogged and had to be bypassed. Off-site power to the plant was not restored until nearly 24 hours after it was lost.

Although operators were able to compensate for all the problems and shut down Duane Arnold safely, the NRC estimates that there was at least a one-in-1,000 chance, on average, that the reactor could have experienced a meltdown. The NRC considers such high-risk events “significant” precursors to a severe accident. For example, if the reactor’s emergency diesel generators had failed, a station blackout similar to the Fukushima accident would have occurred. (The NRC risk estimate optimistically assumes a nearly 90 percent chance that personnel would have been able to save the plant even after a blackout, which workers had failed to accomplish three times over at Fukushima.)

Riaz Haq said...

On August 10 (2020), a powerful storm called a derecho swept through the Midwest (predominately eastern Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana in the United States) with wind gusts of up to 130 miles per hour, cutting off the external power supply to the Duane Arnold Energy Center, a General Electric reactor of the same type and vintage as the doomed Fukushima Daiichi units. A pandemic-weary nation didn’t pay much attention, but it should have. According to a preliminary Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) analysis, this was the most serious US nuclear power plant incident in at least 18 years.

https://thebulletin.org/2021/03/fukushima-10-years-later-it-still-could-happen-here/

Duane Arnold, which its owner, NextEra, had been planning to shut down at the end of October 2020 for economic reasons, was already in a vulnerable state. It was operating at only 80 percent of capacity because the primary containment had been overheating due to a cooling system leak, and there was a ruptured nuclear fuel element in the core. In addition, major pieces of safety equipment were out of service for maintenance.

At 12:49 p.m. local time, Duane Arnold automatically shut down after the derecho took down all six power lines supplying the plant. The reactor’s two emergency diesel generators started up as expected. However, the nuclear fuel remained hot, and it took plant operators 14 hours of deft maneuvering to stabilize and cool down the reactor—a process that was not trouble-free. Operators violated technical restrictions several times, one of the two spent fuel pool cooling pumps blew a fuse, and a strainer that filtered potentially damaging debris from the cooling water supply to one of the diesel generators became clogged and had to be bypassed. Off-site power to the plant was not restored until nearly 24 hours after it was lost.

Although operators were able to compensate for all the problems and shut down Duane Arnold safely, the NRC estimates that there was at least a one-in-1,000 chance, on average, that the reactor could have experienced a meltdown. The NRC considers such high-risk events “significant” precursors to a severe accident. For example, if the reactor’s emergency diesel generators had failed, a station blackout similar to the Fukushima accident would have occurred. (The NRC risk estimate optimistically assumes a nearly 90 percent chance that personnel would have been able to save the plant even after a blackout, which workers had failed to accomplish three times over at Fukushima.)

Riaz Haq said...

Nuclear power plants produce no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, and over the course of its life-cycle, nuclear produces about the same amount of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions per unit of electricity as wind, and one-third of the emissions per unit of electricity when compared with solar.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-can-nuclear-combat-climate-change.aspx

Experts have concluded that in order to achieve the deep decarbonisation required to keep the average rise in global temperatures to below 1.5°C, combating climate change would be much harder, without an increased role for nuclear. Because nuclear power is reliable and can be deployed on a large scale, it can directly replace fossil fuel plant, avoiding the combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation. The use of nuclear energy today avoids emissions roughly equivalent to removing one-third of all cars from the world’s roads.

Modern society is becoming more and more dependent on electricity, with demand steadily increasing as transport, domestic heating and industrial processes are increasingly electrified. Whilst electricity is clean at the point of use, its generation currently produces over 40% of all energy-related carbon emissions. Decarbonising the electricity supply, whilst providing affordable and reliable electricity to a growing global population, must be central to any climate change strategy.Nuclear energy has shown that it has the potential to be the catalyst for delivering sustainable energy transitions, long before climate change was on the agenda. France generates over 70% of its electricity from nuclear power – the largest nuclear share of any country globally – and its electricity sector emissions are one-sixth of the European average. In around 15 years, nuclear power went from playing a minor role in the French electricity system to producing the majority of its electricity, showing that nuclear energy can be expanded at the speed required to effectively combat climate change.

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi's 1,100 MW #nuclear power plant unit 2 inaugurated by #Pakistan PM. #ImranKhan said #environmental and #economic benefits from it will be "huge" in a country that is particularly vulnerable to #climatechange. #ClimateCrisis https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-unit-2-inaugurated-by-Pakistan-PM


Karachi 2 joins the five nuclear power plants already operating under the management of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

Speaking from Islamabad by videolink in a ceremony that also marked the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China, Khan said the plant's 1100 MW of clean energy would "almost double" Pakistan's nuclear power generation.

Karachi unit 3 - which like unit 2 is also an 1100 MW Hualong One unit supplied by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) - is expected to generate electricity early next year, he said. The Karachi units are the first exports of the Hualong One, which is promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

"It is worth mentioning here that clean, reliable and affordable power generation will also bring economic benefits to the country," Khan said.

Construction of Karachi 2 began in 2015 and the unit achieved first criticality in February and was connected to the grid in March after the completion of commissioning tests. The plant's operational period is 60 years, which can be extended for another 20 years.

According to the Associated Press of Pakistan, China Atomic Energy Authority Chairman Zhang KeJian said the launch of Karachi 2 showed the commitment of both countries to the peaceful use of nuclear energy for the socioeconomic benefit of their people. CNNC Chairman China Yu Jian Feng said technology transfer and nuclear cooperation between China and Pakistan would "achieve new heights".

Riaz Haq said...

Siemens Gamesa books 410 MW of turbine orders in Pakistan in FY 2019/2020


https://renewablesnow.com/news/siemens-gamesa-books-410-mw-of-turbine-orders-in-pakistan-in-fy-20192020-715727/


Gamesa Renewable Energy SA (BME:SGRE) has received 410 MW worth of wind turbine orders from Pakistan during its fiscal year to end-September.

Of the total, orders for 260 MW were booked in the final quarter of the 2019/2020 fiscal year, the turbine maker said.

The machines will be distributed between eight wind farm projects. Two of the projects are already under construction, with commissioning set to take place in November 2020 and February 2021.

The eight projects represent 205 of turbines from the 2.X platform, which Siemens Gamesa will supply, install and commission in partnership with an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor.

By the end of 2021, all eight wind farms will be fully operational. Once online, they will be capable of covering power consumption needs of up to 600,000 local households each year.

According to Siemens Gamesa, 40 million of people in Pakistan have no access to electricity. The government is committed to bring in modern renewables into the power mix, currently dominated by imported oil and natural gas.

Riaz Haq said...

Night view of a well-lit grid-station in #Lahore. It connects #Punjab to 878 Km 600 Kv HVDC $2.1 billion Lahore-#Matiari (#Sindh) #power #transmission line that recently became part of #Pakistan's national grid. #CPEC #China

https://twitter.com/haqsmusings/status/1427433907608199175?s=20

Riaz Haq said...

First HVDC transmission line tested with full load of 4,000MW


https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/878333-first-hvdc-transmission-line-tested-with-full-load-of-4-000mw

Dubbed as flagship China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project, 660kV Matiari-Lahore HVDC Line is the largest ever transmission sector project of the country in terms of its capacity as well as one of the longest in distance, connecting power generation units in the south with load centers upcountry.
“The HVDC line transcends a geographical length of about 900 km, marking the start of an era of long-distance power transmission in the country,” said an official of National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC).

“It is a unique project in the sense that it introduces HVDC technology for the first time in the national grid, enriching the technology mix of the grid.”

The official added that the trial operation was being carried out through NTDC transmission system.

“The Project has a design capacity of 4,000MW and will help evacuate power from cheaper Southern coal power plants and deliver it to load centers in the North of the country.”

Above all, the official said, the ongoing trial operation of the transmission line helped in contributing the record highest power transmitted on August 11, 2021 at 24,467 MW through the national grid.

“In 2020, peak load sustained by the national grid was 23,370MW for one day and in 2018 it was just 20,811 MW. With the launching of HVDC Matiari-Lahore Transmission Project, power dispersal capacity of the national grid has seen a massive jump of 4000mw in one go,” said an official.

He added that the ongoing trial operation marked one of the last steps in the completion of the project.

“In this last stage it will be trial-operated for a few days continuously at various power levels and under various configurations to test it in full running condition,” said the official.

Furthermore, the Capability Demonstration Test of the Project will also be performed during this period.

It is informed that the equipment debugging, station commissioning, and system commissioning up to the level of high power bipole testing of the project has already been completed, certified by both the Independent Engineer from Italy and Owner Engineer from Canada.

Despite Covid-19 pandemic, the overall work was completed by end of 2020. Earlier, the project was expected to be commissioned by March 2021 after going through trial run. However, after reaching an amicable solution, the contractor and NTDC agreed in writing to conduct trial run during peak load of summer months with COD in September 2021.

Riaz Haq said...

Sohail Ahmed @sohailahmedsašŸ‡µšŸ‡° Alhumdulillah Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Unit-3 (K-3) is now critical.
KNPP-2 & KNPP-3 are 1100 MW each

https://twitter.com/sohailahmedsa/status/1495974363069399042?s=20&t=5RWyuRFkBRfeFG_Djqk90Q

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan power project using China’s Hualong One connected to grid - Global Times

https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1253974.shtml


The (1,100 MW) K-3 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Project in Pakistan, the fourth entity to use a China-designed third-generation nuclear reactor, was successfully connected to the grid on Friday, laying solid foundations for commercial operation.

All four of the units adopting China’s Hualong One nuclear reactor are now connected to the grid and are generating electricity, China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) said in a statement on Friday.

Each Hualong One unit is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually after being completed, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan – equivalent to reducing use of standard coal by 3.12 million tons, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 8.16 million tons every year. It is also the equivalent of planting more than 70 million trees, CNNC said.

It is of great significance for optimizing Pakistan's energy structure, as well as reaching carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals, CNNC added.

The success in construction and operation of the nuclear reactors in Pakistan will make the Hualong One technology better received in the global market, especially in countries and regions participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, observers said.

The K-2 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan, which also uses Hualong One, officially started commercial operation on May 20 last year.

As China's "calling card" for its nuclear power industry, Hualong One has become one of the most widely recognized third-generation nuclear power reactors in the market.

All of Hualong One’s core components are produced domestically, and it has a design life of 60 years and meets the strictest safety standards in the world, according to a report from the Xinhua News Agency.

In May 2015, construction began on the world's first Hualong One demonstration project in Fuqing. On January 30, the world's first nuclear power unit under Hualong One, unit 5 of CNNC's Fuqing nuclear power plant, entered commercial operation.

With Hualong One online, China is now at the world forefront of third-generation nuclear technology, alongside countries like the US, France and Russia, the Xinhua News Agency reported, citing CNNC Chairman Yu Jianfeng.

The commercial use of Hualong One will also help to meet China’s goal for CO2 emissions to peak before 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, Yu added.

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi 3 (K3) #nuclear #power pant begins supplying #electricity. The 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor was connected to #Pakistan national grid on 4 March. Nuclear #energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from 5 working reactors https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-3-begins-supplying-electricity


The 1100 MWe pressurised water reactor was connected to the grid at 3:33pm on 4 March, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced. It said the milestone "lays a solid foundation for the subsequent commercial operation of the unit."

Construction of Karachi 3, the second of two Hualong One units to be built near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh, began in May 2016. Karachi 2 entered commercial operation in May last year. The units are the first exports of CNNC's Hualong One, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

"After each unit of Hualong One is completed, it is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan," CNNC noted. It said this is equivalent to reducing coal use by 3.12 million tonnes annually and avoiding the emission of 8.16 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.

CNNC said the construction of Karachi 2 and 3 has also driven the development of Pakistan's economy and related industries. The local supply of equipment in Pakistan has increased significantly, it said. "During the peak period of the project construction, it has directly provided more than 10,000 jobs for Pakistan, and indirectly created more than 40,000 jobs through the industrial chain."

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One, or HPR1000, design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. Fuqing 5 entered commercial operation in January 2021; Fuqing 6 started up in December and was connected to the electricity grid on 1 January.

Nuclear energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from five reactors: four CNNC-supplied CNP-300 pressurised water reactors at Chashma in Punjab, and Karachi 2. CNNC in 2017 signed a cooperation agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission on the construction of a Hualong One as a fifth unit at Chashma.

Riaz Haq said...

Nuclear power generation
By Engr. Hussain Ahmad Siddiqui Mon, 03, 22
This month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/magazine/money-matters/941162-nuclear-power-generation

his month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

Commonly known as Kanupp-3 or K-3, it is of 1,145-MWe generation installed capacity and 1,100-MWe net capacity, which had attained criticality last month, and was undergoing safety tests and procedures. Generation cost is about Rs 9.59 per KWh (levelised). The foreign exchange portion of the project, which is about 80 percent of total cost, has been financed through a loan from the China’ state-owned The Export-Import Bank of China.

With the addition of K-3 nuclear power plant, currently there are total seven nuclear power plants installed in the country, out of which six, of cumulative installed capacity of 3,635-MWe, are in operation. The first–ever nuclear power plant constructed in the country, Kanupp-1 (K-1), has been permanently shut down. With the commencement of commercial operations of K-3, the share of nuclear energy in overall generation mix from all resources at national level has significantly increased, to over 9.1 percent. This share, which was 1.1 percent in 1990, has gradually and steadily increased in later years to 7.1 percent in 2020, before achieving the present level.

These nuclear power plants, established with technical and economic support of China, are owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and regulated by the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These facilities are located only at two sites — Chashma (District Mianwali) and Karachi. There are four nuclear power plants, namely Chasnupp-1 (C-1) of 325-MWe installed capacity, and plants C-2, C-3 and C-4, each of 340-MWe capacity.

These four plants at Chashma were commissioned in the years 2000, 2011, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and their corresponding operating licenses are valid until December 2030, 2026, 2026 and 2027. Pakistan has an impeccable record of safety and security in operating these nuclear power plants, as it follows best practices and standards set by the IAEA. Pakistan is currently ranked 17th out of 25 countries on Nuclear Materials Safety Index in terms of safety, and security and is placed above India.

Karachi Coastal Power Complex consists of two units of 1,145-MWe each installed capacity, known as K-2 and K-3 for which China has provided $6.5 billion loan on soft terms. The earlier unit K-2 was connected to the system of the National Transmission and Despatch Co (NTDC) in May 2021. These are third-generation nuclear power plants developed and tested by the Chinese as “Advanced China Pressurized ACP-1000”. Electricity transmission infrastructure for evacuation of power from these plants include additional 550kv and 220kv transmission lines of 16-km that have recently been completed by the NTDC at a cost of Rs5.6 billion.

The K-1nuclear power plant of 137-MWe capacity was constructed near Karachi in 1971, and connected to the national grid in October 1972. It was designed to operate for 30-years’operation. On end of its service life in 2002, the major balancing, modernization & rehabilitation (BMR) and safety upgrades of the facility were carried out by the PAEC, and it operated safely since 2003 till recently at de-rated capacity of around 98-MWe. After 50-years’ record successful operation the plant has been shut-down in August 2021 for dismantling and decommissioning.


Riaz Haq said...

Under the project, a 150 MW floating solar subproject will be deployed in the Ghazi Barrage headpond and another floating project of similar capacity at the Forebay of the existing Ghazi Barotha Hydropower plant. The project would greatly enhance the electricity supply and help meet the rising demand for electricity in the country.

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/world-bank-wapda-to-setup-pakistans-first-floating-solar-farm/

Currently, according to the National Electric Power Regulator Authority state industry report 2021, Pakistan’s total installed electricity generation capacity is 143,588 GWH, of which a measly 4,521 GWH is produced by renewable sources such as solar and wind. Thermal sources account for 61.76 percent, whereas Hydel sources account for 27.02 percent. A shift toward renewable sources of energy was long pending and is a major component of Pakistan’s vision 2050.

The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) plans to take on the Floating Solar Project (FSP or the Project) and, in that effort, seeks financing from the World Bank. Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority has prepared a Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP), and according to a report by Business Recorder, it is engaged in meetings with the World Bank to establish a 300 MW floating solar project in the country.

A delegation from the World Bank is expected to reach Pakistan today for a ten-day visit, for the initial assessment and evaluation of the project. The World Bank delegation will meet with all the relevant authorities and stakeholders, such as the Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Power Development Authority, and the Economic Affairs Division. After the visit, the World Bank mission would generate a feasibility report of the project, which would detail the proposed financing and the expected Return on Investment (ROI) in the following period.

The World Bank team includes but is not limited to; Gunjan Gautam (Senior Energy Specialist and Task Team Leader), Rikard Liden (Lead Energy Specialist and co-Task Team Leader), Imran ul Haq (Senior Social Development Specialist), Sana Ahmad (Environmental Specialist), Uzma Sadaf (Sr Procurement Specialist), Shafiq Hussain (Procurement Specialist), Noureen LNU (Financial Management Specialist), Mohammad Omar Khalid (Senior Consultant) to be supported by Amna W Mir (Senior Program Associate).

The World Bank mission is expected to hold a meeting with the project management unit of WAPDA on the 22 April in Islamabad. Following which, it is scheduled to meet with the officials of the Water Resources Ministry on 23 April. The mission would also listen to briefings and partake in discussion sessions with the relevant authorities.
According to the initial assessment conducted by the Water and Power Distribution Authority of Pakistan, the project is expected to strengthen the capacity of WAPDA as it increases the supply of electricity by financing 300 MW floating solar subprojects in water body of the already existing project of the Ghazi-Barotha complex.

Riaz Haq said...

Karot Hydropower connects unit one to national grid. It is a 720 MW plant constructed on river Jhelum, #Pakistan , in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned #Chinese power companies, #China Three Gorges Corporation. #CPEC Global Village Space

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/karot-hydropower-connects-unit-one-to-national-grid/


Pakistan’s first Hydel power generation project – Karot Hydropower – under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) connected unit one to the national grid on 30 April, kick-starting the operations at full capacity, reported Developing Pakistan, a Pakistan based digital media platform. By connecting unit one of the Karot Hydropower, the project pumps 180 MW of electricity into the national grid. Karot Hydropower Project is a 720 MW constructed on river Jhelum, Pakistan, in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned Chinese power companies, the China Three Gorges Corporation, more commonly known as the CTG. The rest of the three units will be connected to the national grid in the upcoming months.

The project’s financial close was achieved in March 2017, and construction work began the same year. The mechanical, electrical, and other technical works of the project were completed around February 2022, and internal testing began in the same month. Work pertaining to transmitting power to the national grid was mostly completed by January however was not completed till April 30. The project is the first of three hydropower projects under China Pakistan Economic Corridor, and the estimated cost to get the plant operational stands at around $1.42 billion. According to the Managing Director of the Private Power and Infrastructure Board, the other two include “the 870MW Sukhi Kenari HPP and 1,124MW Kohala HPP.” Work on Sukhi Kerani is underway, whereas the construction of the Kohala Hydropower Project is yet to be initiated. The Kohala HPP is also being constructed on the Jhelum river, and a tripartite agreement was signed for its construction in June 2020; however, due to tax issues, the work on the construction site of the said river has still not begun.

It is pertinent to mention that according to the National Electric Power Regulator Authority state industry report 2021, Hydel sources of electricity generation account for 27.02 percent of the country’s electricity, significantly more than any other source except for thermal.

Separately, to address the energy demands of the country, Pakistani authorities have also engaged the World Bank to facilitate the set up of a 300 MW floating solar project at the Tarbela – Ghazi Barotha complex. The project’s projected cost is proposed to be around $346.5 million. Under the project, a 150 MW floating solar subproject will be deployed in the Ghazi Barrage headpond and another floating project of similar capacity at the Forebay of the existing Ghazi Barotha Hydropower plant. The project would greatly enhance the electricity supply and help meet the rising demand for electricity in a climate-smart manner.

Riaz Haq said...

Unit 3 of the Karachi nuclear power plant in Pakistan - a Chinese-supplied Hualong One reactor - reached 100% capacity for the first time on 31 March. The 1100 MWe pressurised water reactor is currently undergoing power ascension testing prior to entering commercial operation.

https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Worlds-fourth-Hualong-One-unit-attains-full-power

Construction of Karachi 3, the second of two Hualong One units to be built near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh, began in May 2016. Hot functional testing of Karachi 3 - which simulate the temperatures and pressures that the reactor systems will be subjected to during normal operation and are carried out before loading nuclear fuel - was completed ahead of schedule on 4 November last year. It achieved first criticality on 21 February and was connected to the grid on 4 March.

Various performance and commissioning tests have since been carried out at power levels of 25%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 87% capacity, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) said.

Once testing at full capacity is completed, Karachi 3 will perform a 100-hour demonstration run, after which it will enter commercial operation.

Karachi 2 entered commercial operation in May last year. The units are the first exports of CNNC's Hualong One, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. The units entered commercial operation in January 2021 and March this year, respectively.

Nuclear energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from five reactors: four CNNC-supplied CNP-300 pressurised water reactors at Chashma in Punjab, and Karachi 2. CNNC in 2017 signed a cooperation agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission on the construction of a Hualong One as a fifth unit at Chashma.

In February, NucleoelƩctrica Argentina and CNNC signed an engineering, procurement and construction contract for the development of the Atucha 3 nuclear power plant. The plant, to be sited near Lima, about 100 kilometres north west of Argentina's capital, Buenos Aires, will use the Hualong One technology.

Riaz Haq said...

New hydel projects to produce over 11,000MW
Will enhance overall hydroelectric power capacity to 20,684MW

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2382074/new-hydel-projects-to-produce-over-11000mw


ISLAMABAD:
The Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) is pursuing six hydroelectric power projects that will add 11,241 megawatts of environment-friendly electricity to the existing hydel generation capacity of 9,443MW in the coming years.

Talking to APP, Wapda officials said that at present total installed capacity of 24 hydel power stations of Wapda stood at 9,443MW and the addition of 11,241MW would enhance it to 20,684MW.

The existing hydel power stations included Tarbela, Mangla, Ghazi Barotha, Neelum-Jhelum and Warsak, which contributed about 25% to the total system capacity of 36,166MW from all sources.

The net electricity output of those power stations was about 32,000 gigawatt-hours (GWh) per annum.

Sharing details of the upcoming hydel power projects, the officials said that the Dasu Hydropower Project would contribute 4,320MW, Tarbela 5th Extension 1,510MW, Mohmand Dam 800MW, Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4,500MW, Keyal Khwar Power Project 128MW and Kurram Tangi 83.4MW to the national grid system.

Meanwhile, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has developed several nuclear power projects to support economic uplift in Pakistan.

Total installed capacity of the nuclear power plants connected with the national grid was 3,530MW, which included 1,330MW Chashma nuclear power project and 2,200MW Karachi nuclear power project.

Riaz Haq said...

Scientists Achieve Nuclear Fusion Breakthrough With Blast of 192 Lasers
The advancement by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers will be built on to further develop fusion energy research.

https://www.nytimes.com/2022/12/13/science/nuclear-fusion-energy-breakthrough.html


If fusion can be deployed on a large scale, it would offer an energy source devoid of the pollution and greenhouse gases caused by the burning of fossil fuels and the dangerous long-lived radioactive waste created by current nuclear power plants, which use the splitting of uranium to produce energy.

Within the sun and stars, fusion continually combines hydrogen atoms into helium, producing sunlight and warmth that bathes the planets. In experimental reactors and laser labs on Earth, fusion lives up to its reputation as a very clean energy source.

There was always a nagging caveat, however. In all of the efforts by scientists to control the unruly power of fusion, their experiments consumed more energy than the fusion reactions generated.

That changed at 1:03 a.m. on Dec. 5 when 192 giant lasers at the laboratory’s National Ignition Facility blasted a small cylinder about the size of a pencil eraser that contained a frozen nubbin of hydrogen encased in diamond.

The laser beams entered at the top and bottom of the cylinder, vaporizing it. That generated an inward onslaught of X-rays that compresses a BB-size fuel pellet of deuterium and tritium, the heavier forms of hydrogen.

In a brief moment lasting less than 100 trillionths of a second, 2.05 megajoules of energy — roughly the equivalent of a pound of TNT — bombarded the hydrogen pellet. Out flowed a flood of neutron particles — the product of fusion — which carried about 3 megajoules of energy, a factor of 1.5 in energy gain.

This crossed the threshold that laser fusion scientists call ignition, the dividing line where the energy generated by fusion equals the energy of the incoming lasers that start the reaction.

“You see one diagnostic and you think maybe that’s not real and then you start to see more and more diagnostics rolling in, pointing to the same thing,” said Annie Kritcher, a physicist at Livermore who described reviewing the data after the experiment. “It’s a great feeling.”

The successful experiment finally delivers the ignition goal that was promised when construction of the National Ignition Facility started in 1997. When operations began in 2009, however, the facility hardly generated any fusion at all, an embarrassing disappointment after a $3.5 billion investment from the federal government.


----------

In an interview, Mark Herrmann, program director for weapons physics and design at the Livermore, said the researchers then performed a series of experiments to better understand the surprising August success, and they worked to bump up the energy of lasers by almost 10 percent and improve the design of the hydrogen targets.

The first laser shot at 2.05 megajoules was performed in September, and that first try produced 1.2 megajoules of fusion energy. Moreover, analysis showed that the spherical pellet of hydrogen was not squeezed evenly, and some of the hydrogen essentially squirted out the side and did not reach fusion temperatures.

The scientists made some adjustments that they believed would work better.

“The prediction ahead of the shot was that it could go up a factor of two,” Dr. Herrmann said. “In fact, it went up a little more than that.”

The main purpose of the National Ignition Facility is to conduct experiments to help the United States maintain its nuclear weapons. That makes the immediate implications for producing energy tentative.

Fusion would be essentially an emissions-free source of power, and it would help reduce the need for power plants burning coal and natural gas, which pump billions of tons of planet-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year.

But it will take quite a while before fusion becomes available on a widespread, practical scale, if ever.

Riaz Haq said...

Green investment on rise, Pakistan to get 30 % renewable energy - Pakistan Observer

https://pakobserver.net/green-investment-on-rise-pakistan-to-get-30-renewable-energy/


Until now, renewable energy sources make up a very minor fraction of Pakistan’s overall power generation mix. According to a recent report of the National Electric Power Regulatovry Authority, the installed capacity for wind and solar accounts for roughly 4.2% (1,831 MW) and 1.4% (630 MW) of a total of 43,775 MW, respectively.

China is already the biggest investor in green energy in Pakistan. Currently, out of the $144 million in foreign investment in solar PV plants in Pakistan, $125 million is from China, accounting for nearly 87% of the total.

Thanks to Chinese investments, a few weeks ago Federal Power Minister Khurram Dastgir Khan inaugurated two new wind energy projects in Jhimpir, Thatta District, Sindh, with an aim to produce cheaper and clean electricity through indigenous energy sources. Wind projects in this region have been one of several renewable energy projects to have received Chinese investment in recent years. Around 90 kilometers from Karachi, Jhimpir is the heartland of the country’s largest ‘Wind corridor’, which has the potential to produce 11,000 megawatts (MW) of energy from green resources.

Riaz Haq said...

Gwadar Pro Official
@Gwadar_Pro

China state-affiliated media
The Chinese company is working 24 hours a day according to three shifts on Dasu Hydropower Project. After the completion of Dasu Dam project, 4320 MW electricity will be generated. Thousands of employment opportunities have already been created on the project.

https://twitter.com/Gwadar_Pro/status/1610941378862940160?s=20&t=Skr5PQ-x7X-8EiVxL2GqMg

-----------

Wapda, KP districts sign deal to build transmission line


https://www.dawn.com/news/1726085


The Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) and a united jirga from three districts in Khyber Pakh­tunkhwa’s Kohistan region signed an agreement on Monday to facilitate the construction of a transmission line for evacuation of 4,300 megawatts electricity to be generated by Dasu dam and other hydropower projects.

The “Confidence-Buil­ding Mea­s­ures’ Agree­ment (CBMA) was sig­ned between Wapda, the ad­­m­inistration of Hazara division, and notables from the three districts — Upper Kohistan, Lower Kohis­tan and Kolai Palas Kohistan.

Under the agreement, Wapda committed to implementing development schemes — to be selected through a yet to be conducted field survey — as CBMs under its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in consultation with the civil administrations and the locals, Wapda said in a statement.

“Most importantly, this agreement will pave the way for smooth execution and completion of long-delayed 132kV transmission line from Duber hydel power station to Dasu, direly needed for stable supply of electricity during peak construction period of Dasu project,” it added.

Riaz Haq said...

#China, #Pakistan mark completion of #Karachi 2&3 (K2 & K3) #nuclear #power plants, each generating 1100 MW. "Since entering commercial operation, the K-2 and K-3 units have generated nearly 20 billion kilowatt-hours of #electricity" #Infrastructure https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/China,-Pakistan-mark-completion-of-Karachi-2-3-pro

A ceremony has been held to mark the inauguration of unit 3 of the Karachi nuclear power plant in Pakistan. China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) said the two Hualong One reactors at the site have now both officially been delivered to Pakistan and put into operation.


During the event, speeches were made by Pakistan's Prime Minister Shabaz Sharif, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Ali Raza, China Atomic Energy Agency Deputy Director Liu Jing and CNNC General Manager Gu Jun. International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi also delivered a speech via video.

"Since entering commercial operation, the K-2 and K-3 units have generated nearly 20 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, effectively alleviating the power shortage in Pakistan, as well as making positive contributions to Pakistan's social and economic development, energy security and independence, and addressing climate change," CNNC said. "At the same time, the K-2/K-3 project has provided more than 60,000 jobs for the local people throughout the whole cycle and trained a large number of local industrial workers."

Units 2 and 3 of the Karachi site - near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh - are the first exports of CNNC's 1100 MWe Hualong One pressurised water reactor, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

Construction of unit 2 began in 2015, with that of unit 3 following in May 2016. Karachi 2 achieved first criticality in February 2021 and was connected to the grid the following month after the completion of commissioning tests. The then Prime Minister Imran Khan formally inaugurated unit 2 on 21 May 2021.

Unit 3 achieved first criticality on 21 February 2022 and was connected to the grid on 4 March. Unit 3 passed acceptance tests on 18 April 2022, marking its entry into commercial operation.

According to CNNC, since Karachi units 2 and 3 have been put into operation, "the frequency and duration of local power outages have been greatly reduced".

The company noted Karachi 2 and 3 now provide Pakistan with nearly 20 billion kWh of clean electricity every year, meeting the annual demand of the local population of 2 million people. The units will reduce the equivalent standard coal consumption by 6.24 million tonnes per year, thereby cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 16.32 million tonnes.

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. The units entered commercial operation in January 2021 and March this year, respectively

Riaz Haq said...

POWERCHINA Celebrates 10th Anniversary of CPEC: Committed to Bringing Pakistan Forward for Green and Sustainable Development


https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20230306005420/en/POWERCHINA-Celebrates-10th-Anniversary-of-CPEC-Committed-to-Bringing-Pakistan-Forward-for-Green-and-Sustainable-Development

This year will see the 10th anniversary of the China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the 10th anniversary of the launch of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). As one of the key enterprises participating in the construction of the CPEC, POWERCHINA has been active in various fields such as energy, electricity, water management, and infrastructure investment in Pakistan since it entered the Pakistani market as early as 1987.

Over the past 36 years, POWERCHINA has completed the 103 projects in Pakistan, including the first roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dam in Pakistan – the Gomal Zam Dam multipurpose project, and the first mainstream hydropower station on the Indus River – the Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project, the largest installed hydropower station – the Tarbela 4th & 5th Extension Hydropower Project, and the largest wind farm – the Tricon Boston 150 MW Wind Power Project.

In the past ten years, among the first 20 energy and infrastructure projects of the CPEC, POWERCHINA has participated in the investment and construction of 11 projects. POWERCHINA has consolidated the traditional power business, and continued to contribute to the development of new energy and other fields. Pakistan's largest hydropower hub project currently being constructed by POWERCHINA, the Diamer Basha Dam Project, will become the tallest and largest RCC dam in the world, and is expected to provide Pakistan with 18.1 billion KWh of clean electricity every year. As the project progresses, it is expected to provide more than 20,000 job opportunities, which is considered as one of the many positive effects of the project by Nadeem Ilyas, a Pakistani engineer of the project.

As one of the leading enterprises in China, POWERCHINA has carried out high-quality clean energy project construction and operation in accordance with international standards, and is committed to improving Pakistan's infrastructure conditions and alleviating local power shortages. It has not only made important contributions to the sustainable development of Pakistan, but also played a key role in the development of CPEC.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan has an energy surplus. Here’s why it gets hit by blackouts anyway
For several years, Pakistan’s cities and villages have suffered from power outages lasting several hours a day. In January, a nationwide blackout plunged the country of 230 million people into darkness. But the problem isn’t energy supply.

https://www.cnbc.com/video/2023/03/06/whats-behind-pakistans-energy-blackouts-and-power-outages.html

This January, much of Pakistan’s population of nearly 230 million people plunged into darkness, bringing widespread disruption to people and industries for almost 24 hours.

“If you go to our government hospitals – which didn’t have back-up facilities – or field hospitals, or small nursing homes, they had to stop all their services,” said Dr. Shayan Ansari, a surgeon at a private hospital in Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad.

A similar incident struck last October. Meanwhile, smaller blackouts regularly hit cities and villages for several hours daily.

But the problem is not energy supply.

“We don’t have a problem as far as the supply of energy is concerned in Pakistan,” said Ishrat Husain, who served as an advisor to ex-Prime Minister Imran Khan. “Both outages were caused because there were fluctuations on the transmission lines, which have not been updated for quite some time.”

In 2020, nearly 20 percent of Pakistan’s energy was simply lost during transmission, distribution and delivery.

Pakistan’s energy problems are having a cascading effect on the country’s economy, which is on the verge of collapse. Watch the video above to find out more.

Riaz Haq said...

India's power output grows at fastest pace in 33 years, fuelled by coal

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/indias-power-output-grows-at-fastest-pace-in-33-years-fuelled-by-coal-11680738025627.html

Fossil fuel-fired power output rises fastest in nearly 3 decades
Emissions from power gen rose nearly a sixth to 1.15 bln tonnes
Coal-fired power output up 12.4%, gas-fired output down 29%
Share of coal in overall power output rose to 73.1%
Renewables output rose 21.7%, share up to 11.8%


The rise in power demand due to intense summer heatwaves, a colder-than-usual winter in northern India, and an economic recovery compelled India to increase its power output from coal plants and solar farms, preventing power cuts.

An analysis of daily load data from regulator Grid-India showed that power generation in India increased by 11.5% to 1,591.11 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in the fiscal year ending in March 2023. This rise in power generation was the highest since the year ending March 1990.

The analysis revealed that fossil-fuel-based plants witnessed an 11.2% growth, the highest in over 30 years, with coal-fired plants recording a 12.4% surge in electricity production, compensating for a 28.7% decrease in cleaner gas-fired plant output due to high global liquefied natural gas (LNG) prices.

In the new fiscal year that began April 1, Indian power plants are expected to burn about 8% more coal.

The rapid acceleration in India's coal-fired output to address a spike in power demand underscores challenges faced by the world's third largest greenhouse gas-emitter in weaning its economy off carbon, as it attempts to ensure energy security to around 1.4 billion Indians.

Total power supplied during the last fiscal year was 1509.15 billion kWh, 8.4% higher than a year earlier but still 6.69 billion units short of demand, the widest deficit in six years.


Electricity generated from coal rose to 1,162.91 billion kWh, the data showed, with its share in overall output rising to 73.1% - the highest level since the year ending March 2019.

India's Central Electricity authority estimates that 1 million kWh of power produced from coal generates 975 tonnes of carbon dioxide, while the same amount of power generated from gas produces 475 tonnes. A plant fired by lignite, known as brown coal, emits 1,280 tonnes to produce equivalent power.

RENEWABLES PUSH

Increased fossil fuel burning for power in the world's fifth largest economy drove up CO2 emissions during the year by nearly a sixth, to 1.15 billion tonnes, Reuters calculations based on government data and emissions estimates show.

That is 3.4% of the International Energy Agency's estimate of annual global emissions of 33.8 billion tonnes in 2022.

Many major countries boosted coal use in the twelve months due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine, but the rise was steepest in India, data from energy think-tank Ember shows.

The government has defended India's high coal use citing lower per capita emissions compared with richer nations and rising renewable energy output.

After missing a target to install 175 GW in renewable energy capacity by 2022, India is trying to boost non-fossil capacity - solar and wind energy, nuclear and hydro power, and bio-power - to 500 GW by 2030.

During the fiscal year that recently ended, India's solar capacity additions increased by 20%, leading to a record increase of 33.3 billion units or 21.7% in renewable energy output to 187.1 billion units, as per data analysis.

The significant rise in green energy output prevented 32.5 million tonnes of CO2 emissions that would have otherwise resulted from coal-fired power generation.

The data also revealed that the share of renewables in power generation, excluding large hydro and nuclear power, increased from 10.8% to 11.8% in 2022/23, primarily due to a 35% rise in solar output.

Riaz Haq said...

Saudi Arabia signs $240m loan agreement to support Mohmand Dam

https://www.dawn.com/news/1746406/saudi-arabia-signs-240m-loan-agreement-to-support-mohmand-dam

The statement noted that the project is expected to enhance water and food security, and improve the standard of living for people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where almost 80 per cent of the population resides in rural areas, boosting the region’s socioeconomic development by creating employment opportunities and reducing poverty levels.

It added that by using renewable energy sources, the project will generate 800 MW of electricity production capacity, contributing to Pakistan’s energy security. In addition, the storage of 1.6 million cubic meters of water will support sustainable agricultural practices, enable irrigation of 6,773 hectares of new land, and increase the total cropping area from 1,517 hectares to 9,227 hectares in the province, facilitating agricultural activities.

Co-financed by the SFD, OPEC, Islamic Development Bank, and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, the project aligns with SDG-2 (Food Security), SDG-6 (Clean Water), and SDG-7 (Clean Energy) and embodies SDG-17 (Partnerships for the Goals).

During the agreement signing ceremony, the CEO of SFD said this initiative is an extension of the fund’s continued support for development projects and programmes in Pakistan since its inception. He also highlighted the significance of joint cooperation between development funds, as evidenced by this project.

For his part, Dr Niaz expressed his sincere appreciation and gratitude to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its unwavering support towards the development sector in Pakistan through the SFD.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Hydro #power: 1530MW #Tarbela 5th Extension Project to start power generation in 2025. It's financed by World Bank ($390 million) and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank ($300 million). #RenewableEnergy #electricity https://www.nation.com.pk/20-May-2023/1530mw-tarbela-5th-extension-project-to-start-power-generation-in-2025 via @the_nation

Tarbela 5th Extension Hydropower Project, having a cumulative generation capacity of 1530MW, will start power generation in 2025.

While briefing Chairman WAPDA Engr Lt Gen (r) Sajjad Ghani during his visit to Tarbela 5th Extension Hydropower Project, it was informed that electricity generation from the project would start in 2025. Masood Ahmed from World Bank also accompanied the chairman. GM Tarbela Dam Zakir Ateeq, PD Tarbela 5th Extension Hydropower Project and representatives of the consultants and the contractor, made detailed presentation on progress of the project. It was briefed that construction activities are underway on five sites. Recovery plan to match the completion schedule of the project was also discussed in detail during the briefing.

Earlier, the chairman witnessed construction work on various sites including intake, penstock and outlet, power house, tailrace culvert and switch yard. Member (Power) WAPDA Jamil Akhtar, GM (Power) Tarbela Nasrum Minallah, GM (HRD) Brig Hamid Raza (Retd) and GM (Security) Brig Muhammad Tufail (Retd) were also present on the occasion.

During his interaction with the project management, the chairman said that green, clean and affordable hydel electricity is all the more important to rationalise the tariff and stabilise the economy. This necessitates timely completion of hydropower projects, he added. The Chairman urged the project management to gear up their efforts and complete Tarbela 5th Extension Hydropower Project in accordance with the schedule.

WAPDA is constructing Tarbela 5th Extension Hydropower Project on Tunnel No. 5 of Tarbela Dam. World Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) are providing financial assistance for the project to the tune of $390 million and $300 million respectively. Cumulative generation capacity of the project stands at 1530MW with three generating units of 510MW each. The project will provide 1.347 billion units of environment friendly and low-cost hydel electricity to the national grid on the average every year. With completion of Tarbela 5th Extension Project, installed capacity at Tarbela Dam will increase from 4888 MW to 6418 MW. Chairman WAPDA also visited intake structure of Tarbela 4th Extension Hydel Power Station and discussed operation and maintenance (O&M) activities of the power station. Commissioned in 2018 with funding of the World Bank, the 1410 MW-Tarbela 4th Extension Hydel Power Station has so far provided 18.67 billion units of electricity to the national grid.

Riaz Haq said...

CPEC Suki Kinari project nears completion | The Manila Times

https://www.manilatimes.net/2023/06/12/business/foreign-business/cpec-suki-kinari-project-nears-completion/1895652

The Suki Kinari Hydropower project in northwest Pakistan achieved the hoisting of a core component on Saturday, as a 413-ton rotor, crucial to turning water into electricity, was smoothly installed on the last of four generating units.

The successful hoisting of the last rotor will help advance the construction progress of the power station under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), located in the Mansehra district of the South Asian country's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

Noting the hoisting of the last rotor as a key milestone of the 884-megawatt hydropower project, Yu Zhiliang, assistant general manager of the Suki Kinari Hydropower project of the Overseas Investment Co. of China Gezhouba Group, which invests in and implements the project, said that it marks the installation of the unit body of the hydropower station is coming to an end.

It is also a solid step for the waterless commissioning of four generating units in the coming six months, said Yu.

The hydropower project started construction in January 2017. Once getting functional, the CPEC project will annually generate some 3.21 billion kilowatt-hours of clean electricity, replacing 1.28 million tons of coal and reducing 2.52 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year, said Yu.



It will significantly optimize Pakistan's energy structure, boosting the country's economic and social development, he added.

Launched in 2013, the CPEC is a corridor linking Pakistan's Gwadar port with Kashgar in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, highlighting energy, transport and industrial cooperation.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan will add up to 10 GW of new hydropower capacity by 2030 | Enerdata

https://www.enerdata.net/publications/daily-energy-news/pakistan-will-add-10-gw-new-hydropower-capacity-2030.html

In July 2022, Pakistan commissioned the 720 MW Karot hydropower plant, one of five projects on the Jhelum River (northern Pakistan), alongside the Azad Pattan plant (700 MW), the Mangla Dam (1.1 GW), the Neelum-Jehlum plant (969 MW) and the Kohala plant (1.1 GW).

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700MW Azad Pattan hydropower project ready for construction: Energy China - Profit by Pakistan Today

https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2023/06/14/700mw-azad-pattan-hydropower-project-ready-for-construction-energy-china/

Wang Huihua, Managing Director of China Energy Int’l Group’s Pakistan Branch, announced that the 700-megawatt Azad Pattan hydropower project, run by Energy China, is ready for construction after the completion of a feasibility study and land acquisition.

Wang made these remarks at the ‘Pakistan Energy Sector Landscape: Challenges & Opportunities’ conference held at NUST University, Islamabad.

He explained that the project would provide cheap, clean energy to Pakistan. “We have been developing this project for six years. We hope the government will give it more priority in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) initiative to expedite financial closure,” he said.

He further stated that Energy China believed that investing in renewable energy in Pakistan was financially viable. “We are committed to setting up our long-term operation in Pakistan and investing more,” he said.

He highlighted that China Energy Engineering Corp. (Energy China) has been present in Pakistan for the past 20 years. “Energy China considers Pakistan as its favored investment destination,” he added.

Wang also pointed out some of the challenges faced by foreign investors in Pakistan, underscoring the importance of resolving them quickly to foster win-win cooperation.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan and #China sign $4.8 billion 1200 MW #nuclear #power plant deal. Work on Chashma 5 project would begin immediately. China's support will help Pakistan make the transition away from reliance on #FossilFuels . #nuclearenergy #electricity
https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/pakistan-china-sign-48-bln-nuclear-power-plant-deal-2023-06-20/

Pakistan and China signed a $4.8 billion deal on Tuesday to build a 1,200-megawatt nuclear power plant, Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif said, hailing the investment by a country that Pakistan views as its most dependable ally.

Work on the Chashma 5 project would begin immediately, Sharif said on state-run news channel PTV following the signing of the memorandum of understanding (MOU) between China National Nuclear Cooperation and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

"Investment from China in this project to the tune of $4.8 billion sends a message loud and clear that Pakistan is a place where Chinese companies and investors continue to show their trust and faith," Sharif said.

The Chashma 5 project will be built in the central province of Punjab. China's support will help Pakistan make the transition away from reliance on fossil fuels.

Pakistan's total nuclear energy production capacity rose to 1,400 mw, when the country's sixth nuclear power plant opened two years ago. Located in the southern port city of Karachi, that 1,100 mw plant was also constructed with Chinese assistance.

Sharif, whose government is desperately struggling to stave off a balance of payments crisis, thanked the Chinese partners for offering a $100-million discount for the latest project.

It is unclear whether the new investment is part of the $65 billion that China has pledged in infrastructure building for Pakistan under its Belt and Road Initiative.

The new project was originally planned to start a couple of years ago, and Sharif expressed thanks to the Chinese side for not rescheduling costs despite the long delay. Instead, he said, the Chinese had disbursed an initial 30 billion Pakistani rupees ($104.53 million) to start the project.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Expanding Nuclear Plant With New Hualong One Reactor

https://www.powermag.com/pakistan-expanding-nuclear-plant-with-new-hualong-one-reactor/


By Darrell Proctor is a senior associate editor for POWER (@POWERmagazine).

China continues to be a world leader in exporting its nuclear power technology. Chinese officials in Pakistan on June 20 signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) for a $4.8 billion deal with Pakistan’s nuclear energy agency for construction of a new 1,200-MW reactor at the Chashma power complex.

The new unit will be China’s Hualong One, or HPR1000, pressurized water reactor technology.

Pakistan Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif on Tuesday said the country considers China its “most dependable ally.” Sharif, whose country is in the midst of an economic crisis and looking for outside investment in its energy sector, said construction of the Chashma 5 project, located in Punjab province, would begin immediately.

The Chashma complex has four CNP-300 reactors currently in operation, each with 325 MW of generation capacity. The units were developed by China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC). The first unit came online in 1991; the other units entered commercial operation in 2011, 2016, and 2017, respectively.

Chashma 5 will be built by CNNC subsidiary CNNC China Zhongyuan Engineering Corp., the company said.

Chinese officials recently announced that an HPR1000 has also been proposed for construction at the Bradwell site in the UK. Britain’s Office for Nuclear Regulation and the Environment Agency said they have started a second, technical, phase of the assessment program for the HPR1000.

Chinese Investment
Sharif, speaking Tuesday on Pakistan’s state-run news channel PTV after the signing of the MOU between the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and Chinese officials, said, “Investment from China in this project to the tune of $4.8 billion sends a message loud and clear that Pakistan is a place where Chinese companies and investors continue to show their trust and faith.”

The prime minister originally brokered the project during his time as chief minister of Punjab, an office he held three times, most recently from 2013 to 2018. He was elected as Pakistan’s prime minister in April 2022.

Sharif has supported nuclear power as a way to move Pakistan away from fossil fuels. Its most recent nuclear facility, the 2,200-MW Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, also known as KANUPP, in the southern port city of Karachi, commissioned its two reactors in 2021 and 2022, respectively. That facility, featuring two Hualong One Generation III pressurized water reactors, also was built with financial backing from China.

Sharif on Tuesday said the Chashma 5 project was originally planned to start in 2021. He said Chinese officials did not raise the cost of the project from original estimates despite the delay. Officials on Tuesday said China has to date disbursed 30 billion Pakistani rupees ($104.53 million) to start the project.

“We are deeply obliged to [China] President Xi Jinping, and the Chinese leadership for their generous help to Pakistan,” Sharif said. He also recognized Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Qatar for extending financial support to Pakistan’s government.

Pakistan for years has contended with power outages. Two of the worst incidents occurred in January 2021, and again in January of this year. In 2021, a fault at a power plant brought down the national grid, leading to calls for a massive overhaul of the country’s electricity transmission infrastructure.

A nationwide power outage on Jan. 30 of this year impacted all of Pakistan’s major cities and left millions of people without electricity.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Signs $4.8 Billion Nuclear Power Plant Deal With China

https://www.voanews.com/a/pakistan-signs-4-8-billion-nuclear-power-plant-deal-with-china/7144967.html


Pakistan and China signed a $4.8 billion deal Tuesday to build what would be the seventh Chinese nuclear power plant in the South Asian nation.

The 1,200-megawatt project will be installed in the central Pakistani city of Chashma, where Beijing already has built four nuclear power generation units with a collective output of nearly 1,230 megawatts.

Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif oversaw Tuesday's signing of the memorandum of understanding between China National Nuclear Cooperation and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

According to the agreement, the Chinese company will employ its HPR 1000 technology, known as HPR1000 or Hualong One, to construct the nuclear power unit. It will be the third facility in Pakistan to feature the HPR 1000, or pressurized water reactor technology.

"Investment from China in this project to the tune of $4.8 billion sends a loud and clear message that Pakistan is a place where Chinese companies and investors continue to show their trust and faith," Sharif said.

He thanked Beijing for offering a more than $100 million discount for what is named the Chashma 5 power plant. The work on the project was initially planned to start a couple of years ago, but Sharif said the Chinese partners had not rescheduled costs despite the long delay.

"This project is part of our energy security plan to diversify the energy mix with a focus on ensuring the provision of cheap electricity to the industry & relief to the common man,” the Pakistani prime minister wrote on Twitter after the ceremony.

Sharif's coalition government is struggling to deal with unprecedented economic challenges facing Pakistan, including a balance of payments crisis.

China has recently also constructed two nuclear power plants in the southern port city of Karachi, each with a 1,100-megawatt generation capacity.

Pakistani officials say the two Chinese-supplied third-generation Hualong One reactors, known as K2 and K3, cost roughly $10 billion. They are equipped with "advanced safety and foolproof security features" and have enhanced Pakistan's nuclear energy production to more than 3,500 megawatts.

"K2 and K3 are fully functional and supply 2,200 megawatts of electricity to the national grid. Similarly, nuclear power plants at Chashma are contributing more than 1,300 megawatts," a PAEC spokesman told VOA on Tuesday.

Canada helped Pakistan build its first nuclear power plant in 1972 in Karachi, producing about 80 megawatts of electricity. It is expected to be shut down soon after having served its purpose for about the full extent of the planned operation.

China maintains close defense and economic relations with staunch ally Pakistan. It has invested more than $20 billion in building road networks, power plants, and ports over the past decade under what is known as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, or CPEC.

Officials in both countries say the collaboration, an extension of Beijing's global Belt and Road infrastructure initiative, has created tens of thousands of jobs and ended Pakistan's crippling energy crisis.

Riaz Haq said...

Dasu Hydropower Project: Stage 1 of concrete Starter Dam completed


https://www.nation.com.pk/22-Jun-2023/dasu-hydropower-project-stage-1-of-concrete-starter-dam-completed

In a major development towards implementation of Dasu Hydropower Project, Stage 1 of the concrete Starter Dam has been completed upstream of Main Dam site.

As per the design, the Starter Dam for Dasu Hydropower Project is to be completed in two stages; Stage 1 up to elevation of 785 meters while Stage 2 up to elevation of 798 meters above mean sea level, said a spokesperson WAPDA here. The Stage 1 of the concrete Starter Dam was completed in June this year before the high flow season – a major landmark which the project team successfully achieved, the spokesperson said.

As the high flow season has started, River Indus is flowing through the two diversion tunnels completed earlier this year, while some of the river water is overtopping the concrete Starter Dam as designed.

After the high flow season in October this year, the construction of the Starter Dam’s Stage 2 will be carried out. The Stage 2 is scheduled for completion during the coming low flow season. The project is being constructed across the River Indus, upstream of Dasu Town in Upper Kohistan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The 4,320-MW-Dasu Hydropower Project is planned to be completed in two stages. At present, WAPDA is constructing its stage-I with installed generation capacity of 2,160-MW and annual energy generation of 12 billion units. Stage-I of the project is likely to start electricity generation in 2026. The 2,160-MW stage-II, when implemented, will also provide 9 billion units to the national grid. On completion of the both stages, Dasu will become the project with highest annual energy generation in Pakistan i.e. 21 billion units per annum on the average. The project will commence by end 2026. It is worth mentioning here that in February this year, Dasu Hydropower Project crossed a major milestone as the River Indus was successfully diverted following completion of a 1.33-kilometre long diversion tunnel.


Following the completion of one of the two diversion tunnels, the River Indus was successfully diverted to the completed tunnel. Instead of its natural course, the River Indus is now flowing through a 1.33-kilometer long diversion tunnel with 20-metre width and 23-metre height. Consequently, construction activities have been initiated on the starter dam, leading towards construction of the main dam of Dasu Hydropower Project.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s PM Shehbaz Sharif launches US$3.5 billion Chinese-designed nuclear energy project

https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/south-asia/article/3227776/pakistans-pm-sharif-launches-us35-billion-chinese-designed-nuclear-energy-project

The two countries had already signed an agreement to construct a state-of-the-art Hualong One reactor
China also gave US$5 billion loan to Pakistan to help it unlock a bailout from the IMF



Pakistan’s Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif on Friday launched the construction of a 1,200-megawatt Chinese-designed nuclear energy project, which will be built at a cost of US$3.5 billion as part of the government efforts to generate more clean energy in the Islamic nation.
The ceremony to mark the project’s start comes less than a month after Pakistan signed an agreement with China’s National Nuclear Corporation Overseas in the capital, Islamabad, to construct a Hualong One reactor – a third-generation nuclear reactor and is considered safer because of the latest security features.
Pakistan and China are long-time allies. Pakistan’s relations with Beijing are so close that its leadership calls China their “Iron Brother.” China is also building roads, bridges, power plants, and railways to link its far west with the Chinese-built port of Gwadar on the Indian Ocean.

Riaz Haq said...

China Begins Construction of Pakistan's Largest Nuclear Power Plant

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-begins-construction-of-pakistan-s-largest-nuclear-power-plant-/7181016.html


Pakistan held a groundbreaking ceremony Friday for what will be its largest civil nuclear power plant — constructed by China — that will contribute 1,200 megawatts of electricity daily to the national grid and is estimated to cost at least $3.5 billion.

Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif and senior Chinese officials attended the televised event in the central city of Chashma, dubbed the birthplace of China-Pakistan nuclear energy cooperation.

Over the past 30 years, Beijing has installed four nuclear power generation units in Chashma, collectively generating about 1,300 megawatts, with China providing enriched uranium for fuel.

"This mutual cooperation to promote clean, efficient, and comparatively cheaper energy is a gift of friendship between the two countries and a model for other countries to emulate," Sharif said at the ceremony.

The plant, known as Chashma-5, or C-5, will feature what China says is its domestically developed third-generation pressurized water nuclear technology, the Hualong One or HPR1000, with "advanced safety and foolproof security features."

Raja Ali Raza, the head of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, said the nuclear plant project will be completed by 2030.

"C-5 will be Pakistan's largest generation-III plus nuclear power project," Raza said. "This project has brought PAEC one step closer to its envisaged goal of production of 8,800 megawatts electric cheap and clean energy."

Beijing has previously supplied the HPR1000 technology for two nuclear power stations, each with a 1,100-megawatt generation capacity, built and operationalized in the last couple of years in the southern port city of Karachi, enhancing Pakistan's nuclear energy production to more than 3,500 megawatts a day.

Analysts see China's accelerated civil nuclear cooperation with Pakistan as part of efforts to globally find more lucrative buyers for its HPR1000 reactors developed by state-owned China National Nuclear Corporation or CNNC, the country's second-largest nuclear power producer company.


"HPR1000 is a homegrown nuclear technology of CNNC and a flagship of China's advanced equipment manufacturing," Yu Jianfeng, the CNNC chairman, told the ceremony. He noted that more than 17 units of HPR1000 are currently under construction in China.

"Today's groundbreaking for the C-5 project is a significant milestone for HPR1000's global journey and a new start for the China-Pakistan nuclear energy cooperation," Yu stated. "Our cooperation in nuclear energy has become an integral part of the China-Pakistan all-weather strategic cooperative partnership and a shining example of international nuclear energy cooperation."

Under its global Belt and Road Initiative, Beijing also has built and put into commercial operation 14 mostly coal-fired power plants in Pakistan in the last 10 years, with a total installed capacity of 8,000 megawatts daily.

The projects are part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, or CPEC, which has also built road networks, highways, ports, and industrial zones with direct Chinese investment and "soft loans," expected to increase to about $62 billion by 2030 when the mega undertaking is due to be complete.

Critics blame CPEC for contributing to Pakistan's deepening economic troubles and depleting foreign exchange reserves, making it difficult for the country to catch up with its foreign debt repayments.

Pakistan owes more than $1.3 billion (350 billion rupees) to Chinese power plants. The amount keeps growing, and China has refused to defer or restructure the payment and CPEC debt repayments.