Thursday, May 18, 2017

Pakistan to Build Massive Dams for Abundant Water and Power

China and Pakistan have agreed to finance and build two mega dams in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) for this development was signed by the leaders of the two countries on the sidelines of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) summit in Beijing.

Actual vs Potential Hydropower in South Asia. Source: Economist Magazine


The two dams, called Bunji and Diamer-Bhasha projects, will have the capacity to generate 7,100MW and 4,500MW of electricity respectively. China will provide $27 billion to fund the construction of the two dams, according to media reports.

Pakistan's Hydropower Potential: 

Pakistan has the potential to generate 59,000MW of hydropower, according to studies conducted by the nation's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Currently, it's generating only 6,600MW of hydroelectric power, about 11% of the estimated potential. Media reports indicate that China is prepared to finance and build another 40,000MW capacity as part of the development of the Northern Indus Cascade region which begins in Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan and runs through to Tarbela, the site of Pakistan’s biggest dam, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.

Diamer-Bhasha Water Storage:

Diamer-Bhasha project is located on Indus River, about 200 miles upstream from the existing Tarbela Dam, 100 miles downstream from the Northern Area capital Gilgit in Gilgit-Baltistan region.  It will generate 4,500 MW of electricity and its reservoir will hold so much water that it could have averted recent devastating floods that affected large parts of Pakistan. It would also provide enough electricity to end  Pakistan's crippling shortages, according to a report in the Guardian newspaper.  The Diamer-Bhasha reservoir would be 50 miles long, holding 8.5 MAF (million acre feet) of water.

Response to Climate Change:

Pakistan has made only a small contribution to climate change through carbon emissions.  And yet, it counts among the dozen or so nations considered most vulnerable to its damaging effects. These include rising temperatures, recurring cycles of floods and droughts and resulting disruption in food production.

One of the ways Pakistan can help reduce carbon emissions is by realizing its full hydroelectric potential by building more dams. The development of the Northern Indus Cascade region to generate 40,000MW of hydropower is a significant part of this effort.

Prerequisite for Economic Development: 

Availability of abundant and cheap electricity has historically preceded rapid economic development in America, Europe and East Asia. Pakistan has an opportunity to meet this prerequisite by generating large amounts of clean renewable hydropower to meet its hunger for energy required for rapid economic growth in all sectors of the economy ranging from agriculture to manufacturing and services.

Summary:

Pakistan is endowed with significant amount of water and power resources that can be harnessed to enable rapid economic growth in all sectors of its economy. It appears that the Chinese investment, as part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, is now putting this goal within reach. Tens of thousands of megawatts of added electricity and millions of acre feet of additional water will hopefully transform Pakistan's economy and bring prosperity to its people.

Here's a video on the subject:

https://youtu.be/y-VkLn2J6fM



Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Recurring Cycles of Drought and Floods in Pakistan

Pakistan's Response to Climate Change

Renewable Energy for Pakistan

LNG Imports in Pakistan

Growing Water Scarcity in Pakistan

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

Ownership of Appliances and Vehicles in Pakistan


23 comments:

Shams S. said...

Your comment re. Diamler Bhasha, "... its reservoir will hold so much water that it could have averted recent devastating floods that affected large parts of Pakistan ..." carries the old fakeness being pushed to Sindhis for Kalabagh dam.

The main reason for flooding in plains of Sindh and Punjab are the heavy rains in their plains, not in the mountains upstream of the dam sites. The Indus river bed is so vast that it can carry 24 inches of rain per hour if the rains are in the mountains alone. If there are rains both in the mountains and the plains, the dams are already full and will not even block the upstream water. Therefore, the dam will have no significant effect on flooding prevention. So the flooding prevention fakeness is bullshit. You should have known that.

Spending over $7 billion on construction alone for a dam like Diamer Bhasha is stupid too. According to US NREL cost report by Black & Veath, a 7,000 MW fossil fuel combined cycle plant costs nearly $5 billion. So this bullshit about capital cost saving is fake too.

According to US EIA, the ratio of typical hydro-electricity O&M incl. fuel cost against gas turbine electricity is 8.37 to 2.34, in gas turbine's favor. The issue with large dams' power is the maintenance of the fucking dam from cracking, silting, and the hydraulic turbines' massive blade damage and repair costs coming out of high speed silt and rocks gushing in with water. A single blade of a turbine can cost nearly $5 million to repair (remove, transport to Europe or US, repair, re-transport, and reinstall). So operating cost saving is a fucking bullshit too

Riaz Haq said...

Shams: "Spending over $7 billion on construction alone for a dam like Diamer Bhasha is stupid too. According to US NREL cost report by Black & Veath, a 7,000 MW fossil fuel combined cycle plant costs nearly $5 billion. So this bullshit about capital cost saving is fake too. "

Here's an interesting analysis of thermal vs hydro power done by an Indian:

http://openaccesslibrary.org/images/HAR224_Adesh_Sharma.pdf

Hydro Power Vs Thermal Power: A Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis Adesh Sharma, AIPL (Power Sector), India Abstract: This study seeks to trace the importance of Hydroelectric Power (HEP) vis-à-vis coal based Thermal power (TP), and establish a case for HEP plant by way of a comparative costbenefit analysis which proves that HEP is in fact cheaper than TP for a mega power plant (1000 MW) even if other factors like social and environmental benefits are not considered. While the analysis is neutral between various technologies for harnessing TP and HEP, it assumes real-time plant load factors (PLFs) of 85% and 45% for TP and HEP plants, respectively. Furthermore, it also tries to provide a brief analysis on the comparative CER earning potential from both HEP and TP (by employing supercritical technology)

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Need and Importance of Hydroelectric Power
The need and importance of HEP can be attributed to the following advantages:
• It is a renewable source of energy, and non-polluting in nature.
• Fuel cost of HEP plant is inflation-free and reduces with time, thereby bringing down the
overall per unit cost.
• HEP plants have a long useful life, extending to 50-100 years, as compared to the 25 year
life-span of a TP plant.

HEP plants can be started or stopped instantaneously, providing for load variation
management, and improved reliability of the power system.
• HEP is considered as the best choice for serving peak load.
• It helps in conservation of scarcely available fossil fuels.
• Storage type HEP plants can be used for multiple purposes like flood control, irrigation,
provision of drinking and industrial water etc.
• HEP plants are usually set in remote/backward areas, thereby leading to their economic
development.
Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Power Plants
In spite of the factors mentioned above, developing HEP does carry certain disadvantages:
• A variety of geological changes occur due to the construction of a dam on the river,
especially in the downstream area.
• Various plant and animal ecosystems gets adversely affected due to their submergence in
the water reservoir formed by the dam.
• The soil quality in downstream river declines.
• HEP plants are severely impacted by droughts. If water is not available, the plant would
not be able to produce electricity.
• Fish population gets affected if fish cannot migrate to the spawning grounds upstream
past impoundment dams, or if they cannot migrate downstream to the ocean.
However, such occurrences happen rarely and their impact is very low, as compared to the huge
benefits arising out of a HEP project development.

-------


Conclusion It can thus be concluded that the benefits scored by hydroelectric power plants over thermal power plants have environmental benefits - on account of HEP being a renewable and sustainable source of energy, financial benefits - due to low cost of generation, the developers will have an advantage especially since merchant power sales is allowed in open market, coupled with a reasonable return on equity of 16%, and social benefits – like development of local area, provision of electricity, along with other bundled benefits like irrigation facilities, tourism, along with rise in demand for other industries’ products like cement, iron and steel, transport, etc.. and assisting in the creation of a low carbon self sustainable economy.

Mayraj said...

Hope this won't end up the way Iran has ended up, which like Pakistan has over exploited surface water.:
"Dam building, once considered a sign of progress, dried up the nation's rivers and other waterways through poorly conceived projects."

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/05/iran-water-crisis.html

Iran's water crisis reaches critical levels



http://www.tehrantimes.com/news/301198/Water-crisis-in-Iran-A-desperate-call-for-action
Water crisis in Iran: A desperate call for action




https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/irans-water-crisis-the-product-of-decades-of-bad-planning/2014/07/01/c050d2d9-aeeb-4ea1-90cc-54cef6d8dd10_story.html?utm_term=.dc1db9adb14c
Iran’s water crisis the product of decades of bad planning

Riaz Haq said...

Mayraj: "Hope this won't end up the way Iran has ended up, which like Pakistan has over exploited surface water.:
"Dam building, once considered a sign of progress, dried up the nation's rivers and other waterways through poorly conceived projects."

My understanding is that Iran's problem is caused mainly by excessive surface evaporation from lakes built in hot desert areas of the country.

Suhail H. said...

The most efficient way of storing rain water in underground. This can be done in sandy permeable soil to raise ground water level by building recharge dams using undulations in natural terrain. Since the rate of rain is greater than the rate of infiltration into the soil, the surplus water primarily runs off to a lower point of elevation, eventually the sea. The recharge dams prevent the surface run-off water from going into points of lower elevation, infiltrating the soil and replenishing the ground water reserves. This is very effectively done in Oman while neighboring Yemen with similar terrain is facing the worst water scarcity. In Pakistan, this aspect has never been taken up, focusing only on dams, which result in high evaporation and extremely expensive too. The focus on dams is probably because the high investment attracts bankers as well as contractors, and thus the rulers. Pakistan has many such areas where underground water storage can be feasibly; Thar being one such area and probably Balochistan coast too where I've seen some such primitive type of embankments (built by villagers) in the Pasni area.

Only a leadership committed to developing the country can promote this mechanism; the likes of Nawaz and Zardari are only interested in big projects where they can siphon off money.

Shahid A. said...

پہلی بات تو یہ کہ بونجی ڈیم نہیں ہے بلکہ رن آف دا ریور ہاڈرو پراجیکٹ ہے ۔
ان دونوں میں صرف بھا شا ہی ڈیم ہے ۔
دوسری بات یہ کہ بونجی کا ایسٹیمیٹ ۷ ارب ڈالر اور بھاشا کا ۱۴ ارب ڈالر ہے۔
اس طرح ان دونوں پراجیکٹس پر ٹوٹل خرچ ۲۱ ارب ڈالر آئے گا نا کہ ۲۷ ارب۔
ویسے بھی بھاشا پر ہم تھوڑا بہت پہلے ہی خرچ کر چکے ہیں اس لئے ۲۰ ارب کی فنانسنگ کی ضرورت ہے۔

Riaz Haq said...

Over 92% work completed on 969MW Neelum-Jhelum project
https://dnd.com.pk/over-92-work-completed-on-969mw-neelum-jhelum-project/128944

Over 92 percent work has already been completed on the ongoing 969 megawatts Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower Project (NJHP) and its first unit will start supplying power to the national grid system in February 2018.

Official sources Tuesday told the state-run news agency in Islamabad that 2nd unit would start generating in March followed by third and fourth unit in April.

They said excavation of about 68-kilometer long tunnels system of the project has also been completed on May 5.

With this significant development, the water way system of the project would enter in the final phase which is scheduled to be completed in seven months and the tunnels would be ready to divert water from the dam site to Power House, they said.

They said impounding of the reservoir would commence during October this year.

The sources said 100 per cent work on excavation for instalment of turbines has also been completed.

Construction work on the project which started in 2008 remained slow due to certain reasons including financial constraints and redesigning of the project. However, most of the bottlenecks were removed during the present regime, they said.

They said work on the project is being carried out in full swing and upon completion, the NJHP would contribute 5.15 billion units of cheap electricity to the national grid.

The annual benefits accruing from the project have been estimated at Rs 45 billion.

The NJHP is located in the vicinity of Muzaffarabad. It envisages the diversion of Neelum River water through a tunnel out-falling into Jhelum River.

The intake Neelum-Jhelum is at Nauseri 41 km east of Muzaffarabad and has installed capacity of 969 megawatts.

This is an important project for generation of low-cost and the government is exploring all possible avenues to solve the energy crisis.

Around 4,243 kanals of land has been acquired for the project. Out of the total land, Azad Jammu & Kashmir authorities provided 719 kanals while the remaining 3,524 kanals are acquired from private land owners.

Riaz Haq said...

#Ramadan #power outages in #Pakistan pile pressure on PM #NawazSharif. #loadshedding #electricity https://www.ft.com/content/bee89ccc-4458-11e7-8519-9f94ee97d996 … via @FT


Nawaz Sharif has ordered power companies not to cut electricity supplies in the hours before or after the daily Ramadan fast, as outages in the first few days of the Muslim holy month threaten to embroil Pakistan’s prime minister in a political crisis.

As the fasting period began on Sunday, residents of Karachi, the country’s largest city, were unexpectedly plunged into darkness. The national distribution company blamed a line fault that caused two power stations to fail.

But the outage has highlighted the fragility of Pakistan’s electricity network — a problem that threatens to undermine the country’s economic recovery and which is set to become a significant political issue in the run-up to next year’s general election.

Recent power cuts have already prompted widespread protests, during which two people reportedly died.

“These power cuts in Ramadan will severely undermine the government’s reputation further,” said Hasan Askari Rizvi, a political commentator. “If the government fails to manage the electricity situation, the risks for Nawaz Sharif will mount.”




Pakistan has endured an energy shortfall for years, but this summer the gap between supply and demand at peak hours has reached six gigawatts — equivalent to the output of 12 medium-sized coal-fired power stations.

Ministers hope that $35bn of Chinese investment in the country’s power sector, part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, will help close the gap.

Unscheduled cuts during Ramadan have particularly angered residents. During the month, Muslims fast during daylight hours, putting extra importance on having power to cook just before dawn and just after dusk.

Usually the government keeps the lights on during religious festivals by paying independent companies to restart expensive mothballed power plants. But it has not done so this year because Ramadan has fallen close to the end of the financial year and the government does not want to exacerbate the fiscal deficit just before it reports its final figures, according to analysts.

The power crisis threatens to undermine Pakistan’s improving economic growth, which has been boosted by a few years of relative political stability. Figures released last week alongside the budget show annual output growth for the year to the end of June are projected to exceed 5 per cent for the first time in a decade.

The other factor that might threaten economic stability is Pakistan’s increasing current account deficit, which is depleting its stock of foreign currency, analysts warn.

Last week’s data show that alongside faster growth, the current account deficit is projected to more than treble from $2.5bn in the last fiscal year to $8.3bn this yearas Pakistan begins to pay Chinese companies for work carried out as part of the CPEC project.

Abid Hasan, a former World Bank economist who has worked in Pakistan, said: “The higher current account deficit will eventually turn into a crisis. This situation has to be managed before it gets out of control.”

But the solutions — whether allowing the rupee to devalue to boost exports or making people pay their electricity bills — are politically unpalatable just a year away from a general election, say officials and analysts. “Reforming Pakistan is tough business,” said one western diplomat.

Riaz Haq said...

THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE > PAKISTAN > GILGIT BALTISTAN
Pakistan eyes 2018 start for China-funded Diamer-Bhasha dam

By Reuters Published: June 13, 2017

https://tribune.com.pk/story/1434703/pakistan-eyes-2018-start-china-funded-diamer-bhasha-dam/

Pakistan expects China to fund a long-delayed Indus river mega dam project in Gilgit-Baltistan with work beginning next year, Federal Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal said in an interview with Reuters.

Pakistan has been keen for years to build a cascade of mega dams along the Indus flowing down from the Himalayas, but has struggled to raise money from international institutions amid opposition from its nuclear-armed neighbour India.

Those ambitions have been revived by China’s Belt and Road infrastructure plans for Pakistan, a key cog in Beijing’s creation of a modern-day Silk Road network of trade routes connecting Asia with Europe and Africa.

The $12-$14 billion Diamer-Bhasha dam should generate 4,500MW of electricity, and a vast new reservoir would regulate the flow of water to farmland that is vulnerable to increasingly erratic weather patterns.

Iqbal, the Islamabad lead on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), said a Chinese company from a Beijing-picked shortlist and a local partner would build the dam over a 10-year period, and work should begin in the next financial year, which begins in July.

“This water reservoir is most critical for food security in Pakistan, so is a very high priority project for Pakistan,” Iqbal told Reuters in an interview late on Monday at his ministerial home in Islamabad.

China and Pakistan signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in December for Beijing to help fund and develop Pakistan’s Indus Basin dams, though no timelines have been released. Pakistan estimates there is 40,000MW of hydro potential.

The Diamer-Bhasha dam and reservoir would displace more than 4,200 families in nearby areas and submerge a large section of the Karakoram Highway to China, Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority estimates.

The federal minister also said Pakistani and Chinese engineers were also surveying other projects, including the 7,100MW Bunji hydro power project that would be the first in the cascade that stretches down to the Tarbela Dam near Islamabad.

India’s foreign ministry and ministry for water resources did not respond to requests for comment.

Riaz Haq said...

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Project

http://dailytimes.com.pk/features/18-Mar-17/neelumjhelum-hydropower-project

The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power project, with a cost of 404.32 billion rupees (US$ 4.03 billion). The project (under construction since 2008) is designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in Azad Kashmir, 22 km south of Muzaffarabad and will have an installed capacity of 968 Mega-Watts. Construction on the project began in 2008, a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. The first generator is scheduled to be commissioned in July 2017 and the entire project is expected to be completed and start its operations in December 2017.

Design and operations;

The Neelum–Jhelum Dam is a 47 m (154 ft) high and 125 m (410 ft) long gravity dam.
It will withhold a pondage (reservoir) with 8,000,000 m3 (6,486 acre·ft) capacity of which 2,800,000 m3 (2,270 acre·ft) is peak storage. The dam has the capacity to divert up to 280 m3/s (9,888 cu ft/s) of the Neelum River, into a 28.5 km long head-race tunnel, the first 15.1 km of the head-race is two tunnels which later meet into one.
The tunnel passes 380 m (1,247 ft) below the Jhelum River and through its bend. At the terminus of the tunnel, the water reaches the surge chamber which contains a 341 m (1,119 ft) tall surge shaft (to prevent water hammer) and 820 m (2,690 ft) long surge tunnel.
From the surge chamber, the water is split into four different penstocks which feed each of the four 242 MW Francis turbine-generators in the underground power house.
After being used to generate electricity, the water is discharged back into the Jhelum River through a 3.5 km long tail-race tunnel. The drop in elevation between the dam and power station afford an average hydraulic head of 420 m (1,378 ft).

Decision by ICA;

Hague’s Permanent Court of Arbitration;

In 2010, Pakistan appealed to the Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration, complaining that the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant violates the “Indus River Treaty” by increasing the catchment of the Jhelum River and depriving Pakistan of its water rights. In June 2011, the CoA visited both the Kishanganga and Neelum–Jhelum Projects. In August 2011, they ordered India to submit more technical data on the project. India had previously reduced the height of the dam from 98 m (322 ft) to 37 m (121 ft).

The court asked India in September 2011 to stop constructing any permanent works that would inhibit restoration of the river. With the ruling of International Court of Arbitration, India was not allowed to construct the dam (Reservoir), so, they continued work on the tunnel and power plant. In February 2013 the Hague ruled that India could divert a minimum of water for the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant. The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant is an $864 million dam which is part of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. It is located 5 km (3 mi) north of Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir, and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW. Construction on the project began in 2007 and is expected to get complete in 2018.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s energy sector improvement includes rehab for 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project

http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2017/07/pakistan-s-energy-sector-improvement-includes-rehab-for-1-000-mw-mangla-hydropower-project.html

Pakistan and French Agency for Development (AFD) on July 20 signed €165 million (US$192 million) in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.
The agreements also include financing for the power transmission enhancement investment program, Tranche 4, which covers investment to improve electricity distribution efficiency.

The agreements were signed in Islamabad, Pakistan, by Secretary, Economic Affairs Division, Shahid Mahmood; Ambassador of France, Martine Dorance; and Country Director French AFD, Jacky Amprou.

The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.
In January, HydroWorld.com reported Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority announced it was moving forward with modernization of the Mangla project to increase the facility’s generating output by 310 MW at an estimated cost of $769 million.
Pakistan said this latest round of financing for the specified projects is a continuation of implementing the country’s National Power Policy 2013.

Pakistan’s National Power Policy 2013 is designed solidify the country’s energy security by increasing electricity generation to 26.8 GW, reduce average electricity rates by more than 30%, achieve zero load shedding, encourage huge public and private investment and import electricity from India, Iran and Central Asian states, according to the government.

In June, AFD co-financed about $100 million of a $400 million program as part of Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) support of Pakistan’s efforts to provide a more reliable and secure energy sector.

According to ADB, its $300 million in assistance to Pakistan is the third such loan under the Sustainable Energy Sector Reform program, bringing ADB’s total financing to $1 billion since 2014.

Last month, the first generating unit at Pakistan's 147-MW Patrind hydroelectric plant began generating power and was connected to the national grid, according to a statement from National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC). NTDC operates transmission lines for Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.

Patrind is located on the Kunhar River and is being developed by a consortium called Star Hydro Power Ltd, which includes the Korea Water Resources Corp. and the Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co.

In May, China and Pakistan signed a $50 billion memorandum of understanding to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan signs deal to construct US$698.3 million Sharmai #hydropower project - HydroWorld #energy #KPK #China

http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2017/07/pakistan-signs-deal-to-construct-us-698-3-million-sharmai-hydropower-project.html

Pakistan is moving forward with hydropower development in its northwestern-most province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), located in the district of Dir near Afghanistan’s eastern border, according the government of KP.
KP made the announcement on July 23 after Pakistan Chief Minister Pervez Khattak signed an agreement between Pakhtunkhwa Energy Development Organization (PEDO) and a consortium of Sinohydro and Lahore-based Sapphire Electric Co. for construction of the 150-MW Sharmai hydropower project.
PEDO Chief Executive Officer, Akbar Ayub, said the project is expected to be completed in five years at an estimated cost of US$698.3 million. But, he did not provide any information on the project’s start date.
Information from KP indicates the Sharmai hydro project will include a dam and reservoir, and the powerhouse will be located near Darora village and on the confluence of Usherai Khwar Stream and Panjkora River.
Additional technical information for the project includes the following:
Net head – 196.6 m;
Annual energy generation – 682 GWh;
Reservoir capacity – 32.2 million cubic meters;
Length of power tunnel – 7.8 km; and
Catchment area – 1,950 km2.
The Sharmai hydro project continues the country’s recent trend towards massive planned infrastructure improvements.
Pakistan and French Agency for Development on July 20 signed US$192 million in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.
The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.
Earlier this year, China and Pakistan signed a US$50 billion memorandum of understanding on May 13 to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.
In 2016, HydroWorld.com reported KP's hydroelectric power development fund approved the 84-MW Matiltan, 69-MW Daral Khwar, 69-MW Lawi, 40.8-MW Koto and 10.2-MW Jabori plants – all of which are currently in development. In addition, feasibility studies are being conducted for the 446-MW Kari Mushkar, 410-MW Tor Camp Godobar and 110-MW Gabral Kalam.
Ayub also said seven additional hydropower projects with a total combined installed capacity of 668 MW would be initiated through private sector that would bring $2 billion investment in the province, according to government information.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan's $100B deal with China: What does it amount to?
By Nadia Naviwala

https://www.devex.com/news/pakistan-s-100b-deal-with-china-what-does-it-amount-to-90872

Early last year, the Pakistani government sent USAID officials in Islamabad a mystifying letter via snail mail: please stop doing feasibility studies for Diamer Basha Dam

------------
When USAID got the letter in 2016, they suspected that Pakistan had found funding with the Chinese. They were right.

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In May 2017 Pakistan and China signed a $50 billion agreement that included full funding for Diamer Basha and four other dams.

Although enormous, the new agreement hardly merited coverage in Pakistan. China already captured headlines and public imagination in 2013 when the two countries signed memorandums of understanding worth $46 billion to build the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. CPEC has since quietly grown to a $62 billion investment.

The latest $50 billion in memorandums now brings Chinese loans and investments in Pakistan to well over $100 billion. A senior member of the CPEC team at Pakistan’s Ministry for Planning, Development, and Reform predicts that figure will ultimately grow to $150 billion. If the dams face cost overruns — which are 96 percent on average — then that will be a conservative estimate.

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roads and rail are actually a small part of Chinese money in Pakistan — less than $11 billion of the original $46 billion agreement. It’s small because, contrary to popular perceptions, much of the CPEC route is actually financed by Pakistan.

“Much of the roads being built are being built by our money,” says Miftah Ismail, who was Pakistan’s minister for investment until late last month, when the cabinet was dissolved because the Supreme Court voted to remove the prime minister on grounds of corruption.

What Ismail estimates Pakistan will take on in Chinese projects this year — $4 billion in loans and investments — equals what the Pakistani federal and provincial governments have allocated for roads and highways in their own annual budgets.

China is also financing the expansion and improvement of Pakistan’s neglected railway system, doubling its speed from 60 to 120 kilometers per hour.

CPEC roads will connect landlocked Xinjiang province in western China through a new port city that it is building on Pakistan’s coast, Gwadar. China needs these roads to transport goods out, but it is hard to think of what will go in the other direction. China’s exports to Pakistan account for two-thirds of Pakistan’s trade deficit.

Riaz Haq said...

#China racing ahead on 720MW Karot #hydropower plant project in #Pakistan. #CPEC http://sc.mp/oFjuJA via @SCMP_News

Construction of the 720MW Karot power station on the Jhelum river began in December and looked set to finish nine months ahead of its December 2021 completion date, a first for a Pakistan hydro-project, said Qin Guobin, chief executive officer of the state-owned China Three Gorges South Asia Investment Ltd.
The company has put in place an aggressive strategy to cut the project’s financing costs.
“For us, Pakistan is a strategic market,” Qin said at the site. “If we managed to complete it earlier we can save financing costs and make it more competitive.”
Pakistan’s energy demand is expected to grow by 6 per cent to 35,000MW by 2024 as its population of more than 200 million people grows along with the economy. For more than a decade, it has been struggling to overcome daily power shortages that have left industry and residents in the dark.
China has stepped in to meet some of those shortages, financing projects worth more than US$50 billion in an economic corridor that runs through Pakistan. The route is part of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s “Belt and Road Initiative” to connect Asia with Europe and Africa with a web of ports, railways and motorways links for trade.
Three Gorges’ focus in Pakistan is clean energy and it has a US$6 billion portfolio in three hydro and three solar power plants. The Karot project is in the Pakistan-administrated part of Kashmir, which India and Pakistan both claim and have fought two wars over since independence in 1947.

Raj said...

Pakistan Constructing 6 Dams In PoK With China's Assistance: Government
"India has a clear and consistent position that these territories are illegally occupied by Pakistan and that any collaborative activity there is in violation of India's sovereignty and territorial integrity," V K Singh said.

http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/pakistan-constructing-6-dams-in-pok-with-chinas-assistance-government-1733223

Pakistan is constructing six dams on the Indus river in PoK with China's assistance and India has made demarches to both Islamabad and Beijing conveying that it is in violation of its sovereignty and territorial integrity, the Rajya Sabha was informed today.

According to the government's information, Pakistan is constructing six dams on the Indus river in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir with assistance committed to those projects by China, Minister of State for External Affairs V K Singh said in a written reply.

"India has a clear and consistent position that these territories are illegally occupied by Pakistan and that any collaborative activity there is in violation of India's sovereignty and territorial integrity," he said.

"Accordingly, we have made demarches to both Pakistan and China conveying the position. The government will continue to maintain this position," Mr Singh added.

http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/pakistan-constructing-6-dams-in-pok-with-chinas-assistance-government-1733223

Riaz Haq said...

World Bank report: Hydro important part of private infrastructure development in Pakistan

http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2017/10/world-bank-report-hydro-important-part-of-private-infrastructure-development-in-pakistan.html

A recent report on private investment in infrastructure development, released by the World Bank Group, offers some insights into hydro, including the fact that investments in two hydropower plants in Pakistan helped boost that country into the top five.
The January-June 2017 Private Participation in Infrastructure Half Year Update cites investments in hydropower in Pakistan worth US$1.9 billion and US$1.7 billion and says the country was a new entrant to the list of top five countries for private participation in infrastructure. Other countries in the top five are Indonesia, Jordan, Brazil and China.
In Pakistan, the US$1.9 billion investment is for the 870-MW Suki Kinari Hydropower Plant. Suki Kinara is on the Kunhar River in the Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is expected to be completed by 2021.
The US$1.7 billion investment is for the 720-MW Karot Hydropower Plant. The Karot project, on the Jhelum River east of Islamabad, is being developed under Pakistan’s Power Policy of 2002. The first units are expected to go on line in 2020.
A section of the report discusses the energy sector, which was “the most dominant sector for H1 [first half] 2017 investment, accounting for three-quarters of global investments.” The report indicates that, by capacity, hydro projects led the way with cumulative capacity of 1.9 GW.
Of all the private participation in the energy sector in the first half of 2017, 85% was in renewables, and 15% of that 83% was hydropower.


JANUARY – JUNE
2017
Private Participation
in Infrastructure (PPI)
HALF YEAR UPDATE

https://ppi.worldbank.org/~/media/GIAWB/PPI/Documents/Global-Notes/PPI2017_HalfYear_Update.pdf

Indonesia was the destination for the highest amount of PPI investment, while Pakistan and
Jordan were new entrants to the top five countries, joining Indonesia, Brazil, and China.
Indonesia, Pakistan, and Jordan are amongst the top five highest PPI-investment countries because
of a few multibillion-dollar power projects. Indonesia saw investments in US$ 4.2 billion and US$2.2
billion coal fired power plants, Jordan had a US$2.1 billion investment in an oil shale-fired power
plant, and Pakistan had investments in two hydropower plants worth US$1.9 billion and US$1.7 billion.

Riaz Haq said...

As rains grow erratic, Pakistan taps irrigation to protect Punjab crops

https://reliefweb.int/report/pakistan/rains-grow-erratic-pakistan-taps-irrigation-protect-punjab-crops

System aims to capture floodwater and monsoon runoff to boost food production in climate change-hit region

LAHORE, Pakistan, Nov 24 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Most of Tajammul Abbas's 17 acres of farmland produces nothing but fodder for his buffalo and three goats. His land, and that around him in Punjab province, depends on rain to grow crops and rainfall has become much more uncertain as climate change takes hold, leading to lost harvests.

But things are now looking more promising for him and for about 384,000 other people living in the Pind Dadan Khan-Khushab area, three hours drive from Lahore, Punjab's capital, after the government on Friday announced plans to build an irrigation system for the area.

The effort is expected to convert 68,000 hectares of minimally productive farmland to full production, using water from the Jhelum River.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Friday approved a $275 million loan for the project, which is supported by the Indus River System Authority (IRSA), a government agency that oversees water sharing between provinces.

"Having a sufficient and effective irrigation system is fundamental in the development of Pakistan's agriculture sector, a significant driver of the country's economy," said Ryutaro Takaku, a water specialist at the bank's Central and West Asia Department.

The project "will help increase agricultural production and improve food security in Pakistan", he noted in a press release.


----------------

Officials said the irrigation project will involve building a 117-kilometre canal to carry water diverted from the Jhelum River, 97 kilometres of secondary canals, and a range of other structures – some of which may require those now living on the land to relocate.

The system aims to catch floodwater and monsoon runoff at heavy rainfall times of the year and channel it into the irrigation network.

"There are about 128 structures that would need to be dismantled and land will have to be bought from people for the irrigation system. But there is no other option," said Muhammad Javed Iqbal Goraya, a water expert with South Asian Conservation Network, a non-governmental organization.

In an area with poor rainfall, "irrigation (is) essential for crop production. The irrigation network will help the farmers in the area to adapt to climate changes and have more crops," he said.

The area, if irrigated, could grow wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize, and other crops, said Goraya.

The project will introduce advanced technologies such as laser land leveling and high-efficiency irrigation, according to the ADB press release. About 6,000 farmers also will have the opportunity to learn climate-smart agriculture practices and more profitable farm management, the release said.

Goraya said that managing the new water resource and existing water with care will be key to ensuring the sustainability of agriculture in the area.

The project envisions 485 water user associations being formed to have a say in planning, designing and constructing the new irrigation system.

"Such associations and committees have been very helpful in some other areas of the country in managing watercourses and collecting water charges from users," Goraya said.

Li said...

Here is an official source directly from China government site (Chinese is original, English is from google translate so it may not be very accurate but I tried):
http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/gzdt/201705/t20170517_847635.html

logo1.png

努尔·白克力陪同巴基斯坦总理听取巴沙大坝项目汇报
Nur Bekri accompanying Pakistani PM on Project report on BaSha Dam
2017-05-17 来源:国家能源局

W020170517336779322820.jpg

5月13日,国家发展改革委副主任、国家能源局局长努尔·白克力陪同来华出席“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛的巴基斯坦总理谢里夫听取了中国能源企业和研究机构关于巴沙大坝项目的汇报,中巴双方与会人员就该项目进行了深入交流。会议期间,在谢里夫与努尔·白克力的共同见证下,国家能源局副局长李凡荣与巴基斯坦水电部常秘尤素福共同签署了《中国国家能源局与巴基斯坦水电部关于中巴经济走廊能源项目清单调整的协议》和《中国国家能源局和巴基斯坦水电部关于巴沙项目及巴基斯坦北部水电规划研究路线图的谅解备忘录》。

May 13, the Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Director of the National Energy Administration (NEA), Nur Bekri, accompanied Pakistan's Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, attended a briefing on Basha Dam Project presented Chinese energy firms and research institutes. Both sides exchanged in-depth talks on the project.

During the meeting, under the witness of Nawaz Sharif and Nur Bekri, the Deputy Director of the NEA, Li Fanrong, signed with Ministry of Water and Power, Yousuf Naseem Khokhar, on "Agreement between NEA and MWP on Adjustment of CPEC Energy Items" and "MOU between NEA and MWP on Basha Project and Northern Pakistan Hydropower Research & Planning"​

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan's total dam capacity of 28.81 cubic kilometer or 22.5 million acre feet (MAF). It has remained flat since 1980.

https://knoema.com/atlas/Pakistan/topics/Water/Dam-Capacity/Total-dam-capacity

Pakistan will double its water storage capacity to at least 28 million acre feet (MAF) of water from existing 14 MAF increasing the storage capacity from 10 to 20 percent of total water flows, reveals the draft document of National Water Policy (NWP) prepared during last 7 decades and tabled in Common Council of Interests (CCI) that met with Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi in the chair here on Tuesday.

Though the CCI attended by three chief ministers of Sindh, KP, Balochistan and Finance Minister of Punjab deliberated the draft of the National Water Policy in detail and decided that the said draft with more inputs from federating units be brought in next meeting for approval.

However, as per the copy of draft of the policy, in procession of this scribe, the authorities in Pakistan will also carve out the plan of reduction of 33 percent in 46 million cares feet river flows that are lost in conveyance. The decision makers will also come up with the plan to increase at least 30 percent in the efficiency of water use by produce more crop per drop ensuring g the gradual replacement and refurbishing of irrigation system.

Mentioning about the agriculture sector, the NWP draft point outs saying that the strategies and action plans shall be prepared to ensure food security of people of Pakistan focusing the concept of ‘More Crop per Drop’ that will be pursued with full determination.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/297722-pakistan-to-double-its-water-storage-capacity

Riaz Haq said...

Mr Gandapur, the former chairman of the Irsa, wrote letters to the president and prime minister in which he said: “The IWT ceases to function as Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs have lost 6.6MAF of replacement storage due to silting.” – File Photo
ISLAMABAD: With Pakistan increasingly becoming water deficient, Indus River System Authority (Irsa) has drawn up plans for creating capacity to store an additional 20 million acre feet (MAF) of water on ‘war footing’ to keep the economy floating.


https://www.dawn.com/news/629891


The Irsa finalised recommendations in this regard with input from all its members after a former chairman of the authority, Fatehullah Khan Gandapur, set off alarm bells by declaring that Indus Water Treaty (IWT) of 1960 was almost dead because of excessive losses in storage capacity.

Mr Gandapur wrote letters to the president and prime minister in which he said: “The IWT ceases to function as Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs have lost 6.6MAF of replacement storage due to silting.”

He criticised the team of bureaucrats currently engaged in negotiating the country’s water rights with India and said the officials were simply incapable of handling “an issue of national survival”.

“Blatant violations of the treaty by India by building dozens of low and high dams on all the six rivers and tributaries has exceeded the allowable storage limit of 4.19MAF fixed in the treaty,” he said. So far, the dams have created 10MAF of dead storage and 25-30MAF of live storage, depriving Pakistan of its water rights for Rabi and Kharif crops.

More high dams are under construction.

Sources told Dawn that on the directives of the president and prime minister, the government’s adviser on water and the Irsa members had a marathon briefing session with the former Irsa chairman early this week and finalised recommendations for creation of additional storage capacity. The recommendations would be submitted to the prime minister for approval.

The report on the recommendations says the situation will become worse in the next couple of years. That’s why it is imperative that an additional capacity of 20MAF be created on war footing to protect the agricultural economy.

The Irsa also warned the government about the proposed construction of around a dozen dams by Afghanistan on Kabul river and suggested that talks be initiated immediately with the Afghans for finalising an agreement to protect Pakistan’s water rights.

The Irsa seconded Mr Gandapur’s proposal for construction of the 37MAF Katzarah Dam near Skardu because it was non-controversial and could enhance the expected life of the downstream dams and barrages, including Tarbela and Diamer-Bhasha.

The authority was also in agreement with Mr Gandapur’s suggestion that the multipurpose 8.5MAF Guroh Dop dam on river Panjkora near Chitral should be built for storing every year about 7-8MAF of water that ultimately falls into Kabul river.

This would stop water from Panjkora from going into Afghan territory. It said a water treaty with Afghanistan was important because Panjkora or Chitral river contributed more than 50 per cent of the Kabul flows.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan statistics: Installed hydropower capacity: 7,320 MW (2016)
Hydropower generation: 34.42 TWh (2016)
https://www.hydropower.org/country-profiles/pakistan
A number of hydropower plants were completed or commissioned in 2016 including Ranolia (17 MW), Daral Khwar (37 MW) and Machai (2.6 MW), all located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

Several micro hydropower projects were also installed as part of an initiative led by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with the support of the Asian Development Bank, to install some 1,000 micro plants. Expected to have a total installed capacity of 100 MW, these micro projects are designed to support rural, off-grid communities by providing affordable and reliable electricity.

Numerous projects are currently under planning and construction in the private sector, overseen by the Private Power & Infrastructure Board, including Karot (720 MW), Suki (870 MW) and Kohala (1,124 MW). These projects are part of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) – a collection of infrastructure projects supported by the Chinese Government to strengthen Pakistan’s economy and enhance the economic connectivity between both countries.

The run-of-river Patrind hydropower project is another being led by the private sector, a Korean consortium including Star Hydro Power, K-water and Daewoo Engineering & Construction Company.

Scheduled for completion in 2017, the project has also received loans from the Islamic Development Bank, International Finance Corporation, Asian Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of Korea.

The regulatory regime for private sector investors includes substantial incentives such as generous return on equity, tax concessions and hydrological risk cover.

Current public sector projects under construction and overseen by WAPDA include Golen Gol (106 MW), Neelum-Jhelum (969 MW), Dasu (4,320 MW) and the extension of the Tarbela plant.

The construction on the fourth extension of the 3,478 MW Tarbela hydropower plant located on the Indus River continues, with completion likely in 2017. The Tarbela Dam is the largest earth-filled dam in the world, and the fourth extension to the hydropower plant will lift its installed capacity to 4,888 MW. The World Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank have also announced USD 720 million in co-financing to help fund the fifth extension to the plant, which will add a further 1,140 MW in capacity.

Riaz Haq said...

GE to refurbish Mangla power station by 2023
https://steelguru.com/power/ge-to-refurbish-mangla-power-station-by-2023/511191

General Electric is expecting to finish refurbishing work on 1,000 megawatts of Mangla hydropower plants within the next five years to bring a 35 percent increase in the station’s production capacity, the company’s executive said.

Sarim Sheikh, chief executive officer of GE Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan said the station’s refurbishing would be completed by 2023 with a cost of around Rs15 billion. “After completion, the plants would be able to generate 35 percent more electricity using same amount of water.”

The project is jointly funded by a French development agency and the United States Agency for International Development.

The project is a major component of the Water and Power Development Authority’s (Wapda) plan of adding low-cost hydropower generation to overcome shortage of electricity and maximise share of hydropower in electricity grid.

Mangla power station, located in Kashmir, has an installed capacity of 1,000MW. The existing station has 10 generating units, having capacity of 100MW each with a useful life of 30 years extendable up to 35 years.

The first unit was commissioned in 1967. All units at Mangla have efficiently been working and generating electricity since then in accordance with their installed capacity despite completion of their useful life long ago.

The Wapda planned to refurbish the existing Mangla hydropower station to benefit from additional 2.88 million acres feet of water and 40 feet additional water head available with completion of Mangla dam raising project in 2009.

Sheikh said the modern technology is being used to optimise generation capacity of Mangla hydropower station. “The quantum of water, which generates 1,000MW, will be sufficient to generate over 1,300MW.”

He said GE is expanding its footprints in hydropower, coal, gas and renewable generation across the country. GE is expected to power 40 percent of the country’s overall electricity generation by 2019.

The company’s executive added that “Pakistan’s generation capacity will stand at around 35,000MW by 2019; of which 14,000MW would be generated through GE equipment.”

Riaz Haq said...

#USAID, #WAPDA sign $78m deal for #Pakistan #Mangla Dam refurbishment to increase #power generation capacity from 1000 MW to 1310 MW #hyropower | The Express Tribune

https://tribune.com.pk/story/1865526/2-usaid-wapda-sign-78m-deal-mangla-refurbishment/

Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) signed project implementation letter – 2 (PIL) worth $78 million for Mangla refurbishment project. The USAID grant will be spent for undertaking various works of Package V, VI, VIII and IX of the project.

The PIL-1 of $72 million for Mangla refurbishment project had already been signed between USAID and Wapda in 2014. WAPDA Chairman Muzammil Hussain and USAID Mission Leader Jerry Bisson signed the letter.

Due to the aging factor of the generating equipment and availability of additional water due to the raised Mangla Dam, Wapda is implementing Mangla refurbishment project with an approved PC-I cost of Rs52.224 billion. USAID is providing $150 million as grant and AFD, a french development agency, is providing €90 million as loan for the purpose, while rest of the amount is being arranged by Wapda through loans and from its own resources.
Mangla Refurbishment Project, on its completion, will enhance generation capacity of the existing Mangla hydel power station from 1,000 megawatts (MW) to 1,310MW, thus registering an increase of 310MW. The refurbishment works have been divided into 11 different packages, which will be implemented in various phases.

The generating units will be refurbished by closing down one tunnel (two generating units) at a time. Refurbishment of the first two units will be completed in year 2019, while refurbishment of all 10 generating units is likely to be accomplished by 2024.

It may be mentioned that Wapda has been implementing a two-pronged strategy for optimal utilisation of hydropower resources. Under the strategy, Wapda has not only initiated new hydropower projects but has also been rehabilitating and upgrading its existing hydel power stations.