Saturday, July 6, 2019

Pakistan Ramps Up Nuclear Power to Boost Low-Carbon Electricity

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi has been completed by China National Nuclear Corporation, according to media reports. A similar reactor unit K3 will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid, bringing the total nuclear power installed capacity of Pakistan to 3,630 MW (12% of total power) by 2022.  Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  In addition, Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change.

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP):

With the placement of the outer containment shell, K2 is  now ready for containment and heat tests. It is scheduled to begin operations in 2020. It’s built using the Chinese HPR1000 technology, which features a dual containment design, with the outer containment providing additional protection for the primary containment.

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant K2 Unit Under Construction. Source: CNNC

KANUPP is Pakistan's first nuclear power plant where construction started in 1966 in Karachi. The plant was connected to the national grid on 18 October 1972. KANUPP, a pressurized heavy water reactor of 137 MW gross capacity was constructed by Canadian General Electric under a turnkey contract. In 1976, vendor support for spare parts and fuel was withdrawn. The PAEC undertook the task of indigenously manufacturing the required spare parts and nuclear fuel on an emergency basis and, since 1980, KANUPP has successfully operated using fuel manufactured by the PAEC, according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here is an except of IAEA's 2018 report on nuclear power in Pakistan:

"Despite the keen interest of Pakistan in building additional nuclear plants, it took more than two decades before the second nuclear power plant started construction. This delay was due to Pakistan’s lack of access to international nuclear technology coupled with a lack of indigenous industrial infrastructure. The construction of Pakistan’s second nuclear plant, C-1, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was made possible in 1993 with the help of the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The plant was connected to the national grid on 13 June 2000 and has a gross capacity of 325 MW. A third nuclear power plant, C-2, with 325 MW gross capacity started commercial operation on 18 May 2011. The fourth unit, C-3, started commercial operation on 6 December 2016. It has a gross capacity of 340 MW and a similar plant, C-4, sited beside C-3, was connected to the grid on 25 June 2017. The first concrete pours to mark the start of construction of Karachi Coastal Power Project, a project containing two nuclear units, K-2 and K-3 (1100 MW each), based on an improved PWR design, were 20 August 2015 and 31 May 2016, respectively."

International Energy Agency:

International Energy Agency (IEA) has recently warned that "steep decline in nuclear power would threaten energy security and climate goals". "With nuclear power facing an uncertain future in many countries, the world risks a steep decline in its use in advanced economies that could result in billions of tonnes of additional carbon emissions", the IEA has said.

Pakistan Among 31 Countries Operating Nuclear Power Plants


Nuclear is the second-largest low-carbon power source in the world today, accounting for 10% of global electricity generation. It is second only to hydropower at 16%, according to International Energy Agency (IEA). Pakistan nuclear plants are expected to generate 3,630 MW  (12% of total power vs 10% global average) by 2022.  Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power vs 16% global average) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change.

Nuclear Plant Safety Concerns:

Activists in Pakistan have raised serious concerns about potential risks from K2 and K3 plants to the population in Karachi. Are such concerns valid?

The worst nuclear disaster in the history of nuclear power generation was at Chernobyl in present day Ukraine. One of the key reasons was that the Chernobyl plant did not have the fortified containment structure common to most nuclear power plants elsewhere in the world. KANUPP K-2 and K-3 reactors have two containment shells: primary and secondary. It is noteworthy that Bhopal Union Carbide disaster was history's worst industrial disaster, far bigger in terms of human toll than the Chernobyl disaster.

China signed a technology transfer deal with the United States in 2006 that put the Westinghouse AP1000 reactor design at the “core” of its atomic energy program. Chinese reactor manufacturers also resolved to build advanced third-generation technology in their safety review after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear plant disaster.

Unlike Fukushima where underground emergency cooling system failed due to flooding, the Hualong One design stores water above the reactor that can be gravity-fed to keep it cool if the pumps fail in the event of meltdown. The Chinese HPR1000 reactors employ multiple redundant generators and cooling systems to lower meltdown risk.

Hydropower Generation:

The biggest and most important source of low-carbon energy in Pakistan is its hydroelectric power plants. Pakistan ranked third in the world by adding nearly 2,500 MW of hydropower in 2018, according to Hydropower Status Report 2019.  China added the most capacity with the installation of 8,540 megawatts, followed by Brazil (3,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).

New Installed Hydroelectric Power Capacity in 2018. Source: Hydroworld.com

Pakistan's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) says commissioning of the 108-MW Golen Gol 2, 1,410-MW Tarbela 4th Extension and 969-MW Neelum Jhelum hydropower projects in 2018 boosted its hydroelectric generating capacity of 9,389 MW, an increase of 36% in just one year, according to Hydro Review. Hydropower now makes up about 28% of the total installed capacity of 33,836 MW as of February, 2019.   WAPDA reports contributing 25.63 billion units of hydroelectricity to the national grid during the year, “despite the fact that water flows in 2018 remained historically low.” This contribution “greatly helped the country in meeting electricity needs and lowering the electricity tariff for the consumers.”

Top 20 Countries by Newly Installed Hydropower Capacity. Source: IHA

Pakistan has the potential to generate 59,000 MW of hydropower, according to studies conducted by the nation's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Currently, it's generating only 9,389 MW of hydroelectric power, about 16% of the estimated potential. Media reports indicate that China is prepared to finance and build another 40,000MW capacity as part of the development of the Northern Indus Cascade region which begins in Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan and runs through to Tarbela, the site of Pakistan’s biggest dam, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.

Pakistan has made only a small contribution to climate change through carbon emissions.  And yet, it counts among the dozen or so nations considered most vulnerable to its damaging effects. These include rising temperatures, recurring cycles of floods and droughts and resulting disruption in food production.

Summary: 

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi has been completed by China National Nuclear Corporation, according to media reports. A similar reactor unit K3 will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid, bringing the total nuclear power installed capacity of Pakistan to 3,630 MW (12% of total power) by 2022.  Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  In addition, Pakistan is also generating  9,389  MW (about 28% of total power) of low-carbon hydroelectric power in response to rising concerns about climate change. One of the ways Pakistan can help reduce carbon emissions is by realizing its full nuclear and hydroelectric power potential by building more nuclear plants and dams. The development of the Northern Indus Cascade region to generate 40,000MW of hydropower is a significant part of this effort.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

South Asia Investor Review

Nuclear Power in Pakistan

Recurring Cycles of Drought and Floods in Pakistan

Pakistan's Response to Climate Change

Massive Oil and Gas Discovery in Pakistan: Hype vs Reality

Renewable Energy for Pakistan

Digital BRI: China and Pakistan Building Fiber, 5G Networks

LNG Imports in Pakistan

Growing Water Scarcity in Pakistan

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

Ownership of Appliances and Vehicles in Pakistan

CPEC Transforming Pakistan

Pakistan's $20 Billion Tourism Industry Boom

Riaz Haq's YouTube Channel

PakAlumni Social Network

42 comments:

MB said...

Do you think Pakistan should also invest in solar and wind based electrical sources? I think a countries energy source should be treated like money and should be invested in different ventures. It can also give Pakistan a chance to dip its feet into RnD.

Riaz Haq said...

MB: " Do you think Pakistan should also invest in solar and wind based electrical sources?"

Pakistan to set 30 percent plus 30 percent Renewable Energy Target by 2030

The new government in Pakistan plans to increase the share of renewable energy in total power generation to 30 percent by 2030, particularly power from wind, solar, small hydro and biomass, with an additional 30 percent from large scale hydropower.

https://www.renewableenergymagazine.com/panorama/pakistan-to-set-30-percent-plus-30-20190403

Currently, the share of renewable energy stands at a meagre 4 percent, despite the fact that the country holds huge renewable energy potential particularly wind and solar. Large hydro currently provides around a fourth of the country’s electricity supply.

During the last week of February, The Cabinet Committee on Energy (CCoE), chaired by the Finance Minister, approved proposals from the Ministry of Energy (Power Division) for all future renewable energy projects to be treated under the Renewable Energy Policy 2019. The new policy, whose guiding principles have already been approved by CCoE, is being reviewed by different stakeholders and will be formally taken by CCoE later.

CCoE decided to permit renewable energy projects possessing a letter of support from the Alternative Energy Development Board to proceed towards achieving their required milestones in accordance with the Renewable Energy Policy 2006. The decision marks a positive effort by the government, which favours future renewable energy deployment. The Power Minister announced last week that the country will raise the share of renewable energy in the total power mix to 30 percent by 2030. The government also plans to increase the share of hydro power to 30 percent by the same period. This would translate into 60 percent overall share of renewable energy in the total power mix of the country. The targets set by the government are significant and in line with international climate change commitments, setting an example for other developing countries to follow.

“It is quite encouraging to observe that the government plans to set higher targets for renewable energy deployment for which he have been advocating for over a decade now” said Air Marshall Shahid Hamid (Retd.), Honorary Vice President of WWEA and Chair of WWEA Pakistan. “The main mission of WWEA Pakistan Office is to create a bridge between the efforts of the government, the private sector and development partners to advance renewable energy development in the country and beyond. WWEA will play its part in establishing concrete roadmap for smooth transition towards achieving the target of 30 percent renewable energy in Pakistan by 2030.”

The announcement comes against the backdrop of WWEA’s successful 17th World Wind Energy Conference that was organised in November 2018 in Karachi where more than 600 participants from 30 countries participated. The conference objectives included, inter alia, reviving blocked renewable energy projects in Pakistan and asking the government to set a fresh trajectory for renewable energy development in the country to meet its growing energy demands without aggravating climate change risks.

The government’s plan to generate around 18,000 MW of renewable energy by 2030 could hit a roadblock in the shape of a pipeline of more than 5 GW of coal fired projects. The previous renewable energy policy of 2006 provided multiple incentives to the private sector to develop renewable energy projects. However, the policy stopped short of achieving desirable results due to the absence of an action plan complementing the policy framework. The new policy should follow a strategic plan of action by creating a favourable environment for coordination mechanism between various departments dealing the renewable energy sector.

Riaz Haq said...

Special instruction issued for promotion of Solar Energy, Net-Metering

https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/490951-special-instruction-issued-for-promotion-of-solar-energy-net-metering

Power Division has issued special instructions to all DISCOs for promoting and further easing installation of net-metering in order to provide opportunity to all electricity consumers to curtail their monthly electricity bills besides optimal utilization of solar potential of the country.

The instructions were issued on Friday during one-point agenda on net-metering meeting of Central Power Purchasing Agency (CPPA).

As per the latest instructions, all the DISCOs have been directed to establish one window for interested net-metering electricity consumers. The appointment of focal persons will in this regard be ensured besides their active engagement on targets assigned by the Power Division.

Each officer at operational level will be assigned targets of net-metering which will be properly monitored. These targets and their results will count for greater points during their assessment for promotion and other benefits.

All the DISCOs are further directed to ensure proper briefing of consumers during open katcheris by the respective Superintending Engineers, XEN and SDOs.

All the DISCOs will also run a comprehensive awareness campaign for educating the consumers regarding benefits of net-metering.

The meeting while emphasizing the importance of net-metering in order to tap the solar energy potential of the country, also underscored the need to extend all out facilitation to the consumers by the DISCOs.

It was noted that although the rules and regulation for net-metering are adequate, however, the practical steps taken by DISCOs are not enough to promote it in order to fully and optimally utilize the potential.

It was further directed to strictly monitor all targets in this regard.

Earlier, the meeting was informed that a total of around 900 MW solar panels have been imported in the country. There are 1,190 electricity consumers with a cumulative capacity of 26MW who have installed net-metering so far.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan added 500MW of #solar power in 2018. #Asia topped with new installations, despite declines in top three markets (#China, #India and #Japan). China alone accounted for around 45% of global additions, but this was down from nearly 54% in 2017. https://www.evwind.es/2019/06/21/photovoltaic-cumulative-capacity-increased-approximately-25-to-at-least-505-gw/67686

Photovoltaic capacity increased to 505 GW
June 21, 2019 reve
The annual global market for solar photovoltaics (PV) increased only slightly in 2018, but enough to surpass the 100 GW level (including on- and off-grid capacity) for the first time. Cumulative capacity increased approximately 25% to at least 505 GW; this compares to a global total of around 15 GW only a decade earlier. igher demand in emerging markets and in Europe, due largely to ongoing price reductions, compensated for a substantial market decline in China that had consequences around the world.

Despite the single-digit growth rate of the global market in 2018, solar PV has become the world’s fastest-growing energy technology, with gigawatt-scale markets in an increasing number of countries.

Demand for solar PV is spreading and expanding as it becomes the most competitive option for electricity generation in a growing number of markets – for residential and commercial applications and increasingly for utility projects – even without accounting for the external costs of fossil fuels.
Eleven countries added more than 1 GW of new capacity during the year, up from 9 countries in 2017 and 7 countries in 2016, and markets around the world have begun to contribute significantly to global growth. By the end of 2018, at least 32 countries had a cumulative capacity of 1 GW or more, up from 29 countries one year earlier.
There are still challenges to address in order for solar PV to become a major electricity source worldwide, including policy and regulatory instability in many countries, financial and bankability challenges, and the need to integrate solar PV into electricity markets and systems in a fair and sustainable manner.

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Turkey followed, installing 1.6 GW for a total of 5.1 GW, already surpassing the national target for 2023. However, Turkey’s additions were down 37% relative to 2017 due to several factors, including uncertainties regarding national support schemes, issues related to land acquisition, permission and financing, as well as delays as project developers await further cost reductions.
Others in Asia to add capacity included Chinese Taipei (almost 1 GW), driven by a FIT and a target of 20 GW by 2025, as well as Pakistan (0.5 GW) and Malaysia (0.4 GW).

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan plans #renewables for a fifth of #energy supplies by 2025. Pakistan will build #wind and #solar plants to reduce reliance on gas and fuel imports and ease the burden on its #grid. #electricity #power @AJENews https://www.aljazeera.com/ajimpact/pakistan-plans-renewables-energy-supplies-2025-190723074101381.html

Pakistan is planning a wave of new wind and solar plants that will expand its clean energy capacity to about fifth of its total.

The South Asian nation plans to increase its renewables by more than four times by adding as much as 7 gigawatts to bring its total to 8-9 gigawatts by 2025, said Nadeem Babar, head of Pakistan’s energy task force. The new energy policy that targets lifting the country’s total generation capacity by 40% to 42-43 gigawatts is expected to be approved within a month, he said.

The shift to clean generation comes after Pakistan has nearly bridged a power deficit by adding 10 gigawatts of capacity in the past six years to ease long, unannounced blackouts in major cities. Most of that capacity was coal and natural gas fired plants that were financed by China as part of its Belt and Road Initiative.

“The general policy is to have much higher emphasis on renewables over the next 10 years,’’ Babar said in a phone interview this month. Hydroelectric generation isn’t included in the renewable figures and is expected to account for 35% of the nation’s capacity by 2025.

As Pakistan has beefed up power generation its grid has come under increasing pressure and many transmission lines are already operating at full capacity. To alleviate congestion the country is working with the World Bank to identify the best locations to site new renewable generation.

Pakistan plans to auction the right to build renewable capacity annually starting in December. It will also deregulate clean energy for companies that want to build a wind farm or use solar panels to supply private businesses, said Babar.

Renewable generation is also expected to reduce the country’s costs to import power generation fuels such as coal and natural gas. Pakistan’s petroleum product imports, which fuel both power plants and vehicles, accounted for about $13 billion of the country’s $50 billion total imports in the eleven months ended May.
As well, a $3.5 billion joint venture with China to dig up coal from Pakistan’s Thar desert generated electricity for the first time this month.

“Last year, 41% of generation was on imported fuels,” said Babar. “That is just way too high.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Chinese #investment in #renewables triples under Belt and Road initiative (#BRI). Biggest recipient of Belt & Road investment was #Pakistan, where equity investments from #China accounted for 36.8% of the country’s new #wind capacity from 2014 to 2018. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2019/07/30/chinese-investment-in-renewables-triples-under-belt-road-initiative/

A report by Greenpeace has found in the five years since China announced the continent spanning ‘One Belt, One Road’ infrastructure plan, investment in Belt & Road countries has supported 12.6 GW of wind and solar power generation capacity. That is almost three times the 450 MW that came online in the territories before 2014. The initiative has also supported 68 GW of new coal capacity.

A study published this week by environmental charity Greenpeace found China’s Belt & Road Initiative has led an investment surge in energy infrastructure in the regions covered by the plan – particularly south and Southeast Asia – over the past five years.

According to the NGO, Chinese equity investment in solar, wind and coal power projects in south and Southeast Asia rose 1,370% during 2014-2019, compared to the previous five years.

The Greenpeace study shows 12,622 MW of wind and solar power generation capacity along the Belt & Road route was supported by Chinese equity investment, alongside 67.9 GW of coal capacity. Some 93% of the wind and solar investment – and 94% of the coal projects – went to south and Southeast Asia.

“Solar now presents a serious rebuttal to any pattern of Chinese overseas pro-coal bias,” said Liu Junyan, a Beijing-based climate and energy campaigner with Greenpeace East Asia. “Chinese investors’ ratio of coal to solar is now the same at home and abroad – both are still six-to-one coal, unfortunately, but I’m amazed to see what five years of equity investment in solar made possible.”


Of the 12.6 GW of renewables capacity to be funded by Chinese investment, 1.7 GW has already been installed – 1.2 GW of it solar. For PV, that represents a 280% increase in capacity funded through equity investment. At the end of last year, a further 10.8 GW project pipeline in Belt & Road countries had received equity investment from Chinese companies. The largest single recipient of Belt & Road related investment was Pakistan, where equity investments from China accounted for 36.8% of the country’s new wind capacity from 2014 to 2018.

The Belt & Road route covers a wide corridor along the former overland Silk Road and maritime Spice Route from China to Europe across Asia and includes central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and southern Europe.

For renewables and coal, equity in projects is the primary form of investment. Greenpeace pointed out for coal the rise of renewables represents a serious threat.

“Equity ties Chinese investors to overseas coal projects for the long run,” said Wang Yan, of Greenpeace East Asia. “And there’s a slew of financial, environmental and regulatory risks on the horizon. But the equity model also gives Chinese enterprises license to invest in a variety of projects. It’s Beijing’s job to educate Chinese companies on coal risks and the potential of equity investment in renewables before a series of bad investments put a stink on the whole Belt & Road.”

Riaz Haq said...

Experts see space for ample growth in Pakistan’s civil nuclear energy sector

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/508871-experts-see-space-for-ample-growth-in-pakistan-s-civil-nuclear-energy-sector

Brigadier Kazmi said Pakistan’s nuclear energy sector had contributed to the socio-economic uplift of the county and there was ample space for growth in this industry.

“The nuclear energy sector has been playing a very important role in power generation, minerals exploration, developing high-yield stress-tolerant crops, cancer treatment, designing and fabrication of industrial plants and equipment and human resource development for many years.”

He said Pakistan is one of the countries in the world that have operated a complete nuclear fuel cycle and is amongst 30 countries that have nuclear power plants in operation. “Pakistan has a remarkable experience in safe and secure operation of nuclear power plants. We have the expertise and the ability to supply items, goods and services for a full range of nuclear applications for peaceful uses.”

Pakistan has established four agriculture centres that use energy for optimisation of important crop varieties, development of better methods for conservation of inputs and products, in addition to maximum use of innovation technologies.

Brigadier Kazmi further stated that safety and security were an integral part of any nuclear program and vital for saving humans from technology and ensuring that humans did not misuse the technology.

Vice Chancellor Professor Dr Khalid Mahmood Iraqi said that we all are convinced that Pakistan is a responsible state and uses its nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

“When we have a glance at the rapidly growing population of Pakistan and even the faster growing power needs of this population, one can convincingly understand that it is impossible to meet these needs by use of the conventional methods and techniques for power generation. Our nuclear plants are significantly (not sufficiently though) helping power requirements.”

He expressed that Pakistan became a nuclear power 21 years ago and acquiring this status was the only choice because the government and the people well understood the geo-political scenario and the history of its relations with the neighbours.

Prof Iraqi said that Pakistan consistently stands by its policy to develop an efficient and consumer- centric power generation, transmission and distribution system that meets the needs of its people and supports the country’s economy in a sustainable and affordable manner.

He further said that the main concern of our nuclear plants has been to completely eliminate power loadshedding, reducing the cost of electricity to affordable level for the citizens, and increasing revenue collection to support its economy.

During the recent years, according to the vice chancellors, our industries have faced a significant setback due to power deficit, which has ultimately placed a negative impact on the life of a considerable portion of our population in social and economic forms.

The nuclear power for peaceful use is our highly-deserved priority, he added. Professor Dr Zafar Nawaz Jaspal, Director Politics and International Relations, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, observed that whenever there is high alert at the boarders, Pakistan faces propaganda of being an irresponsible nuclear state despite the fact that Pakistan has never violated the Geneva Convention and always respects all international humanitarian laws and agreements.

He observed that Pakistan’s nuclear program is much better than its neighbouring country. The nuclear energy could be used for the benefit of civilians or to gain military power, he said, adding that Pakistan always gives priority to peaceful use of nuclear energy over the race to nuclear weapons.

]

Riaz Haq said...

As part of #UK #DFID’s Sustainable Energy and Economic Development (SEED) program, Karandaaz will invest over £15 million to promote #renewableenergy generation and efficiency measures in #Pakistani businesses. https://www.phoneworld.com.pk/renewable-energy-generation/


Speaking at the occasion, Joanna Reid, Head of DFID Pakistan said,

“Less than 4% of Pakistan’s electricity is generated from renewable sources. We are working to change that I believe that this investment in sustainable energy will go a long way in promoting energy-efficient and environment-friendly options for businesses, and at the same time help to generate more jobs and achieve greater prosperity.”

Speaking at the occasion, Dr. Shamshad Akhtar, Chairperson Karandaaz said,

“Economic and urban development is a national priority for Pakistan. With 39% of the population residing in cities, Pakistan is not only the most urbanised, but also the fastest urbanizing country in South Asia. Pakistani cities’ contribution to its GDP growth however, is much lower than in peer countries. It has been estimated by the IFC that as much as 11%-14% of the energy utilised in Pakistan could be saved through energy conservation and efficiency measures, which is equivalent to two hours of power supply each day. This grant from DFID will help bridge the financing gap and enable the emergence of sustainable and efficient energy for Pakistan’s private sector, resulting in more vibrant and economically friendly cities, more competitive businesses and more jobs all leading to Pakistan moving closer to its targets as set under SDGs.”

Speaking at the occasion, Ali Sarfraz, CEO Karandaaz said,

“Karandaaz is proud to have established itself in a short span of time as a trusted partner of DFID to implement this additional focused financing programme for sustainable energy and energy efficiency in Pakistan. We will work closely with multilateral partners to pave the way for increased investments in the sustainable energy sector. This will also promote low carbon growth.”

According to the latest World Bank study, more than 75% of Pakistani firms cite energy provision as a major constraint to growth. Where available, electricity provision is costly and inefficient, lowering the competitiveness of industry and services. Daily load shedding and large leakages in the distribution system mean manufacturing firms cite access to electricity amongst the top obstacles to growth.

Climate and environment are a global priority for DFID. Domestically and internationally, the UK has been leading the way on climate change. This programme is also an opportunity for Pakistan to draw on UK expertise in clean energy for greener growth.

According to the latest World Bank study, more than 75% of Pakistani firms cite energy provision as a major constraint to growth.
According to the Global Competitiveness Report, energy shortage has directly impeded Pakistan’s ability to compete in international markets for Pakistan’s export sector. Widespread use of renewable energy and energy efficiency is yet to kick off. 17% of the energy utilised in Pakistan could be saved through energy conservation and efficiency measures, which according to some estimates is equivalent to two hours of power supply each day.

A market assessment conducted by the IFC in 2014 found that potential savings range from 11%-14%. The same assessment estimated the demand for renewable energy investment across six industrial sectors at $2.2 billion. Incentives for firms and residences to switch to renewables have been initiated, but these have so far proven ineffective and the use of energy from renewable sources, excluding hydropower, is still under 4% of total energy generation as estimated by Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

Huge #Pakistan Thar mine shows #power of #coal. In Cholistan Desert, Pak is building a #solar farm which will expand to 8X the size of New York’s Central Park. Gov't has the ambition to generate 60% of its power from #renewable sources in about a decade https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/08/09/asia-pacific/science-health-asia-pacific/mile-wide-open-mine-pakistan-shows-coal-wont-go-away/

In the flat scrubland of Pakistan’s scorching Thar Desert, hundreds of workers have been toiling for two years in the vast open pit of the Sindh Engro Coal Mining Co. Taking three-hour breaks during the hottest part of the day and living in a makeshift village of shipping containers, they are digging for fuel to sustain a $3.5 billion power project. So far they have scraped away about 500 feet (150 meters) of Aeolian sand, dirt and coal to create a hole a mile (1.6 km) wide.

Far to the north, in the Cholistan Desert, lie the skeletal beginnings of a solar farm that is supposed to expand to eight times the size of New York’s Central Park. It is the largest solar project in Pakistan, where the government has recently announced an ambitious plan to generate 60 percent of its power from renewable sources in about a decade.

If these grand developments in the desert suggest that coal and solar are in a close-run contest, they are not. Before 2016, Pakistan had a single coal-fired plant. It now has nine, supplying 15 percent of the nation’s electricity, with another four under construction. Solar power provides about 1 percent of energy needs and is getting a tiny sliver of investment compared with what is going into coal. Solar and other renewables may someday eliminate Pakistan’s dependence on coal, but that day is probably decades away.

And that is fine as far as Akhtar Mohammad is concerned. “Coal is good. It’s cheap,” he said at his roadside kiosk in Port Qasim on the outskirts of Karachi, where air pollution is “among the most severe in the world,” according to the nongovernmental Pakistan Air Quality Initiative. “There is a lot of smoke and bad air already. We need electricity — any fuel, it doesn’t matter.”

Mohammad’s pragmatism sums up the planet’s quandary. “Coal is the absolute No. 1 cause of carbon emissions globally and the leading driver of climate change,” said Tim Buckley, Sydney-based director of energy finance studies at the Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis.

But though wealthy nations may be able to afford to wean themselves off coal, which is one of the biggest contributors of greenhouse gases, in countries where electricity is scarce, unreliable or unaffordable, local politics often takes precedence over economics: Coal remains the cheap fallback.

Dozens of coal plants in Asia
Especially in Asia, dozens of coal plants have come on line in recent years or are in the planning stages — with a normal lifetime of almost half a century. In South and Southeast Asia, coal burning is expected to increase about 3.5 percent a year for the next two decades, according to the International Energy Agency. Globally, the IEA predicts, coal demand won’t peak until 2040. And that may be optimistic. Forecasts often assume governments will choose the cheapest option based on optimum efficiency while factoring in environmental constraints and the falling cost of solar and wind power.

Coal consumption won’t decline as significantly as people think, says Shirley Zhang, Wood Mackenzie Ltd.’s principal Asia-Pacific coal analyst. On the one hand, annual global sea-borne coal trade probably peaked last year at 980 million tons. On the other hand, from now until 2040, it will decline by only 20 million tons, she says. Despite the rise of renewables, the roll call of governments adding coal-fired plants includes four of the world’s five most populous nations: China, India, Indonesia and Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

How #cleantech can help power #Pakistan's #green #revolution. Pakistan is 8th-most affected country from #ClimateChange #CPEC must include #renewables in its integrated energy planning in Pakistan https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/09/how-cleantech-can-help-power-pakistans-green-revolution/ via @wef

Pakistan has been the 8th-most affected country when it comes to climate change. Although the government recognizes that vulnerability, there is a lot of room for forming an effective adaptation plan.

Pakistan has set aside 7.6 billion rupees ($47 million) for addressing climate change in its 2019-2020 budget. This will be spent on new initiatives and ongoing schemes including climate-resilient urban settlements, the establishment of a Geomatic Centre for Climate Change and of a Pakistan Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Strategic Planning and Coordination Cell, as well as sustainable land management projects to combat desertification. Pakistan planted a billion trees in the northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region, and there is a commitment to plant 10 billion trees over the next five-to-eight years.

But governments cannot achieve climate change targets by themselves. Increasing public-private partnerships are required. Global trends in innovation have led to the advent of ‘cleantech’ - technological innovations with sustainable aims, such as reducing our carbon footprint, meeting the demands for clean energy, cleaner air and water, producing healthy food for our ever-growing population, and the optimal utilization of finite resources.


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The government should provide basic funding for research by providing grants to universities and other researchers, and offering tax credits on private sector research. In Pakistan, which has many energy projects in the pipeline through the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, the government should include renewables in its integrated energy planning, in order to attract investment at scale in cleantech, and should include cleantech targets in primary legislation, provide green financing options and most importantly phase out fossil fuel subsidies. Its focus must now be on greening projects across all sectors throughout the country.

Riaz Haq said...

For the month of August 2019, 47.7% of Pakistan's electricity came from zero-carbon emissions sources (hydroelectricity, nuclear, wind, and solar), according to data from the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan cannot accelerate #economic growth without a robust #power production and supply system in place. It has plan to develop 120 new #electricity projects to add 74,448 megawatts to the system till 2040 from hydel, domestic coal and renewable sources https://tribune.com.pk/story/2073522/2-pakistan-draws-plan-add-74448mw-national-grid-2040/#

“In the year 2040, the nominal production capacity in the system will stand at 98,091MW against projected peak load (demand) of 80,425MW,” the National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC) said in a study titled “Indicative Generation Capacity Expansion Plan 2018-40”. In 2018, the nominal capacity and demand matched quite closely as the nominal capacity from all generation sources hovered around 27,715MW whereas the demand was close to 26,700MW.

In 2019, the gap between nominal capacity and demand is steadily widening and has started surpassing the peak load in the system. It can be observed that a significant surplus of around 17,600MW remains between the projected demand and installed capacity, according to the study. Sufficient generation has been planned to be added by 2040 to satisfy the 1% LOLP (loss of load probability) criteria and add sufficient reserves to the system.

The cumulative nominal capacity will be approximately 62,979MW whereas the peak load is projected at 50,306MW in the year 2032, thus a wide gap of around 13,000MW between the two parameters and the capacity will be in surplus compared to demand, according to the study.

The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) has uploaded the comprehensive study on its website to invite the stakeholders and public feedback, incorporate their concerns, if any, and give final shape to the document.

------------

It projected the peak power demand would grow by an average (compound annual growth rate) of 4.12% per year and supply by 5.22%, considering the gross domestic product (GDP) grows at a low rate of 4.5% per year from 2018-2040. In the scenario where GDP grows at a medium pace of 5.5% over the years, the peak power demand is estimated to rise by 5.13% per year and supply by 6.24%. Power demand and supply are anticipated to grow by 6.67% and 7.80% respectively if the GDP growth rate is high at 7% from 2018-2040.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan government inks deals for 560 MW of fresh #WindEnergy. The move is in line with the country’s 30% national #renewables goal by Year 2030. https://www.renewablesnow.com/news/pakistani-govt-inks-deals-for-560-mw-of-fresh-wind-676632/

Pakistan’s Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) on Friday signed contracts with the developers of projects that will see the country expand its wind power capacity by 560 MW.

The government agency, which is tasked with promoting renewables installation in Pakistan, has inked implementation and guarantee direct agreements with independent power producers (IPPs) regarding 11 projects. The move is in line with the country’s 30% national renewables goal by 2030 and efforts to cut dependence on fossil fuel imports. The new capacity is expected to lead to the production of over 1.8 billion kWh of clean power per year, AEDB said.

Six of the schemes will be supported by the International Finance Corp (IFC), which on Friday signed agreements to finance the so-called Super Six project portfolio with USD 450 million (EUR 406.9m) in debt. Those power plants, with a combined capacity of 310 MW, will be installed in the Jhimpir wind corridor in Sindh province and will be able to generate enough electricity to cover the annual needs of 450,000 homes while offsetting around 650,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions annually, IFC said in a separate statement. It will provide some USD 86 million in funds from its own account and USD 234 million mobilised from other lenders.

The 11 projects are expected to become operational by 2021.

(USD 1.0 = EUR 0.904)

Riaz Haq said...

According to US government statistics, Pakistan’s energy mix is formed of 64% fossil fuels, 27% hydropower and 9% other renewables and nuclear power.


https://www.power-technology.com/features/pakistan-energy-mix/

While Pakistan has strong potential for producing renewable energy it is still far behind much of the world in developing these sources.

In a country where over 50 million people still don’t have adequate access to electricity, how is Pakistan’s energy mix evolving?

Pakistan has benefitted from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a multi-billion dollar deal that is part of China’s Belt and Road initiative to finance infrastructure projects across Asia.

The projects funded by the CPEC include the 720MW Karot hydro-project in the disputed Kashmir region. At a cost $1.4bn, the project was begun in December 2016 and will be completed in December 2021.

However, this initiative has faced criticism in Pakistan. The CPEC has allegedly added to corruption in the country, with the value of the scheme going up from $46bn to $62bn. It has also been accused of binding countries to China through debt via expensive projects.

Because of this Pakistan has made tentative steps to distance itself away from the CPEC due to the suspicions of the current ruling party Tehreek-e-Insaf, with one cabinet minister stating that the CPEC was of “little benefit” to Pakistani’s.

Fossil fuels still dominate Pakistan’s energy mix. Recent examples of fossil fuel-powered projects in the country include the China Power Hub Generation Company’s (CPHGC) coal fired power plant in the Balochistan region of the country, which has a capacity of 1320MW and will enter Pakistan’s energy grid by the end of 2019.

Pakistan also has domestic natural gas resources, producing nearly 37 million cubic feet in 2018. Of this, 43% is used in its power sector, powering plants such as the Balloki power plant outside of Lahore. Natural gas accounts for 40% of Pakistan’s energy needs.

Nuclear energy has had a presence in Pakistan since the formation of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Committee in 1955, with the first nuclear power station Kanupp 1 being completed in 1971.

Pakistan currently has five reactors with a total capacity of just over 1.3GW, but there are plans to expand this. Since 2013 Pakistan has pushed for a further 2.2GW of nuclear power with two new reactors in the city of Karachi. Built with Chinese assistance, the reactors are estimated to cost $5bn.

Renewable energy has been slow to develop in Pakistan, and currently only accounts for 4% of the energy mix.

However under Prime Minister Imran Khan’s current government, plans to increase the country’s renewable capacity have stepped up.

In April 2019 it was announced that Pakistan will aim to have 30% of its energy capacity from renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass by 2030. It has been estimated that Pakistan could produce 340GW of wind power alone.

This plan will coincide with hydropower rising slightly to 30% of Pakistan’s energy mix. According to the International Hydropower Association, Pakistan has the potential to produce 60,000MW of hydropower, but currently produces just over 7000MW.

The largest hydropower plant in the country is the Tarbela Dam project in the north of the country. With a capacity of over 4000MW, the power plant has been in operation since 1984 at a cost of nearly $1.5bn.

Having been slow on the renewable uptake Pakistan has belatedly made moves to expand its wind and solar capacity, alongside boosting its nuclear power capacity. However the fossil fuel sector still leads the way in Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan sets sights on floating #solar as #water scarcity bites. Floating PV modules on dams and lakes not only produce #energy but they also reduce water evaporation and water wastage. #RenewableEnergy #ClimateCrisis
https://www.pv-tech.org/news/floating-solar-to-conserve-water-in-pakistan#.Xek43gpIT1Y.twitter

With Pakistan's water reserves fast depleting, floating solar will be a key part of conserving resources and producing cheap energy, according to the nation's minister for Power and Petroleum Omar Ayub Khan.

Speaking at a conference on the water crisis, Khan announced that floating solar systems would be installed in four reservoirs besides canals at Tarbela, Mangla, Ghazi Barotha and Khanpur.

He noted Pakistan's plans to roll out 18-20GW in new hydropower capacity – taking the power source to 70% of the energy mix – and to ramp up nuclear power to 10% of the energy mix. The new hydro capacity would also offer great opportunities for FPV projects.

Speaking on water conservation, Khan said: "Not just flood irrigation system we have been used to. The world has moved on. We have to make sure that this resource is jealously guarded and used. We are already finalising plans with floating solar."

The government is already in discussions with the energy ministry of Punjab over placing floating solar on its canals so that its irrigation systems can also be run on solar power. Meanwhile, 29,000 tube wells in Balochistan will also be converted to solar. Floating PV modules not only produce energy but they also reduce water evaporation and water wastage.

Khan noted that solar will continue to decrease in price, given that the country has adopted competitive bidding for all new projects under its new renewable energy policy.

Riaz Haq said...

IRENA Pegs #Pakistan’s Total #RenewableEnergy Capacity By 2018-End At Over 13,000 MW, With #Solar Contributing 12% Or More Than 1,500 MW. Target: 30% of installed capacity to be #renewable by 2030. #cleanenergy #ClimateChange http://taiyangnews.info/markets/pakistans-cumulative-solar-capacity-tops-1-5-gw/

At the end of 2018, the cumulative installed solar energy capacity of Pakistan had reached 1,568 MW, increasing from 742 MW at the end of 2017, representing an addition of over 800 MW in a single year. These statistics are published in the International Renewable Energy Agency’s (IRENA) annual report, Renewable Capacity Statistics 2019.

The report tracks renewables growth of several countries starting from 2009. For Pakistan it means solar power capacity of 4 MW in 2009 has now grown to 1.5 GW, accounting for 12% of out of 13 GW of total renewable energy capacity of the country in 2018.

Globally, a total of 171 GW of new renewable energy capacity was installed in 2018, growing 7.9% annually, of which 84% came from wind and solar alone. In concrete terms, solar added 94 GW of new capacity with Asia accounting for 64 GW, while wind grew by 49 GW.

According to an April 2018 Renewables Readiness Assessment report of IRENA, Pakistan does not have a clear renewable energy target, which the agency says is a must to ‘translate political will into a language that can be understood by investors’.

The World Wind Energy Association reported on April 2, 2019 that the new government in the country under Prime Minister Imran Khan plans to increase the share of renewable energy in total power generation to 30% by 2030, from wind, solar and biomass, and additionally 30% from large-scale hydropower. It would be a 26% points increase from the current renewables share of 4%. Pakistan is working on its Renewable Energy Policy 2019 whose guiding principles have been approved by the government’s Cabinet Committee on Energy (CCoE).

As per January 2017 directives issued by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) of Pakistan, the country should be moving towards a competitive bidding process for utility scale solar and wind power plants, something that’s yet to take place.

In a December 2018 report, the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) wrote that the country could reach 12.4 GW of total installed solar power capacity by 2029-30, provided the government came up with clearly defined targets for long-term renewable energy policy (see IEEFA Suggests 30% RE For Pakistan By 2030).

Riaz Haq said...

New #IAEA Collaborating Centre in #Pakistan for #Nuclear #Technology. Partnership with PIAES in 3 key areas: Modelling and simulations with verification and validation capabilities, experimental nuclear #engineering, and education and training. https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/new-iaea-collaborating-centre-in-pakistan-to-assist-in-applications-of-nuclear-technologies#.Xg_bUF1cpQ8.twitter

With a cooperation agreement signed today, the IAEA has designated the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) as an IAEA Collaborating Centre to support Member States on research, development and capacity building in the application of advanced and innovative nuclear technologies.

Islamabad-based PIAES is one of Pakistan’s leading public research university in engineering and nuclear technology and a major nuclear research facility of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

“I cannot emphasize enough the importance of education and training for building the capacity of Member States in this field,” said IAEA Deputy Director General Mikhail Chudakov, Head of the Department of Nuclear Energy, at the signing ceremony at the Agency’s Vienna headquarters. “Through this network, the Agency encourages scientific studies and cooperation across Member States, making the centres a key IAEA cooperation mechanism.”

This partnership with PIAES is based on a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in three key areas: modelling and simulations with verification and validation capabilities, experimental nuclear engineering, and education and training. Member States will strengthen their capacities in reactor technology design, nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems, and reactor numerical modelling and simulations.

“We are first and foremost a university, so academics and research and development is at the heart of what we do,” underlined Nasirmajid Mirza, Rector of PIAES. “It will be rewarding to further build and develop capacity in nuclear technology and non-electric applications of nuclear energy and teach it to those who want to learn.”

IAEA Collaborating Centres
Through the Collaborating Centres network, Member States can assist the IAEA by undertaking original research and development and training relating to nuclear science, technologies and their safe and secure applications. With the newly designated Collaborating Centre PIAES in Pakistan, there are now 43 active Collaborating Centres worldwide, with ongoing discussions in several countries to establish new Centres.

Riaz Haq said...

IAEA Collaborating Centre
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and
Applied Sciences (PIEAS)


https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/19/09/collaborating-centres.pdf


Collaboration on
Research, development and capacity building for
multidisciplinary application of advanced and innovative
nuclear technologies
Objectives
• Contribute to creation of new and support of the IAEA ongoing activities on
the advancements and innovation in reactor designs and their applications
• Develop new experiments at nuclear engineering facilities to create new
benchmark databases in support of on-going and planned IAEA
programmatic activities in reactor simulation and modelling and
multipurpose applications of advanced and innovative reactor designs, and
the IAEA HOPS part-task simulator web-platform
• Co-organize/host workshops, training courses and seminars, including
development of training materials and IAEA relevant publications
• Host researchers and IAEA fellows wishing to conduct joint research
and/or training in supporting capacity building for multidisciplinary
applications of advanced and innovative nuclear reactor systems
(electrical and non-electrical applications, hybrid energy systems, large
power reactor design and their abilities for isotope production)
• Sharing the experience of PIEAS with IAEA Member States on laboratory
experiments, numerical modelling and nuclear education
• Providing experts to IAEA in the relevant areas of work
Main Activities of the Collaboration
• Research and development in the advancements and innovation of reactor
designs and reactor numerical modelling and simulations
• Contribute to technical development, system analysis, and optimization of
nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems
• Conduct new experiments at the research facilities creating new
experimental data for the validation of computer codes for modelling of
advanced and innovative reactor designs and contribute to the IAEA
HOPS platform in the development, validation and verification of the parttask simulators
• Train professionals on advanced and innovative reactor designs with the
use of IAEA basic principle simulators and contribute to the creation of
new IAEA relevant publications
• Develop educational and training materials for hands-on capacity building
Related IAEA Projects
All projects under IAEA’s sub-programme on Technology Development for
Advanced Reactors and Non-Electric Applications (1.1.5) and specific projects
under IAEA’s sub-programmes on Research Reactors, Nuclear Knowledge
Management, and NA-Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences.
Designation period
2019-2023

Riaz Haq said...

World Bank to provide additional $700m for #Pakistan’s Dasu #hydropower project. It will produce 4,320 MW of #electricity at $0.03/kWh (down from current $0.08/kWh) and the power generated will mostly be supplied during the summers when the demand is high

https://www.power-technology.com/news/world-bank-to-provide-700m-more-for-pakistan-hydropower-project/

The World Bank has agreed to provide additional financing for the Dasu Hydropower Stage I project in Pakistan.

The $700m loan will fund the transmission line for the first phase of the Dasu hydropower plant. Situated along the main Indus River, the plant will have an installed capacity of 2,160MW.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) will finance the project.

The Dasu Hydropower Stage II expansion plan is expected to increase the project’s capacity to 4,320MW.

World Bank Pakistan country director Illango Patchamuthu said: “Pakistan’s energy sector is aiming to move away from high-cost and inefficient fossil fuels towards low-cost, renewable energy to power the national grid.

“Along with reforms in the tariff structure, the Dasu hydropower project will result in fewer imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance.”

The Dasu hydropower station will produce electricity at $0.03/kWh and the power generated will mostly be supplied during the summers when the demand is high.

The low-cost, renewable energy will supply affordable electricity to households as well as the manufacturing and agriculture sectors.

Currently, the average cost of electricity generation in the country stands at $0.08/kWh.

World Bank projects task team leader Rikard Liden said: “The Dasu hydropower plant has a low environmental footprint and is considered to be one of the best hydropower projects in the world.

“It will contribute to reducing Pakistan’s reliance on fossil-fuels and producing clean renewable energy.”

Riaz Haq said...

#WorldBank approves $700m for #renewableenergy in #Pakistan. #Dasu dam will produce 2,160 MW in phase 1 to 4,320 MW in phase 2. #Hydrolectric #power to help reduce imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2188561/3-world-bank-approves-700m-help-pakistan-generate-renewable-energy/

The World Bank on Wednesday approved $700 million additional financing to help Pakistan generate low cost, renewable energy to provide affordable electricity to millions of users.

The World Bank is also working with the federal and provincial governments to deal with the coronavirus pandemic as the confirmed coronavirus cases soar past 2,000.

The additional financing will be used to complete the first phase of the Dasu Hydropower project. It will install 2,160 megawatts capacity along the Indus River.

Stage two will double the installed capacity to 4,320 megawatts – making it the largest hydropower plant in the country.

“Pakistan’s energy sector is aiming to move away from high-cost and inefficient fossil fuels towards low-cost, renewable energy to power the national grid,” said Illango Patchamuthu, World Bank Country Director for Pakistan.

“Along with reforms in the tariff structure, the Dasu Hydropower Project will result in fewer imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance.”

The project will help lower the overall cost of energy generation in the country, which will benefit millions of energy users by making electricity more affordable for households, as well as the manufacturing and agricultural sector.

The powerplant will provide its electricity particularly in the summer to reduce blackouts when the demand is higher.


“The Dasu hydropower plant has a low environmental footprint and is considered to be one of the best hydropower projects in the world,” said Rikard Liden, Task Team Leader for the project.

“It will contribute to reducing Pakistan’s reliance on fossil-fuels and producing clean renewable energy.”

The Dasu hydropower plant will produce electricity at $0.03/kWh compared to Pakistan’s current cost of electricity generation of $0.08/kWh.

This investment will help Pakistan pave its way into becoming an upper middle-income country by 2047.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan hired 63,000 people, unemployed by #COVID19, to plant 10 billion #trees while wearing masks & maintaining #SocialDistancing. Starts with 15,000 acres near #Islamabad to expand to #forest land throughout the country to fight #ClimateChange via @ https://www.upworthy.com/pakistan-hires-63000-people-to-plant-10-billion-trees?xrs=RebelMouse_tw#81b65

If there is a bright spot to the COVID-19 epidemic, it's the positive environmental impact that social distancing has had on the planet. There has been a steep drop in worldwide pollution and wildlife is returning to places that were once dominated by human activity.

The pandemic has also inspired many world leaders to champion a green recovery.

Pakistan has found a great way to help its laborers who've lost their jobs due to the health crisis by hiring them to plant saplings as part of the country's 10 Billion Trees program. The five-year project was launched by Pakistan's Prime Minister Imran Khan to counter the droughts, flooding, and rise in temperatures in the country caused by climate change.

Pakistan ranks fifth on a list of countries most affected by planetary heating over the past two decades by the Global Climate Risk Index 2020.

The country has been on lockdown since March 23, but the prime minster granted an exception for the 63,000 laborers it has hired for the program. The workers will be paid between 500 to 8000 rupees a day — about half of what a laborer would usually make —but it's enough to get by.

The work is a lifeline for the unemployed laborers but it will only put a small dent in Pakistan's unemployment rate. A recent assessment by the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics found that up to 19 million people could be laid off due to COVID-19.

Even though the work takes place in isolated areas, laborers still have to abide by social distancing rules. They must remain six feet apart from one another and wear masks.

Much of the planting is being done on 15,000 acres near the state capital of Islamabad as well as other pieces of state-owned forest land throughout the country.

"This tragic crisis provided an opportunity and we grabbed it," Malik Amin Aslam, climate change advisor to the prime minister, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

The United States should look into similar programs to help its unemployed citizens as well as the planet. During the Great Depression, president President Franklin Roosevelt mobilized the U.S. Forest Service, the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps to create a shelterbelt of trees that ran in a 100-mile-wide zone from North Dakota to the Texas panhandle.

The goal was to provide a natural barrier against the dust storms that ravaged the middle of the country during the Dust Bowl

Over seven years, 30,233 shelter belts were planted, stretching over 18,600 square miles, and containing over 220 million trees. It also provided much needed employment for thousands of workers who's livelihoods had been destroyed by the Dust Bowl and stock market crash.

In every great tragedy holds the seed of opportunity. The U.S. should follow Pakistan's lead and use that seed to plant a better future.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan awards $5.8B contract for #dam construction to consortium of #Chinese and #Pakistani companies. #diamerbhashadam will store 6.4 million acre feet (MAF) of #water and produce 4,500 MW of clean #electricity.$1.03B for social programs around the dam http://v.aa.com.tr/1839628

Islamabad on Wednesday granted a contract worth 442 billion Pakistani rupees ($5.85 billion) to a consortium of Chinese and Pakistani companies for construction of a major dam to cope with the country's growing energy requirements.

The contract was signed at a ceremony in the capital Islamabad between the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), and a joint venture of Power China, and Frontier Works Organization – a subsidiary of Pakistan’s Army – for construction of a diversion system, main dam, and access bridge of Diamer-Basha dam, apart from a 21 megawatt hydropower project.

Amir Bashir Chaudhry, chief executive officer of the project, and Yang Jiandu of Power China signed the agreement on behalf of WAPDA and the joint venture respectively, according to a statement by the Water and Power Ministry.

WAPDA has already awarded a consultancy contract of the project to Diamer Basha Consultants Group (DBCG) worth 27.182 billion rupees ($168.8 million). The consultancy agreement includes construction design, construction supervision, and contract administration of the Diamer-Basha Dam project, the statement added.

The development came a day after Prime Minister Imran Khan announced the start of construction of the much-awaited dam in northern Pakistan.

The $14 billion dam, to be constructed on the River Indus in the northern Gilgit-Baltistan region, which borders China, is set to produce 4500MW of affordable electricity, said the statement.

"The 6.4 MAF [million acre foot] water storage capacity of the dam will reduce the current water shortage in the country of 12 MAF to 6.1 MAF," the statement said, adding that it will also add 35 years to the life of Tarbela Dam – one of the two major dams in Pakistan – by reducing sedimentation.

Some 78.5 billion rupees ($1.03 billion) will be spent on social development of the area around the dam, mainly on resettlement of the population.

"It will also be a major source of flood mitigation and save billions worth of damages caused by floods each year," the statement said.

Earlier, Asim Saleem Bajwa, special assistant to the prime minister on information, called the announcement "historic."

"Announcing to start construction of Diamer Bhasha dam today is a historic news for all generations of Pakistan, a huge stimulus for our economy, create 16,500 jobs, generate 4500 MW hydel power, and irrigate 1.2 million acre agriculture land," he tweeted on Monday.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s 969 MW-Neelum Jhelum #Hydropower Project achieved yet another milestone, as its contribution to the National Grid crossed 8 billion units mark and earned Rs80 billion revenue. #lowcarbon #RenewableEnergy - UrduPoint

https://www.urdupoint.com/en/pakistan/neelum-jhelum-hydropower-project-earns-rs-80-923385.html

In terms of revenue, Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Project has yielded more than Rs 80 billion of hydel electricity into the National Grid with efficient operation of the project by Neelum Jhelum and WAPDA engineers and staff under tiring conditions, said a press release.

The project, satisfactorily meeting the design capacity energy production, achieved this land mark despite the fact that the shelling by India from across the Line of Control during July and October 2019 interrupted the working at the project, which forced evacuation of the Chinese workers from the project site and continue to be afflicted by COVID-19 pandemic.

Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Project, one of the engineering marvels, has been constructed in a very difficult mountainous terrain and being 90 percent of the project underground.

The project is comprised of a weir (dam), underground water way system of 52-kilometer long tunnels, an underground power house and a switch yard. The project, having four generating units of 242.25 MW capacity each, started electricity generation with commissioning of its first unit in April 2018. The project attained its maximum installed generation of 969 MW on August 14, 2018 with commissioning of its all four units.

It is worth mentioning here that Neelum Jhelum generated up to 1040MW on April 9, 2019 beyond installed capacity of 969 MW, which reflects the efficiency of its electro-mechanical equipment, the turbines in particular. Now-a-days, the project has been running on full load i.e. 969MW because the required quantum of water is available due to high-flow season.

Riaz Haq said...

GE bags #Pakistan #hydro deal. #Dasu #Hydroelectric project will be done in 2 stages. First stage consists of installing a 2,160MW hydropower plant on the Indus River, which could be expanded to 4,320MW in a second phase.- reNews - #RenewableEnergy News https://renews.biz/60392/ge-bags-pakistan-hydro-deal/#.XsQ3ku6M540.twitter

GE Renewable Energy, in consortium with Powerchina Zhongnan Engineering, has been selected by Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) to supply six Francis turbines and generators for stage one of the new Dasu hydropower plant in Pakistan.



The 2.2GW Dasu hydropower project is among the largest power generation projects in the country.



“The plant will help generate clean electricity, ushering in a new era of socio-economic potential and development in remote areas,” GE said in a statement.

The project will be completed in two stages. The first stage consists of installing a 2160MW hydropower plant on the Indus River, which could be expanded to 4320MW in a second phase.



This project is part of the Vision 2025 Programme launched by WAPDA in 2001 and the Government of Pakistan’s Power Policy 2013.



Once commissioned in 2026, the Dasu hydropower plant will power around four million households in Pakistan.



GE Renewable Energy’s hydro business is responsible for the design, supply, supervision, installation, and commissioning of the new turbines and generators, as well as the control and protection systems. GE Grid Solutions will provide the Generator Circuit Breaker.



WAPDA chairman Lt Gen Muzzammil Hussain (Retd) said: “The project is vital to add a major quantum of hydroelectricity to the national grid in order to minimise reliance on expensive thermal generation and lower the power tariff.”



President and chief executive of GE Renewable Energy Hydro Pascal Radue added: “We are proud to start this new collaboration with WAPDA and will support them to develop clean and sustainable electricity in Pakistan.



"We are also glad to be part of this new hydropower project that will facilitate access to electricity in remote areas.”

Riaz Haq said...

#China ignores #India over world's highest Diamer-Bhasha #dam project in #Pakistani #Kashmir. #Islamabad gets #Beijing funds for joint venture opposed by #Delhi. It will generate 4,500 MW of #power & store 8 million acre-feet of #water. #RenewableEnergy

https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Belt-and-Road/China-ignores-India-over-dam-project-in-Pakistani-Kashmir


Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's Suki Kinari #hydroelectric power project unaffected by #COVID19. 19.5% work on the 874 MW dam project completed on Kunhar River with an investment of
US $ 1.963 billion under the umbrella of #CPEC. #China #renewableenergy https://www.app.com.pk/progress-of-suki-kinari-power-project-remains-unaffected-during-covid-19-asim-bajwa/ via @appcsocialmedia

Special Assistant to Prime Minister on Information and Broadcasting General (retd) Asim Saleem Bajwa Wednesday said work on the Suki Kinari hydal power project was in full swing as progress on the project remained unaffected due to COVID-19.
In a tweet, Asim Bajwa who is also Chairman, China Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority (CPECA) said, 19.5 percent work on the 874 MW power project had been completed.
He said the project was being established at Kunhar River with an investment of
US $ 1.963 bn under the umbrella of China Pakistan Economic Corridor.
He informed that the project had so far created 4,250 job opportunities and
after completion it would help reducing cost of electricity.
“Bringing cost of electricity down is top priority of the government,” he added.

Riaz Haq said...

#WorldBank approves US $700m for 4,320 MW Dasu #hydropower project in #Pakistan. Loan will be used to build transmission line and complete the 2,160MW first phase of the plant. Total project cost: cost US $4.2 billion.
https://constructionreviewonline.com/2020/04/world-bank-approves-us-700m-for-4-32gw-dasu-hydropower-project-in-pakistan/ via @Construction Review Online

The World Bank has approved US $700m grant to finance the construction of the 32GW Dasu hydropower project in Pakistan. The hydroelectric power plant which is being built on the Indus River, approximately 7km upstream of the Dasu town, Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; is being implemented by Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA).

The World Bank’s additional financing will be used to construct the transmission line and complete the 2,160MW first phase of the plant. The entire project is estimated to cost US $4.2bn.

Upon completion, the Dasu hydropower plant will become the largest of its kind in the country, generating low-cost, renewable energy to power millions of users. The hydropower plant is expected to come online in 2023.

World Bank Pakistan country director Illango Patchamuthu said that Pakistan’s energy sector is aiming to move away from high-cost and inefficient fossil fuels towards low-cost, renewable energy to power the national grid. “Along with reforms in the tariff structure, the Dasu Hydropower Project will result in fewer imports of fossil fuels, alleviating the stress on the country’s current account balance,” he said.

In addition to providing most of the clean electricity during the summer months, the Dasu hydropower plant is expected to contribute to the socioeconomic development in Dasu and surrounding areas of the Upper Kohistan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.

Furthermore, World Bank Task Team Leader Rikard Liden added that the Dasu hydropower plant has a low environmental footprint and is considered to be one of the best hydropower projects in the world. “It will contribute to reducing Pakistan’s reliance on fossil- fuels and producing clean renewable energy,” he affirmed.

Riaz Haq said...

#Shanghai Electric celebrates 27 years of commitment in #Pakistan in thermal power, nuclear power, and Power Transmission and Distribution under the umbrella of the #China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (#CPEC). #electricity #energy #power #industry #economy https://www.worldcoal.com/power/27052020/shanghai-electric-celebrates-27-years-of-commitment-in-pakistan/

Shanghai Electric is now celebrating the 27th anniversary of its entering Pakistan markets since 1993. Yesterday was itself a related anniversary, making 69 years since China established diplomatic relations with Pakistan. Shanghai Electric, representing the first batch of Chinese companies entering the market, has generated a string of milestone projects in categories that include thermal power, nuclear power, and Power Transmission and Distribution under the umbrella of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (the CPEC).

Thar Integrated Coal Mine-Power Project: Shanghai Electric signed the EPC contract for a block coal-fired power station project in Thar Coalfield, Pakistan, in December 2016. In April 2019 Shanghai Electric signed another EPC contract for Thar Block-1 Integrated Coal Mine-Power Project with an installed capacity of 2 x 660MW and a coal mine with an annual coal production capacity of 7.8 million t. The project is capable of powering 4 million households in Pakistan with 1320 MW of indigenous, affordable and reliable electricity.
Shanghai electric is also applying ultra-supercritical technology, which can run at higher net efficiency than the annual average net efficiency required by Pakistani government. Additionally, the plants will operate with a high Acid Gas removal rate, with low sulfur dioxide emissions to reduce environmental impact when it begins to generate electricity in 2022.
Sahiwal 2 x 660 MW thermal power plant project: Shanghai Electric was commissioned to provide steam turbines, generators and auxiliary equipment for Sahiwal 2 x 660 MW coal fired power station, the contract for which was signed in June 2015. Shanghai electric reduced the production time to 12 months by leveraging the new mode of the steam turbine designed with supercritical cylinder, with the generator stator iron centre, coil and shaft tile optimisation further improving the efficiency of the plant.

Riaz Haq said...

#Nuclear skills have helped #Pakistan earn/save $7.4 billion. Peaceful use has aided in #power generation, #agriculture & #medicine. Pak developed 100 new #crop varieties, treated 800,000 #cancer patients every year in hospitals using nuclear #radiation. http://v.aa.com.tr/1857356

Dispelling the impression that pursuing nuclear technology was a drain on national resources, a top Pakistani nuclear scientist claimed that its peaceful use helped the country to add 1,200 billion rupees ($7.4 billion) to its national exchequer.

Participating in a webinar program to commemorate the 22nd anniversary of Pakistan’s nuclear testing organized by Islamabad-based think-tank, the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS), Ansar Pervez, the former chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, said that the nuclear technology was being used for peaceful purposes in diverse sectors including medicine, health, agriculture, industry, pollution control, water resources management, and safe and sustainable electricity production.

He said that it allowed Pakistan to develop 100 new crop varieties, which added $7.4 billion to the treasury. He further said that 800,000 cancer patients are being treated every year by hospitals using nuclear radiation.

The nuclear program, Pervez said, has not only ensured its national security and regional peace but also helped pursue at least 12 sustainable development goals and promote socio-economic development.

Pakistan is one of only 13 countries across the globe capable of sharing its nuclear knowledge and expertise with other countries for peaceful purposes.

Director General of Arms Control and Disarmament Kamran Akhtar stated that the huge Indian defense acquisitions and developments in the areas of artificial intelligence, cyber security and space militarization are destabilizing for the region. He said the international community must exercise care and caution in sharing its advanced nuclear and other related technologies with India.

“Pakistan can be compared with any developed country in terms of its nuclear expertise, knowledge and capabilities, and is completely qualified to become an active and productive member of the strategic export control regime of the world,” he added.

Naeem Salik, the former director of Strategic Plans Division, said Pakistan became a nuclear weapon state once its security needs were neither understood nor met by the world and its several arms control initiatives were not reciprocated. He said Pakistan has a credible minimum deterrence posture which provides Pakistan security without engaging in a costly arms race with India.

Khalid Rahman, the executive president of IPS, said the unparalleled success of Pakistan’s nuclear program provides a principle to follow in policymaking to address various issues of national significance.

“If we understand this principle and pursue our other national goals with similar zeal, spirit, determination, consistency and unity, then we can effectively meet all other challenges that our nation faces,” he argued.

Riaz Haq said...

Nuclear energy of Pakistan
As it’s rightly said that Pakistan is confident but never complacent regarding nuclear safety and security
by Rabia Javed


https://nation.com.pk/28-May-2020/nuclear-energy-of-pakistan


Advocating the peaceful use of nuclear energy, Stephen Hawking once said, “I would like nuclear fusion to become a practical power source. It would provide an inexhaustible supply of energy, without pollution or global warming.”

Pakistan’s nuclear energy program started in 1954, largely inspired by then US President Dwight Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” speech in December 1953. During his address Eisenhower emphasized on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the field of agriculture, medicine, and electricity generation.

Over the years, Pakistan’s civilian nuclear energy programme has contributed to its socio-economic uplift. Furthermore, there is an ample room available for Pakistan to enhance its nuclear power generation capability to meet growing energy demands.

Pakistan has played a very important role in utilizing the peaceful nuclear energy sector in various domains. Peaceful applications are best utilized in power generation, minerals exploration, developing high-yield stress tolerant crops, cancer treatment, designing and fabrication of industrial plants and equipment and human resource development for many years.

Pakistan has used its Centres of Excellence to promote and share best practices in nuclear security through three affiliated institutes: the Pakistan Centre of Excellence for Nuclear Security (PCENS), the National Institute of Safety and Security (NISAS), and the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Along with this, Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established under the Ordinance III of 2001 for regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In 1994, Pakistan also signed convention on nuclear safety which requires states to established regulatory bodies separated from those involving the promotion of nuclear energy. PNRA, since its development, has demonstrated excellence as a role model for safety culture at national and international levels by adopting various precautionary measures.

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Appreciating the "positive role" played by Pakistan in promoting peaceful uses of nuclear technology, IAEA assisted Pakistan to establish Veterinary Residue Laboratory, which now carries out food safety tests ofinternational standards. The new laboratory can test meat and other food products and certify that they do not contain veterinary drug residues that exceed safety limits.

Nuclear technology is playing a crucial role in cancer treatment. So far, 18 cancer hospitals – spread across Pakistan’s four provinces and the capital, Islamabad – are working on cancer treatment. These hospitals alone, working under the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, are responsible for 80% of cancer treatment in the country. The IAEA stands ready to assist Pakistan in strengthening capacities for key elements of a cancer control programme. These include prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment, and palliative care.

On the eve of global summit on nuclear security in Vienna, Pakistan provided a thorough glance to its ‘stringent’ nuclear safety mechanisms. This event was attended by diplomats around the world. A booklet was presented by Pakistan titled ‘Pakistan’s Nuclear Security Regime,' released alongside IAEA’s third International Conference on Nuclear Security (ICONS) - with the aim to demonstrate Pakistan's “commitment and contribution to the global objectives of civilian nuclear utilization.” Such a step was taken with an aim to counter the myths, disinformation, misperceptions and unfounded propaganda against the country’s peaceful nuclear energy programme. The booklet outlines that there is an urgent need to recognise the best practices Pakistan has in place for safety of its peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

Riaz Haq said...

Deal worth $2.4 billion signed with #China for 1,124 MW Kohala #hydropower project in #AJK. Signatories include Three Gorges Corporation, the government of Azad Jammu and #Kashmir (AJK) and #Pakistan’s Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB). #CPEC

Furthermore, another hydroelectric power project – the 102MW Gulpur project – located at Poonch River, Kotli district of AJK met the commercial operation date on March 10, 2020.

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2233400/2-deal-worth-2-4b-signed-kohala-power-project/

PPIB Managing Director Shah Jahan Mirza briefed PPIB on the status of upcoming IPPs, explaining that various projects may experience delay in achieving critical milestones primarily due to Covid-19 and project sponsors were requesting support from PPIB in combating the situation. The board, while considering the intensity of the matter, allowed extension in the validity of Letter of Support/ financial close date for the 1,124MW Kohala hydroelectric power project.

It also agreed to provide support for Thar coal-based power generation projects in getting required extension in the backdrop of the global pandemic.

Agreeing on a proposal, the board with the consensus of all provinces and AJK allowed extension in the validity of Letters of Interest in respect of 640MW Mahl, 450MW Athmuqam and 82.25MW Turtonas-Uzghor hydroelectric power projects for accommodating these IPPs under the Indicative Generation Capacity Expansion Plan.

Moreover, the board was apprised that PPIB had started processing small hydroelectric power projects for the first time, therefore, standard security package agreements including the implementation agreement (IA) were required to be in place.

PPIB had prepared a standard draft of IA, which needed approval, the board was told. A committee of the board has been constituted to review the draft of the standard IA for small hydroelectric power projects for its onward submission to the ECC for consideration and approval.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Govt signs tripartite agreement for 1124 MW $2.4 billion Kohala Hydro Power Project in Azad #Kashmir , the largest private #hydropower project (IPP) for the country. #China’s Three Gorges Power Company will build and own it - Dunya News


https://dunyanews.tv/en/Pakistan/551382-Govt-signs-tripartite-agreement-for-1124-MW-Kohala-Hydro-Power-Project-

Kohala Hydropower Project has reached a historic tripartite agreement, with an investment of 2.4billion dollars in the energy sector.

Prime Minister Imran Khan, Federal Ministers, Chinese Ambassador Yao Jing and others witnessed the ceremony.

Prime Minister Imran Khan addressed the signing ceremony of Kohala Hydropower Project Agreement and said that prices have gone up due to generation of electricity from imported fuel. Generating electricity from oil also affects the environment. Therefore government has focused on clean energy instead of imported fuel. Leading Three Gorges Company will develop Kohala Hydel project. The project will create employment opportunities in Azad Kashmir, he added.

He said the project has been the largest investment of $2.4 billion and Pakistan has great potential to generate electricity from water.

Earlier, retired Lieutenant General Asim Saleem Bajwa, chairman of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority (CPECA), described it as a historic day in a tweet and said that it has been the largest investment from an IPP of $ 2.4 billion towards the energy sector.

The Chairman CPEC Authority said that with the clear direction of the Prime Minister to expedite the work on the Economic Corridor projects, all parties have worked hard for this day.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's Diamer Bhasha Dam to store 8 million acre feet of #water, produce 4,500 MW of #power. Top Chinese engineer: “Diamer Bhasha Dam (DBD) is a world class mega-hydro project. Taking part in this project is a huge challenge for them”. #electricity https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/675120-diamer-bhasha-dam-world-class-hydro-project

BEIJING: Yang Haiyan, deputy chief engineer of Bei Fang Investigation, Design & Research Co. Ltd (BIDR), said that “Diamer Bhasha Dam (DBD) is a world class mega-hydro project. Taking part in this project is a huge challenge for them”.


On May 11, Prime Minister Imran Khan had urged for immediate start of the DBD's construction. On the same day, a Chinese company, BIDR signed a contract to join the consulting team of DBD.

In an exclusive interview to Gwadar Pro, Yang Haiyan said, facing such a difficult work, has showed confidence. “Since 2003, we have worked for water conservancy construction in Pakistan for 18 years.

"We have taken part in investigation and design of almost all of the hydropower projects in Pakistan, such as Tarbela Dam," Kohala Dam, SK, Gomal Zam Dam, N-J and so on,” “China's ability on water conservancy construction is built on years of practices. With our knowledge and experience, we will do our best to live up to Pakistan's trust,” Yang said.

Riaz Haq said...

Azad #Kashmir: 102 MW Gulpur #hydropower plant starts production. The project financing has been provided by Korea Exim Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Islamic Development Bank and ECO Bank.https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2020/07/08/102mw-gulpur-hydropower-plant-starts-production/ via @Profitpk

Gulpur Hydropower Project has achieved certified commercial operation and has started producing cheap electricity for the national grid, said NESPAK Managing Director Dr Tahir Masood in a press communiqué on Wednesday.

NESPAK, in a joint venture with MWH Inc USA, has provided consultancy services as ‘owner’s engineer’ to Mira Power Limited, a subsidiary of KOSEP South Korea, for the 102MW Gulpur Hydropower Project.

“NESPAK has played a very vital role in the successful completion of Gulpur Hydropower Project, as it provided complete technical support to Mira Power Limited in getting approvals from different government agencies as well as supporting the EPC contractor in resolving complex issues that arose during construction,” said a statement issued by the company.

The successful completion of this project has added another feather in NESPAK’s cap, as the company had recently played a major role in the development and completion of 84MW New Bong Escape Hydropower Project.

Gulpur Hydropower Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric generation project located on Poonch River, a major tributary of Jhelum River near Gulpur in Kotli District of Azad Kashmir. The project financing has been provided by Korea Exim Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Islamic Development Bank and ECO Bank.

The project is developed under the federal government’s ‘Policy for Power Generation Projects 2002’ as adopted in Azad Jammu & Kashmir.

The project has the capability of generating average annual energy of 102MW. It was developed in the shortest possible time and would play an important role in Pakistan’s national vision.

The project was completed at a total cost of Rs52 billion.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan PM #ImranKhan: 'Will build biggest dam in Pakistan's history'. Kicks off construction work at #DiamerBhashaDam to store 6.4 MAF, irrigate 1.2 M acres of farm land, generate 4500 MW Hydel power, add 16,000 jobs in steel/cement/construction sectors https://www.dawn.com/news/1569151

Prime Minister Imran Khan on Wednesday vowed to build the "biggest dam in Pakistan's history" after kicking off construction work at the Diamer-Bhasha Dam project, adding that the project will also benefit the people living in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB).

The prime minister made the remarks while addressing a public gathering in Chilas.

Earlier, the PM had visited the site of the dam along with Chief of Army Staff Gen Qamar Javed Bajwa and Federal Minister for Water Resources Faisal Vawda, where they were briefed on the mega project.

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The premier, during his address, vowed that with this project, the government was going towards building the "biggest dam in Pakistan's history".

"This will be our third big dam. China has made around 5,000 big dams, but have a total of about 80,000 dams. From this you can gauge the massive mistakes we have made in the past.

"The decision to build this dam was taken 50 years ago. There can be no better site for constructing a dam, it is a natural dam. Forty, 50 years ago this was decided, and work on the project has begun today. This is one of the biggest reasons why we haven't progressed."

The premier maintained that the government will now move towards building more dams on rivers, which will lessen pressure on foreign exchange and allow Pakistan to generate its own fuel.

He added that generating electricity from water instead of furnace oil or coal will also prevent negative impacts of global warming and climate change. "The benefits are dual. We won't have to import fuel and it won't affect our climate negatively."

Imran said that the project would also generate job opportunities for people living in the region. "I am familiar with GB and have visited Chilas on multiple occasions in the past 30 years. I am well aware how much the area depends on tourism and how much they need tourism during the summer months."

He said that he will speak to the chief minister to prepare standard operating procedures (SOPs) for resurrecting the tourism industry that has been severely impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic.

"We can learn from the world, tourism is slowly resuming. It won't be the same as it was before the pandemic hit, but we can start opening it slowly and start developing SOPs for it," he said, adding that help will also be extended by the National Command and Control Centre (NCOC) in this regard.

The premier added that the project was a huge opportunity for the people of Chilas and GB. Addressing the people of GB, he said: "We didn't increase your budget out of obligation. It is our government's policy to prioritise those areas that have been left behind.

"Thus far, our development has been restricted to a few cities. We will be left behind until we spend on uplifting less-developed areas."

Therefore, the government is investing in GB, merged districts and Balochistan, he said. He concluded his speech by congratulating the people of GB. "Time will prove that this dam will change the fortune of the people of GB, especially those living in Chilas."

The premier had began his speech by stressing that nations only progress when they think of the future and when they invest in their resources, uplifting those segments of society that have been left behind.

"The decisions made in the 90s to generate electricity using imported furnace oil affected our current account deficit. When there is pressure on foreign exchange, [the country's] economic conditions start deteriorating."

Riaz Haq said...

#CPEC Re-Emerges In #Pakistan With Flurry Of Major #China Deals: 2 #hydropower projects costing $3.9 billion, and another to revamp Pakistan's colonial-era railways for $7.2 billion -- the most expensive #Chinese project yet in Pakistan. https://www.ndtv.com/world-news/belt-and-road-re-emerges-in-pakistan-with-flurry-of-china-deals-2263687 via @ndtv

China's Belt and Road program has found new life in Pakistan with $11 billion worth of projects signed in the last month, driven by a former lieutenant general who has reinvigorated the infrastructure plan that's been languishing since Prime Minister Imran Khan took office two years ago.
The nations signed deals on June 25 and July 6 for two hydro-power generation projects costing $3.9 billion in the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir region, and another to revamp the South Asian nation's colonial-era railways for $7.2 billion -- the most expensive Chinese project yet in Pakistan.

Khan's government appointed Asim Saleem Bajwa last year to run the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority, which oversees more than $70 billion in projects from power plants to highways.

He also joined Khan's cabinet in late April, becoming one of more than a dozen former and current military officials in prominent government roles as the army expands its influence in the country.

The Chinese financing has helped rid Pakistan of an electricity deficit that left exporters unable to meet orders and major cities without electricity for much of the day. Still, the implementation of some investments appeared to stall since Khan came to power, with no new projects announced in 2018 and very few in 2019.

Since Chinese President Xi Jinping launched the initiative in 2013, the World Bank estimates about $575 billion worth of energy plants, railways, roads, ports and other projects have been built or are in the works across the globe. Its progress has slowed recently, dogged by accusations that China is luring poor countries into debt traps for its own political and strategic gain.

"The reality is that much of CPEC, like the Belt and Road more broadly, has been paralyzed," said Jonathan Hillman, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, referring to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Pakistan "is a flagship for China's Belt and Road, so the need to show progress is even more important."

In a tweet last month, Bajwa said some detractors had given the "false impression" that CPEC had been slowed. Not only has the pace of work on projects picked up recently, but a great deal of ground work has been done to launch phase two of the project that also includes special economic zones to lure Chinese manufacturers, agriculture, science, technology and tourism, he wrote.

"The prime minister pushed very hard on this," said Abdul Razak Dawood, Khan's adviser on commerce and investments said by phone. "We feel that we have to get more and more hydro in our energy mix."

A spokesman in Bajwa's office said he was not immediately available to comment.

Little Progress

Pakistan's army is already responsible for securing every single Beijing-funded project scattered across the country, from the mountains near the Chinese border to the desert in Gwadar where the Chinese operate a port. Its role has become even more important following terrorist attacks on three Chinese-related projects in the past year.

"There is no doubt that PM Khan's arrival slowed the pace of CPEC projects," said Mosharraf Zaidi, a senior fellow at Islamabad-based think tank, Tabadlab, and a former principal advisor to the foreign ministry. "The renewed energy and approval we are now seeing is almost entirely likely due to the chairperson having settled in, and being added to Prime Minister Khan's cabinet."

Riaz Haq said...

#DiamerBhashaDam, world's tallest dam at 272 meters, will change #Pakistan's destiny by addressing its #energy & #water problems. Located in #GilgitBaltistan, it will store 6.4 million acre-feet of water, generate 4,500 MW of cheap #renewable #electricity https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202007/20/WS5f14f269a31083481725a98f.html

Project, to be ready in 2028, expected to meet water, energy needs in Gilgit-Baltistan region

A new mega project in northern Pakistan is expected to meet both water and energy needs of the region, according to officials and experts.

Work on the construction of Diamer Bhasha Dam near Chilas, a city in the Diamer district in the Gilgit-Baltistan region, has started.

"Diamer Bhasha Dam is set to change the destiny of Pakistan by addressing its energy and irrigation problems," Faisal Vawda, Pakistan's federal minister for water resources, said. "It's Pakistan's lifeline."

The dam's reservoir will be 272 meters in height, and it is said to be the tallest roller compact concrete dam in the world.

Roller compacted concrete is a special blend of concrete that has the same ingredients as conventional concrete but in different ratios, and with a partial substitution of fly ash for Portland cement. This reduces thermal loads on the dam and reduces chances of thermal cracking.

The dam has a proposed spillway with 14 gates and five outlets for flushing out silt. The diversion system comprises two tunnels and a diversion canal. It will also include the construction of powerhouses.

Asim Saleem Bajwa, chairman of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority, said the dam will generate 4,500 megawatt of hydroelectric power.

It was a historic moment as Prime Minister Imran Khan kicked off the construction work on Diamer Bhasha Dam, he said. "Around 16,000 jobs will be created during the construction of the dam."

Imran Khan officially launched the construction work on Wednesday, with Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff Qamar Bajwa by his side.

The biggest

"Diamer Bhasha Dam will be the biggest dam in Pakistan's history," the prime minister said while addressing the public during the launch. "The dam will benefit the country both economically and environmentally, especially the people of Gilgit-Baltistan," he said.

The multibillion-dollar project is estimated to be completed in 2028. It is a multipurpose project that will be used for water storage, flood mitigation, irrigation and power generation.

"This is no ordinary project. There is a reason why both Pakistan's prime minister and the army chief were present at the site for the project launch. It will have an impact on Pakistan's economy, security and politics," said Ahmed Quraishi, a senior fellow at Project Pakistan 21, an independent research organization based in national capital Islamabad.

Feather in the cap

It is another feather in the cap for the Chinese engineers who are known for undertaking challenging international projects, he said.

The project is being jointly constructed by Power China and Pakistan's Frontier Works Organization.

The Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan approved the award of civil works for construction of the dam and the 21-MW Tangir Hydropower Project to the joint venture partners.

The two companies signed a contract in June with a local company for the construction of the diversion system, main dam and access bridge as well as the hydropower project.

"We are grateful to our all-weather friend China for its support in the construction of the mega project," said Faisal Vawda, the water resources minister.

Quraishi said the technical specifications of the project suggest it will be something that engineers worldwide will be studying due to the region's terrain. "China's experience in the dam construction is unparalleled," he said.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan (score 47) ranks 19 on #NTIIndex for #nuclear materials security, ahead of #India (score 41) at 20. https://www.ntiindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/2020_NTI-Index_Report_Final.pdf

Australia ranks first for its security practices for the fifth
time among countries with weapons-usable nuclear
materials and for the third time in the sabotage ranking.
In the ranking for countries without materials, New
Zealand and Sweden tie for first. Most improved among
countries with materials in 2020 is Pakistan, which was
credited with adopting new on-site physical protection
and cybersecurity regulations, improving insider threat
prevention measures, and more.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan has recently re-entered into some important hydropower project deals with Chinese companies.

https://thewire.in/south-asia/pakistan-china-hydropower-projects-cpec-debts


On May 13, 2020, Pakistan signed a deal worth 442 billion Pakistani Rupees (USD 2.64 billion) with the Chinese state-run firm China Power for building the 272 meters high DBD. The total financial outlay of the DBD is PKR 1,406 .5 billion (USD 8.3 billion). This project is on the river Indus in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) – which India claims is illegally occupied territory – and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is likely to be completed by 2028.

Earlier, it was a part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project but the tough conditions, particularly regarding the transfer of ownership, were unacceptable and not “doable” for Pakistan. Afterwards, the Pakistani government tried to raise money for the DBD along with the Mohmand dam through crowdfunding. However, Pakistan then re-entered into a deal with the Chinese firm.

Under the new terms of the deal, China Power will hold 70% of the share while the remaining 30% will be with Frontier Works Organisation – a commercial arm of the Armed Forces of Pakistan. The DBD’s construction is expected to create about 16,500 jobs. Once in operation, it will irrigate around 1.23 million acres of agriculture land and generate 18.1 billion units of electricity annually.


The second project the Chinese are constructing in Pakistan is at Kohala. It was listed under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor since August 2014. The Kohala project is on the Jhelum river on the Pakistani-administered side of Kashmir which India claims is illegally occupied territory since 1947-48. This 1,124-Megawatt project was to be developed by the Kohala Hydropower Company Private Limited. Disputes over this project took place in 2019 between Pakistan and China, which they tried to resolve but the Chinese firm refused to accept the dispute resolution plan approved by the government of Pakistan.

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On June 25, 2020, a “tripartite” agreement for implementing the Kohala project was signed between the China Three Gorges Corporation, the government of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Private Power and Infrastructure Board. The project is likely to cost USD 2.4 billion. International Finance Corporation and Silk Road Fund are also sponsors of this project.

The third hydropower project agreed upon between Pakistan and China was in July 2020 and is at Azad Pattan. It is located on the River Jhelum near the village of Muslimabad in the district of Sudhnoti, in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK). This will be carried out by the Power Universal Company Limited which is owned and controlled by the China Gezhouba group.


The Indus at the site of the proposed Diamer-Basha dam. Photo: Water and Power Development Authority, Pakistan

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For the government of Pakistan, both the Kohala and the Azad Pattan projects are likely to bring about USD 4 billion in the form of investments, produce around 1800 MW of hydel power and create 8,000 jobs.

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One of the major reasons Pakistan is entering into such a deal is to use the available water efficiently, as the country is experiencing water shortage and its yearly water availability is now less than 1000 cubic meters per person. Through dams, it is trying to manage its water resources, mainly for agricultural purpose on which the country’s economy depends.

Second, Pakistan faces a shortage of electricity. In 2019, the transmission and distribution capacity of Pakistan was stalled at approximately 22,000 MW while the maximum demand from the residential and industrial areas was about 25,000 MW. This implied a deficit of 3000 MW. Hydroelectricity will add to the total electricity generated and will help in reducing the supply-demand deficit.

Riaz Haq said...

Power generation in Pakistan declined by 1% year-on-year to 121,867 gigawatt-hours (GWh), or 23,618 megawatts (MW) during fiscal year 2020. In 2019, power generation stoof at 122,708 GWh, or 23,781 MW. Most of this decline can be attributed to the overall slower economic activity during fiscal year 2020, leading to less usage of power, but also the specific time period between March and May 2020, when the Covid-19 necessitated lockdowns and restrictions.

https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2020/07/26/electricity-generation-in-pakistan-rising-despite-the-pandemic/

The lockdown’s effect can also be seen in the monthly data from this year. In March 2020, power generation fell 9% year-on-year to 6,911 GWh, compared to the 7,621 GWh recorded in March 2019. This was also the lowest generation recorded in 2020. Though power generation picked up in subsequent months, on a yearly basis it was still falling, such as in April 2020, where power generation fell 14% year-on-year, and in May 2020, where power generation fell by 5% year-on-year.

However, starting in June 2020, power generation was recorded at 13,288 GWh, which is a 1% year-on-year increase from the 13,157 GWh recorded in June 2019. Even better, it was almost double that of the figure in March 2020 (at 92%). The sector itself is also doing better, with the installed Capacity in the country touching 34,157MW in June 2020, compared to the 30,590 MW of installed capacity in June 2019.

In fact, these factors together mean that the power sector is well positioned in the future for any increase in demand. And demand will increase, as industries have opened up after the lockdowns imposed due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and there has been a pick up in economic activity in the country. The summer and monsoon seasons also typically see an uptick in demand for power, which will help the sector at least until October 2020.

The fiscal year 2020 was marked by a move towards hydropower and coal based power generation, over gas and furnace oil. Hydel power made up 32% of total power in fiscal year 2020, compared to 26% in 2019, while coal’s share went up from 13% in 2019 to 21% in 2020. Gas generated power’s share however, fell from 18% in fiscal year 2019 to 12% in fiscal year 2020, while furnace oil’s share fell from 7% last year to 3% this year. RLNG, or regasified liquefied natural gas, contributed 20% to the overall power mix, nuclear generation took up 8%, wind-based power took up 2%, while ‘other’ (solar, bagasse) took up 2%.



In terms of power generation, hydel generation went from 32,356 GWh in fiscal year 2019, to 38,000 GWh in fiscal year 2020, or a 20% year-on-year jump. According to Kumar, hydel power generation increased because there was more water available this year compared to previous years. Incidentally, this particular statistic was recently picked up by Asad Umar, the Minister for Planning, Development and Special Initiatives, who tweeted: “Massive hydel capacity increase taking place with Dasu, Mohmand and Diamir Basha being built. We need to rely on local renewable energy instead of expensive imported thermal fuels.”

Coal power generation went up from 16,312 GWh in 2019 to 25,553 GWh in 2020, a massive jump of 57% year-on-year. This section has increased because of two new projects finally commencing this fiscal year: the China Hub Power Generation, with production of around 1,220 MW, and Engro Powergen Thar, which can produce 660 MW.

Meanwhile, furnace oil generation went from 9,092 GWh in fiscal 2019 to 4,178 GWh, or a fall of 54% year-on-year. Similarly, gas generated power went from 22,034 GWh last year to 15,064 GWh this year, or a decline of 15%. According to Kumar, the demand for both fell because of their higher costs of producing power demand.

Riaz Haq said...

(Bloomberg) — As developed nations turn away from coal-fired power, Chinese funding has helped the dirtiest fossil fuel take off in Pakistan.


https://financialpost.com/pmn/business-pmn/china-push-sees-coal-fired-generation-rise-to-record-in-pakistan


Coal’s surge in the South Asian nation is symbolic of the difficult choice that the region’s developing countries face as they seek affordable energy to support economic growth while trying to limit chronic air pollution. Asian demand is expected to support the commodity as its usage drops in most of the developed world in a transition to cleaner or renewable energy sources.

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Pakistan’s coal-fired power generation jumped 57% to a record in the fiscal year through June, according to data from the government’s National Electric Power Regulatory Authority. Coal accounted for about a fifth of total output, backed by supplies from the country’s first coal mine in its Thar region, developed as part of China’s Belt and Road plan.

Coal is set to expand further as China pushes funds into building more power plants in the country and mines to feed them. Pakistan is one of the flagship markets for China’s Belt and Road initiative, with more than $70 billion of projects including coal and liquefied natural gas fired power plants helping the nation end decades of electricity shortfalls.


“China has been cutting back on coal at home but it has no compunction about using coal in things that it funds outside of China,” said James Dorsey, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. “Chinese can be willing but they need a partner to go along with them. In this case it’s the Pakistani government.”

Belt and Road progress has slowed recently with overseas energy spending last year dropping to the lowest in a decade, dogged by accusations that China is luring poor countries into debt traps for its own political and strategic gain. China’s President Xi Jinping has publicly urged more clean energy as part of the program, and the plan found new life in Pakistan recently with an agreement to build two hydro-power generation projects.

Until 2016, Pakistan had just one coal-burning power plant. It now has at least nine and more are in the making. The first target of these plants has been to replace expensive fuel oil-based generation facilities that burdened the nation’s economy with heavy costs and pollution.

The rise in coal power has come because of supplies from the Thar coal mine, Power Ministry spokesman Zafar Yab Khan said. The country will balance rising coal use with more renewable energy and its coal plants will use low-emissions technology, he said.

Read: A Hole in Pakistan’s Desert Shows Why Coal Won’t Go Away

With the shift to coal, average generation costs dropped 11% during the fiscal year, according to data from Karachi-based brokerage Arif Habib.

“Pakistan has increased coal-based generation to make it its new base to replace its previous expensive fuel oil-powered power plants,” said Tahir Abbas, head of research at Arif Habib. “This has also helped bring down the power prices, energy import bill and increase the share of an indigenous energy source.”

Riaz Haq said...

Hot testing completed at #Pakistan’s 1100 MW #Karachi 2 #nuclear power plant. Construction of Karachi 2 began in August 2015, followed by Karachi 3 in May 2016. Outer containment dome of Karachi 3 was installed in August 2020. Nuclear Engineering


https://www.neimagazine.com/news/newshot-testing-completed-at-pakistans-karachi-2-8128090


Unit 2 at Pakistan’s Karachi Nuclear Power Plant has completed hot functional tests, according to China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which is constructing two units (2&3) at the plant.

Karachi 2 is the first overseas unit to use China's Hualong One technology. The thermal testing will be followed by nuclear fuel loading, grid connection and power generation.

The tests, lasting several weeks, includes simulating nuclear power plant operations to verify reliability of the main equipment and systems under thermal conditions before the reactor is loaded with nuclear fuel. They were completed on 4 September, CNNC said. Cold functional tests were completed at Karachi 2 in December 2019.

After the completion of hot tests, the Karachi 2 came close to the stage of physical launch, the message says.

Construction of the 1100MW Hualong One reactor Karachi 2 began in August 2015, followed by Karachi 3 in May 2016.

The outer containment dome of the Karachi 3 was installed at the end of August, CNNC said.