Head of Public Health and Research
Getz Pharma, Pakistan.
• Survey revealed that 90% of the population who tested COVID-19 positive (screened via serologic test kits) were asymptomatic carriers of the disease, who would have otherwise not presented at a government-approved PCR testing facility.
• If the results of this study are extrapolated to the rest of the population with similar demographics, the total number of active COVID-19 infections in the country would go up to 4.11 million, which is 17.7 times higher than the current official number.
• While these findings are restricted to Pakistan’s urban, adult, working population in various metropolises, they still provide useful insights for guiding public health practices across the country.
• This is a groundbreaking research which can improve Pakistan’s public health response to COVID-19 by increasing testing capacity and ensuring that the true prevalence of the disease is captured via cost-effective methods, thereby reducing the burden on an already exhausted healthcare system.
A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
A condition producing or showing no symptoms.
A case fatality rate (CFR) is the proportion of deaths within a designated population due to a given medical condition (cases), of such cases over the course of the disease. A CFR is conventionally expressed as a percentage and represents a measure of risk.
The ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.
Immunoglobulin G is a type of antibody generated by the body in response to an antigen.
Immunoglobulin M is one of several isotypes of antibody that are produced by vertebrates. IgM is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in the response to initial exposure to an antigen.
In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection. More specifically, infectivity is a pathogen's capacity for horizontal transmission that is, how frequently it spreads among hosts that are not in a parent-child relationship.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the strain of coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Secondary household attack rate
Secondary attack rate refers to the spread of disease in a family, household, dwelling unit, dormitory, or similar circumscribed group.
The probability that a medical test will detect the condition being tested for in people who actually have the condition. A sensitive test is one that produces true positive results.
The specificity of a test rules out someone who has not been exposed to the virus and has not developed antibodies, i.e. a true negative rate.
Serologic tests are blood tests that look for antibodies in your blood. They can involve a number of laboratory techniques. Different types of serologic tests are used to diagnose various disease conditions. Serologic tests have one thing in common. They all focus on proteins made by your immune system.
The level of a pathogen in a population, as measured in blood serum.
Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a laboratory technique used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA. PCR is very precise and can be used to amplify, or copy, a specific DNA target from a mixture of DNA molecules. It is used to detect the viral load of COVID-19 in the infected population.
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