Thursday, December 17, 2020

Pakistan Shipbuilding Industry and Blue Economy

Karachi Shipyard, the oldest and the only major shipyard in Pakistan, is experiencing unprecedented growth.  It is rapidly expanding manufacturing facilities to respond to growing demand for both civilian and military vessels. Karachi also has several small boat yards near Karachi Fish Harbor where craftsmen build wooden fishing vessels with their hands to meet fishermen's demand.  There are now plans in the works for building a new shipyard in Gwadar.  Pakistan has the potential to build a large "Blue Economy" in its 290,000 square kilometers of coastal water or about 36% of the country's land area open for tapping vast resources in it.  These resources include seafood and energy resources as well as international transport and trade connectivity with the rest of the world. It offers opportunities for water sports, recreation and tourism in the coastal areas of Pakistan. Pakistan needs a large fleet of ships to defend it and to take full economic advantage of it. 

Blue Economy. Source: World Bank

Karachi Shipyard:

Several new dry docks are being built at Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) to cater to growing demand from Pakistan Navy and other government agencies. Two patrol boats have been built jointly with Dutch builder Damen at KSEW and delivered to Pakistan Customs.  

Four Type-039B ‘Hangor Class’ Chinese designed AIP submarines are planned to be built at KSEW. Keel-laying ceremony was held recently at KSEW for Turkish-designed MILGEM corvettes for Pakistan Navy. There are discussions underway to build Dutch Damon corvettes at KSEW for Pakistan Navy. 

Karachi shipyard is too small for servicing large ships owned by Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC). 

Karachi Fish Harbor:

Pakistani craftsman are continuing to build wooden fishing vessels for domestic and foreign buyers. They deliver 30 to 40 fishing vessels every year, in addition to repair work at the yard. Their foreign customers include fishermen from Iran, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and UAE. 

Currently, the builders are taking orders for cargo vessels since the demand for fishing boats has gone down due to a variety of reasons, including the use of over-aged vessels, according to Arab News


Gwadar Shipyard:

Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) has recently acquired land in Gwadar to establish another major shipyard where much larger ships can be built and serviced. KSEW chief Rear Admiral Ather Saleem has told The News “The decision has been taken in view of increased movement of ships and maritime activities at Gwadar Port in the backdrop of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).”      
KSEW in Karachi currently has 2 dry docks of limited capacities of 18,000 and 26, 000 DWT. It also has 3 shipbuilding berths with capacities of 6000 DWT, 15000 DWT and  26000 DWT. These are too small for Pakistan National Shipping Corporation cargo ships and tankers. Deadweight tonnage of the biggest PNSC tanker Aframax Tanker Quetta is 107,215.  

Blue Economy:

Pakistan has a 1,000 kilometers long coastline on the Arabian Sea with maritime sovereignty over 200 nautical miles deep Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and 150 nautical miles of Continental Shelf. This adds 290,000 square kilometers of sea or about 36% of the country's land area open for tapping vast resources in it. 

Pakistan's "Blue Economy" in this extended economic zone includes seafood and energy resources as well as international transport and trade connectivity with the rest of the world. It offers opportunities for water sports, recreation and tourism in the coastal areas of Pakistan.  Pakistan needs a large fleet of ships to defend it and to take full economic advantage of it. 


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10 comments:

Shams N. said...

In 1972, I worked at Karachi Shipyard where I personally did CNC welding of the hull of the 18000 teu MV Lalazar. Not a penny has been invested in increasing KSEW's capacity since then. Instead, it has been reduced to assembling piddly little Turkish-design puddle-wader corvettes and mosquito submarines for the Punjabi Navy on which Urdu - speakers are not allowed to work.

Riaz: What you fail to point out is that the 100,000 ships are not built entirely in a dry dock. Go see Newport News shipbuilding port in Virginia, USA. I worked there for 3 months before I moved to California. Only the ships' hulls are built in a dry dock and then they are slid-pulled into water and moved to a deeper section of the port where the rest of the construction is done. Sliding a 70,000 ton ship is a fiction - it will cause a displacemnt splash so huge that it will sink the shipyard.
Here are some Stats/References that show that KHI is still better than Gwadar, even without spending any money.

Karachi Port Max deadweight tonnage = 75,000 tons and a channel width of 300 meters.
Karachi Port approach maximum depth = 12.2 meters, dredgeable to 16 meters at $35 million total cost.
Gwadar Port Max dead weight tonnage (current) = 70,000 tons (water displacement equivalent)
Gwadar Port approach maximum deptth = 11.2m current, being dredged to 14m at $27.5 million. Channel width
irrelevant here but a turning width is 45m only.

Riaz Haq said...

Shams,

You’re obsessed with “big bad” Punjab and Punjabis.
You need to understand that everything that happens in Pakistan is not a Punjabi conspiracy against Karachi.

Besides, all your stats are wrong. Karachi shipyard has already be expanded greatly and reached its limits given its location.

There’s a lot more room for growth in Gwadar. It’s the right decision to build a new shipyard there. Some of the world’s largest container ships have recently docked at Gwadar.

http://www.riazhaq.com/2017/10/will-gwadar-grow-to-become-major.html?m=1

Anonymous said...

CNC welding existed in 1972! This guy must be talking of some other planet as 1972 CNC even didn't existed in countries like USA, USSR, UK etc.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Extends Security of its #Maritime Sea Limits with modern #technology to protect its assets and increase its #naval power is crucial to benefit from a #BlueEconomy. Ensuring safe navigation of #commerce is vital for building geo-economic strength https://sino-sphere.com/pakistan-extends-security-of-its-maritime-sea-limits/

by Sabena Siddiqi

Recently, Pakistan has taken some unprecedented pro-active measures vis a vis the security of its maritime lanes. Apparently, the changing geopolitical dynamics in the neighborhood have compelled Islamabad to take these sudden measures to maintain its strategic dominance as an important maritime state in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).

According to the official documents, foreign warships and nuclear submarines will have to take prior permission before entering Pakistan’s territorial sea limits. And if the sovereignty of the territorial waters is transgressed, the offenders will be tried under Pakistani law.

Likewise, foreign military aircraft will also not be able to pass through the airspace above these territorial waters without acquiring the requisite permit. Due to the country’s central location, these added restrictions could hold implications for the surrounding region in the days ahead.

Here are the background and some of the main factors which push Pakistan to take this significant step.

For starters, securing sea-lanes became necessary at this juncture as Gwadar port has faced growing threats in recent years. Located in Pakistan’s Baluchistan province, the port has attained tremendous strategic and symbolic value ever since it became the lynchpin of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the flagship corridor of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Even before this development, the port had unlimited potential as it has the distinction of being one of the world’s largest deep-water ports.

Prone to constant risks of terrorism, piracy, and illicit trafficking, the security of Gwadar port needs to be made sustainable to protect large-scale foreign investments there and make it the launchpad for Pakistan’s economic recovery in the geo-economic era. Not only that, the whole of Baluchistan and CPEC routes passing through it remain at risk unless the coastline and borders are secured.

Next, in a recent development, Israel and the UAE have normalized their relations and are installing a secret station on Socotra island which is 350 kilometers south of Yemen and in Abu Dhabi’s control. Collecting intelligence across the region, the station will be able to operate from the Bab el-Mandeb Strait to the Gulf of Aden and the Middle East.

Claiming to monitor the movement of Houthi militants in Yemen as well as Iranian naval movements, this surveillance station can also examine sea and air traffic in the southern part of the Red Sea. However, according to political and strategic experts, the Socotra intelligence-gathering base will be used to monitor Iran, China, and Pakistan.

Therefore, it can become a security risk for the Gwadar port. Even though the Socotra spy- station is not operating at full capacity yet, this potential encirclement had to be contained. Recently, an Indian analyst, Haider Abbas, has specifically stated that the Socotra base will be used to keep tabs on Pakistan.

According to him, “This rapidly changing scenario is altering the world situation as never before, as Pakistan which means China, would now be under the Israeli radars. If any sabotage is to happen at Gwadar then Pakistan-China would blame Israel and Gulf-states equally, hence, the relations of Pakistan with Gulf-states is going to be strained forever.”

Covering one more angle, Ibrahim Fraihat, a professor from the Doha Institute for Graduate Studies has observed that, ‘This base can provide critical security services to the US regarding the Chinese economic activity, especially its trade with Europe.” He has also explained that “Trump is engaged in a trade war with China and needs to monitor the Chinese commercial activities.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Turkish President Erdogan launches welding of 3rd Milgem warship being built for #Pakistan #Navy. Two of Milgem corvettes will be built in #Turkey and the other 2 in Pakistan, at #Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) with technology transfer. https://www.dawn.com/news/1603331

Speaking at the ceremony, President Erdogan said Pakistan is "our brotherly country with whom Turkey enjoys excellent relations".

He underscored that the defence collaboration for the construction of Milgem class warships was another milestone in Turkey-Pakistan defence ties.


President Erdogan said both Pakistan and Turkey were living in difficult geographical regions and both countries were facing similar challenges. He affirmed that Turkey would continue to support friendly and allied countries in the defence field.

Referring to his visit to Pakistan last year, President Erdogan said the two countries signed a Strategic Economic Framework that would provide the necessary institutional framework to further enhance bilateral ties.

All Turkish dignitaries who spoke at the ceremony hailed the Pakistan-Turkish brotherly relations and reiterated Turkey's support to Pakistan on core issues of its national interest.

The contract for four Milgem class corvettes for Pakistan Navy with concurrent Transfer of Technology (ToT) was signed with ASFAT Inc, a Turkish state-owned Defence contractor firm in 2018.

According to the plan, two corvettes will be built in Turkey and the other two will be built in Pakistan, at the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) — Pakistan Navy's specialised shipbuilding division — that also involves technology transfer.

Milgem vessels are 99 metres long with a displacement capacity of 2,400 tonnes and can move at a speed of 29 nautical miles.

These anti-submarine combat frigates, which can be hidden from the radar, will further enhance the defence capability of the Pakistan Navy.

Riaz Haq said...

#Russian navy to join #NATO members in Naval exercise #Aman hosted by #Pakistan Navy near #Karachi. A total of 30 countries will take part in the drills, with 10 engaging their fleets and the rest sending observers. https://aje.io/j63yn via @AJEnglish

-----------
Pakistan Hosting Seventh Multinational Navy Exercise - Aman-2021

https://www.urdupoint.com/en/blog/pakistan-hosting-seventh-multinational-navy-e-1154404.html


By Dr Hasan Yaser Malik:

Predominantly, the prominent civilizations like Circa, Indus Valley and Egypt have emerged and developed along the seas and rivers. Presently 2.4 billion people are living within 60 miles of the coast as ports and sea have always provided prudent prospects for explorers and admirals like lbn Battuta, Zheng He and Khair-Udin Barbarossa who dominated the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean in 15th and 16th century respectively, Consequently, the domination led to enhancement of sea trade as seas were considered as a common human heritage however, during and after Second World War countries like U.S, UK, France, Spain and Italy started to build stronger navies with a view to not only consolidate on colonization but also to dominate the sea trade routes across the globe and established overseas naval bases since 1970s to control the vital choke points along sea lines of communication (SLOCs).

Such extra regional emergence led to expansion of navies such as China, Japan, Australia, South Korea, India, Iran and Pakistan to strengthen the domain of Maritime Security not only by securing their lands and SLOCs but also to explore marine sources.

In case of Pakistan due to its neighbouring environments Maritime Security is more pivotal for protection of its SLOCs and economy. Following the trends of enhancing global interdependence world navies have adopted the approach to conduct joint naval drills with a view to share new professional techniques of Maritime domain and to enhance diplomatic understanding.
Pakistan being a conscientious nation is committed to its resolve of peace coexistence and is determined for superior regional harmony and cooperation thus Pakistan is contributing as part of UN Peace Enforcing and Peace Keeping Missions.

Proudly: Pakistan Navy has been entrusted with command of Maritime Task Force 150 and 151 and has participated in various bilateral and multilateral exercises. Pakistan took initiative by conducting Multilateral Biennial Exercise AMAN 2007 with a view to reveal its obligations to peace, contribute towards regional Maritime Security and enhance interoperability between regional and extra regional navies, particularly against asymmetric threats.

Ever increasing numbers of participants have made AMAN International Naval Event with its seventh episode planned in February 2021. Considering the geo-political manoeuvre place Of Pakistan, significance of Gwadar Port.

CPEC and the professional credentials of Pakistan Navy even Blue Water navies are keen for regular participation. During first AMAN Exercise in 2007: 28 countries and 29 observers participated and in 2019: 46 countries and 115 observers along with 2 Japanese P3C aircrafts, 15 Special Operation Forces, Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Maritime Teams participated.

It is accepted that this time more than 40 countries as well as international observers and warships will participate.

Exercise is designed to provide firstly to provision of common forum for information sharing, mutual understanding and identifying areas of common interests.

Secondly, developing and practicing in response tactics, techniques and procedures against asymmetric and traditional threats during sea phase of the exercise and finally interaction with other nationals to share multicultural opportunities including Cultural Display and Food Gala.

Exercise focuses on objectives to enhance interoperability with regional and extra regional navies thereby acting as a bridge between the regions and display unrted resolve against terrorism and crimes in the Maritime Domain.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan to commence #Gwadar #shipyard project.The new shipyard is expected to boost commercial shipbuilding and repair industry, create employment, and promote economic growth. #CPEC #manufacturing #industry #Balochistan https://www.ship-technology.com/news/pakistan-gwadar-shipyard-project/ via @ShipTechMag

Pakistan has announced that it is set to commence the construction of a new shipyard in Gwadar, a port city in Balochistan.

The new shipyard is expected to boost commercial shipbuilding and repair industry, create employment, and promote economic growth, reported Gulf News.

The project will be executed by Pakistan’s federal and provincial governments.

Both governments have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for the establishment of the Gwadar shipyard.

Federal Minister for Defence Production Zobaida Jalal said that the new shipyard will offer shipbuilding, repairing, and training facilities, which will benefit the entire region.

The construction work will commence after the completion of the project’s feasibility study.

According to the officials, the project is expected to be completed within two to three years.

Balochistan Chief Minister Jam Kamal Khan described the project to be a historical one as it would ‘usher the province in a new era of prosperity and economic development’.

Maritime analyst Commodore (R) Muhammad Obaidullah said: “The shipbuilding industry is important for a country’s economy, prosperity, and social development as it’s a job multiplier and a key industry that is closely linked with several other industries.”


Currently, Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW), a state-owned defence contractor and military corporation, undertakes the country’s shipbuilding, repair, and maintenance work.

KSEW has constructed more than 500 commercial and naval vessels for both domestic and international clients since the mid-1950s.

Gwadar port is located at the heart of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), linking South Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan to develop blue economy. Sees huge potential of the #maritime domain, where all other sectors of #economy crisscross. Unveils new #shipping policy of incentives for #investment in the maritime sector. #Karachi #Gwadar #CPEC #AMAN2021ASuccess https://www.dawn.com/news/1607623


KARACHI: The three-day International Maritime Conference (IMC-21) organised on the theme of ‘Development of Blue Economy under a Secure and Sustainable Environment: A Shared Future for Western Indian Ocean Region’ by the National Institute of Maritime Affairs (NIMA) under the auspices of Pakistan Navy culminated here on Monday.

Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi was the chief guest at the closing ceremony, says a Pakistan Navy press release.

The conference included an array of prominent speakers who delivered addresses during the event presenting their thoughts on the theme.

Addressing the audience, the chief guest said the government was cognizant of the importance of blue economy and taking all possible measures for its development.


Three-day International Maritime Conference concludes with more speeches on the theme

He underscored the huge potential of the maritime domain, where all other sectors of economy crisscross and also underlined that unveiling of the new shipping policy offered tangible benefits for investment in the maritime sector.

The chief guest said that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) was rightfully considered a game-changer not only for Pakistan but for the economic development and prosperity of the entire region.

The foreign minister praised Pakistan Navy for promoting maritime awareness in the country, spearheading efforts for the development of blue economy and taking various initiatives to ensure peace and order at sea individually and in collaboration with regional and extra-regional navies.

He also commended NIMA for attracting a large number of intellectuals from around the globe and making the conference a success.

Earlier, Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Amjad Khan Niazi in his closing remarks thanked all the speakers, panellists and participants who travelled from far and wide or participated virtually to add great value to the conference.

The naval chief emphasised the great potential and prospects of the Western Indian Ocean region for regional integration, inclusive development and international cooperation.

The admiral also praised efforts of NIMA for the successful conduct of the event.

The last day of the IMC comprised two sessions. During the first session, Minister of State for Climate Change Zartaj GuI was the chief guest.

Eminent scholars deliberated on ocean governance, policies and laws.

Chairman of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, UK, Capt Muhammad Shafique explicated the blue economy paradigm in the light of the IMO and UN bodies. Later, director of Maritime Research, World Maritime University, Sweden, Dr Aykut I. Olcer, in an online talk extended his views regarding importance of decarburisation of international shipping for a sustainable planet.

The last speaker of the session was regional head Sindh and Balochistan WWF-Pakistan Dr Tahir Rasheed, who underscored blue growth strategy, opportunities for socio-economic development for coastal communities.

In the third and last session, ZERI CEO Gunter Puli presented his views online on ‘Blue Growth Strategy for the Future World’.

Later, another important address was delivered by retired vice admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Rao, emphasising blue economy.

At the closing of the conference, on behalf of NIMA Director General retired vice admiral Abdul Aleem, director of NIMA Karachi Commodore retired Ali Abbas integrated the conference proceedings and presented recommendations.

The conference was attended by a large number of dignitaries from across the globe, officers from defence forces of Pakistan and friendly countries, academia, media representatives and researchers from local and international think tanks.

Riaz Haq said...

While briefing the meeting, BCDA (Balochistan Coastal Development Authority) Director General Babar Khan Kakar said that a master plan of the coastline was being prepared and feasibility studies of five fishing sites had been included in the tourism promotion projects. He said seven eco-tourism resorts, construction of nine rest areas at the coastal highway and other projects had also been prepared.

Mr Khan said construction of eight floating jetties, five beach parks and two nurseries of salicornia had also been included in the development projects. He said tourist resorts at Gadani, Miani Hour, Kund Malir, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar Marine Drive and Jewani Sunset Point would be set up.


https://www.dawn.com/news/1613735

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan to have hypersonic missiles and directed-energy weapons on all new ships by mid-2020s, as revealed by outgoing Navy chief Adm. Zafar Mahmood Abbasi. In #Asia, #China, #India, #Japan, #SouthKorea & #Australia Navies have similar plans. https://www.defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2021/03/15/hypersonic-and-directed-energy-weapons-who-has-them-and-whos-winning-the-race-in-the-asia-pacific/#pakistan

In October, outgoing naval chief Adm. Zafar Mahmood Abbasi revealed plans to equip future warships with directed-energy weapon systems and the P282 hypersonic missile.

“In the hypersonic domain, the ship-based, long-range, anti-ship and land-attack P282 ballistic missile is under development” he said at the time, and the newly established Naval Research and Development Institute was developing “laser-based directed-energy weapons.”

Neither the Ministry of Defence Production nor the Navy responded to Defense News’ requests for information on these programs. Their stage of development or how and when they will be employed is unknown. Nevertheless, Mansoor Ahmed, a senior research fellow at Islamabad’s Center for International Strategic Studies, believes these developments must be reasonably advanced for them to have been revealed at all.

Whether Pakistani warships have sufficient power-generation capacity to operate directed-energy weapons may be inferred from Chinese and Turkish programs. Pakistan has ordered Type 054A/P frigates (similar to those in Chinese service) and Milgem corvettes (similar to Turkey’s Ada class), and is designing the related Jinnah-class frigate (possibly similar to Turkey’s Istanbul class).

Chinese destroyers have had an operational directed-energy capability since at least 2018, but frigates are not similarly equipped. However, an expert on China’s military believes this will change.

“Based on my interviews with Chinese sources, I conclude that China will be pacing most U.S. directed-energy weapon developments, be they solid-state lasers or microwave weapons,” said Richard Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center. “They were marketing a 30-kilowatt, mobile, solid-state laser weapon five years ago, so it is reasonable to expect they will soon have much more powerful land-, sea- and air-deployable laser weapons.”

Similarly, the installation of the Roketsan-made Alka laser weapon on Turkish warships would infer Pakistan receiving a similar setup. Roketsan literature indicates the Alka can be fitted to warships to destroy or disable drones and similar targets. The company says the system can destroy a target with a laser at 500 meters, and destroy a target at 1,000 meters with its electromagnetic weapon.

STM and fellow Turkish contractor Afsat signed an agreement “on engineering solutions for supplying and integrating the main propulsion system” for Pakistan’s corvettes in June 2020. Their propulsion/power-generation system was previously a CODAD (combined diesel and diesel) system before the U.S. cleared the export of gas turbines, allowing a CODAG (combined diesel and gas) system similar to the Ada corvettes to be fitted.

When asked, STM would not say whether this could produce sufficient power to support a directed-energy weapon.

Given the delivery timetable for Pakistan’s new frigates and corvettes, a directed-energy capability may be reality by mid-decade, but Ahmed, the expert at the Center for International Strategic Studies, believes the hypersonic program is more urgent. He said hypersonic technology is part of Pakistan’s “emerging menu of long-range [anti-access, area denial] capabilities that are increasingly going to be needed for maintaining a credible deterrent” against India’s Navy.

This is backed by reports that an Azeri surface-to-air Barak-8 missile system — a weapon also installed on some of India’s destroyers — downed an Armenian Iskander tactical ballistic missile last year, potentially rendering Pakistan’s present subsonic anti-ship missile arsenal vulnerable to interception.