Thursday, April 2, 2020

Can Pakistan's TB Vaccination Program Help Reduce Impact of Coronavirus?

Can Pakistan's 88% BCG vaccination rate against tuberculosis (TB) help reduce the impact of coronavirus? A New York Institute of Technology study using data from 178 countries has concluded that both the incidence and mortality of COVID-19  are significantly lower in countries with BCG vaccination programs against TB. Will this study help prove Dawn News' alarming forecast of over 2 million confirmed cases by June 1 and 20 million actual infections wrong?

Pakistan's Dawn News Coronavirus Forecast


The study has found that the coronavirus has hit US and Italy which do not have universal BCG vaccination programs much harder than countries like Japan which do.  Scientists say it will take several months to get results from ongoing trials testing the BCG vaccine against COVID-19.
TB Vaccine May Lower Death Rates From COVID-19. Source: NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine  

Scientists have speculated that BCG vaccine may boost the innate immune system not just against TB but also against a variety of other pathogens from invading the body or from establishing an infection. Here are some of the key findings of the study summarized below:

1. Countries that do not have a BCG vaccination policy against TB have seen 10X greater incidence and deaths from Covid-19 than the countries that do, according to a study of  data from 178 countries by New York Institute of Technology researchers.

2. BCG, or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB). It is administered at birth in many developing countries that have historically suffered from the disease, such as India and Pakistan. Most of the developed nations, including US, Italy and the Netherlands do not have universal TB vaccination programs. Japan is among the few developed OECD nations that still do. The East Asian nation had some of the earlier cases, but the mortality is low despite not having adopted some the more stringent social distancing rules.

3. The study looked at Covid-19 instances and mortality for 15 days between March 9 and 24 in 178 countries and concluded that incidence of Covid-19 was 38.4 per million in countries with BCG vaccination compared to 358.4 per million in the absence of such a program.

4. The death rate was 4.28 per million in countries with BCG programs compared to 40 per million in countries without such a program. Out of the 178 countries studied, 21 had no vaccination program, while the status was unclear in 26 countries. The latter group was treated as not having a policy for the purpose of this study.

Scientists do not have data yet on the effect of BCG vaccination on coronaviruses in general or SARS-CoV-2 in particular, according to Reuters. There are also many BCG vaccines, with different capacities to protect against various TB strains. Scientists need to determine which BCG vaccines might have the best ability to boost the innate immune system to fight COVID-19.  Scientists say it will take several months to get results from ongoing trials testing the BCG vaccine against COVID-19.

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19 comments:

Riaz Haq said...

Population over 65 years more vulnerable to #coronavirus. #Pakistan 4%, #India 6%, #China 11%, #US 16%, #Italy 23%, #Japan 28% https://twitter.com/theworldindex/status/1246130346565021699?s=20

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan with a score of 35.5 ranks 105/195 countries on global health security index.

It is rated as more prepared on a scale from most to least prepared.

https://www.ghsindex.org/

https://www.ghsindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/2019-Global-Health-Security-Index.pdf

samirsardana said...

In my post on October 1,2019,I had made a post on the understated blog

http://www.riazhaq.com/2019/09/howdy-modi-rally-in-houston-trump.html

The time coordinates are October 1, 2019 at 2:45 AM

It provides the theological basis for the Hindoo love for Cow dung and Cow Piss

Indians are relying, on cow piss to cure COVID

https://www.deccanherald.com/national/north-and-central/bjp-activist-arrested-for-hosting-cow-urine-consumption-event-to-fight-covid-19-814970.html

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/bengal-dairy-farmers-sale-of-cow-urine-as-covid-19-medicine-sparks-political-debate/article31094816.ece

https://www.dw.com/en/hindu-group-hosts-cow-urine-drinking-party-to-ward-off-coronavirus/a-52773262

https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2020/04/02/gujarat-sees-increased-demand-for-cow-urine-amid-covid-19-scare.html

Is there any hope ?

An Indian drinks cow piss and then places his life in the hands of an Indian Doctor - this is Death Wish - The Final Solution

Riaz Haq said...

Testing facilities have been established in all the provinces, Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, it said.

The National University of Science and Technology (NUST) indigenously developed COVID-19 testing kits which have been sent to DRAP Technical Assessment Committee for comprehensive checking.

It said 13,000 surveillance centres had been set up across the country with public awareness messages disseminated through all modes of media.

https://arynews.tv/en/covid-19-pakistan-cases-lower-sc/

------------------------

The government submitted on Saturday to the Supreme Court of Pakistan a report on its national action plan for combating the coronavirus epidemic spreading across the country.

In its report, the government detailed the situation arising in the wake of the pandemic and the severity of suspected cases.

“By April 25, the number of the coronavirus cases are feared to reach 50,000,” the report stated at one point.

According to the breakdown provided in the report, around 7,000 cases of the total are expected to be critical in nature while around 2,500 could be a cause for concern. The government estimates that a further 41,000 cases could be of a mild nature.

The report notes that confirmed cases are expected to be lower than that of countries in Europe, and assures that the government is trying to maximize its testing capacity.

The federal government has said that it has put in place an emergency plan costing $366 million and guidelines have been prepared in consultation from the medical experts.

“All the airports have special counters to monitor coronavirus,” it mentions in the report, adding that around 222 suspected patients have been traced thanks to entry and exit point checking at airports.

The areas adjacent to Iran and along the Balochistan border have declared an emergency to cope with incoming infected individuals, it says.

“Preparations were made to place patients in 154 districts under quarantine,” said the government report.

As of Saturday, Pakistan has recorded more than 2,700 cases and 40 deaths.

https://www.geo.tv/latest/280938-govt-submits-report-on-national-action-plan-to-sc

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan reports death of 3rd doctor from #coronavirus. Dr. Abdul Qadir Soomro, 70, a veteran physician in #Karachi, managed a #charity #hospital for Jamaat-e-Islami's Al-khidmat Foundation -- among largest relief agencies in Pak. May his soul RIP. Amen. http://v.aa.com.tr/1794673

Pakistan on Monday reported the demise of another doctor from coronavirus, raising safety concerns among health professionals who have been complaining about lack of proper safety gears.

Dr. Abdul Qadir Soomro, a veteran physician, breathed his last at a local hospital in southern port city of Karachi, becoming the third doctor in the country who succumbed to the virus.

Soomro, 70 was the administrator of a charity hospital, run by Al-khidmat Foundation -- the country's one of the largest relief agencies -- in the eastern outskirts of Karachi, where he had established an isolation ward for suspected coronavirus patients, the Health Ministry said in a statement.

His death brought the number of casualties from COVID-19 to 52 in the country.

The number of infection cases in the country has risen to 3,277, as 397 news cases were reported over the past 24 hours.

A total of 257 patients, of them 130 on Monday, have recovered, while 17 are in critical condition.

So far, the northeastern Punjab province reported 1,493 cases, Sindh 881, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 405, southwestern Balochistan 191, northern region of Gilgit Baltistan 210, the capital Islamabad 82 and Azad Jammu and Kashmir confirmed 15 cases of the coronavirus.

Meanwhile, the virus also spread into the country's jails, with 49 cases confirmed in jails of Punjab province alone.

"We have 1,493 confirmed cases in Punjab, among them 49 are prisoners who are currently under quarantine," Usman Buzdar, chief minister of Punjab, said on Twitter.

Since appearing in Wuhan, China last December, the novel coronavirus has spread to at least 183 countries and regions, according to figures compiled by U.S.-based Johns Hopkins University.

The data shows more than 1.29 million cases have been reported worldwide, with the global death toll nearing 70,800, and more than 270,300 recoveries.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan: WHO and UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage: 2018 revision

https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/data/pak.pdf

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's #coronavirus growth rate is slowing. #COVID19 curve is starting to flatten relative to its #Asian peers. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mint-covid-tracker-india-s-coronavirus-curve-steep-and-steady-cases-could-reach-10-000-by-the-weekend-11586316460893.html

https://twitter.com/haqsmusings/status/1247965559796293633?s=20

Riaz Haq said...

لحمد اللہ پاکستان میں کورونا حوالے سے شاندار خبر کل 7 اپریل ملک میں نئے مریضوں میں محض 140 کیسز کا اضافہ ہوا جبکہ 6 اپریل کو 577، 5 اپریل کو407، 4 اپریل 172, 3 اپریل 258، 2 اپریل 161، 1 اپریل 250 کیسز رپورٹ ہوئے تھے گویا الحمد اللہ پاکستان میں کورنا سمٹ رہا ہے شکر اللہ

https://twitter.com/AajKamranKhan/status/1247720194383937547?s=20

http://covid.gov.pk/stats/pakistan

Riaz Haq said...


Fragile health facilities may face corona catastrophe

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2193663/1-fragile-health-facilities-may-face-corona-catastrophe/

In a little more than a month since patient zero, Pakistan has registered over 4,200 coronavirus cases – the government estimates that the case will exceed to 50,000 by the April end.

The crippling national healthcare system is expected to collapse if the outbreak continues to spread by leaps and bounds, as it is not capable enough to address the global pandemic, Bloomberg reported on Wednesday.

The World Health Organisation statistics show that Pakistan spends just 2.9% of the gross domestic product on health, a number significantly below neighbouring India and less than half the global average.
The country is one of only three with ongoing polio transmission, and it has reportedly struggled in recent years to contain AidsIDS and dengue outbreaks.

Health care in Pakistan “continues to suffer from coordination challenges and an acute shortage of resources,” says Arsalan Ali Faheem, a consultant at DAI, a Bethesda, Md.-based company that advises on development and health projects. “The country has been hard-pressed to find resources for health delivery.”

He said that health care in Pakistan “continues to suffer from coordination challenges and an acute shortage of resources”.

Most of the health services including ambulances, hospitals are mostly funded by charitable organisations whereas paramedics staff lack training to operate critical-care equipment, said Asad Sayeed, an economist at the Collective for Social Science Research in Karachi.

Commenting on Pakistan’s economic conditions, he added that finance is an issue, whereas it is also about priorities since budget for health is meager when it is compared to the country’s defense budget.

Sayeed also said that after the 18th Amendment of the Constitution, the federal government has a very limited role to play in the health care sector. Collectively, federal and provincial health spending in the last fiscal year was the lowest since 2016.

There has been a lot of debate over the mishandling of pilgrims that had entered from Iran to Pakistan via Taftan border in Balochistan and the airports, many believe that the country failed to screen most of the pilgrims that become of of the source for the pandemic to spread in the country.

Thousands of travellers without symptoms were waved through the border. Those who felt ill were sequestered in a makeshift tent city on the Pakistani side that, according to patients, had no soap or hand sanitizer. “If one is affected, everyone would get it,” says Mohammad Hussain, 42, who spent more than two weeks there. “The camp was a breeding ground for the virus,” he added.

The government is trying to curtail the numbers by banning public gatherings and restricting the movement of the citizens. After quite an effort, it reached a deal with religious scholars to close down mosques and shrink crowds at Friday prayer.

Officials are going door to door looking for possible cases, with assistance from military personnel, a daunting task in one of the world’s most populous countries. In Karachi, local authorities have converted a convention hall into a 1,200-bed field hospital in anticipation of a surge in patients.

On the other hand, the federal government had submitted a report in the Supreme Court stating that they estimate 50,000 patients of coronavirus in the country by 25 April 2020.
The number of tests for COVID-19 performed in Pakistan is less than 50,000 as of now.

The country has done a very limited number of tests, fewer than 50,000 whereas US has done about 2 million tests.

Riaz Haq said...

National Heath Chief Zafar Mirza: Fewer Covid-19 deaths in #Pakistan doesn't mean we stop being careful. 73% #COVID19 deaths among patients with pre-existing health issues, 85% of those who died from #coronavirus above age 50 while 78% of them were males. https://www.dawn.com/news/1547820

Special Assistant to the Prime Minister on Health Dr Zafar Mirza on Thursday said low Covid-19 deaths in Pakistan does not mean people start becoming lax about preventive measures against the virus outbreak.

Speaking at a news briefing in Islamabad, Mirza said: "I am seeing reports on some media programmes that Pakistan's Covid-19 death rates are lower as compared to projections made through modelling. While it is true to some extent that Pakistan has lesser coronavirus cases and a lower death rate than projected by experts, it is not a reason for citizens to become lax."

He said the restrictions imposed by the government on large gatherings and social contact had an effect on the infection rate, "but if people think we don't need those preventive measures and we don't need social distancing, it would be a very big mistake".

Stressing the need for more prevention and responsibility, Mirza warned that the country could see a sharp rise in the number of cases and deaths if people were not careful and started going out.

Talking about Covid-19 deaths he said that 73 per cent of Covid-19 deaths in the country were of people who had pre-existing health conditions, adding that 85pc of those who died from Covid-19 were above the age of 50 while 78pc of them were males.

Mirza added that the government was creating a mechanism whereby personal protection equipment (PPE) would be provided to health professionals in hospitals in such a way that shortage was not observed.

He said the National Disaster and Management Authority (NDMA) after its calculations had provided PPEs, including N-95 masks, gowns and gloves to 152 hospitals for a week. These are the hospitals where most coronavirus patients would be brought, he added.

"We have a list of some 400 hospitals and all of them will be provided PPEs, and on a priority basis."

The PM's aide on health said the government would facilitate firms wishing to manufacture ventilators locally through a committee formed under the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (Drap).

Through the committee, the firms' applications would be processed as soon as possible so that production could be started in order to overcome shortage, he revealed.

'Burden on hospitals will increase by month's end'
Meanwhile, Prime Minister Imran Khan during an earlier media briefing said that he believed the burden on the country's healthcare system would increase by the end of this month, but Balochistan might not face a worsening situation due to sparse population.

He added that the government was analysing data of coronavirus cases not just in the country but also in the United Kingdom and United States as well.

He said that the government was also looking at the numbers in India and Bangladesh as their population trends were similar to Pakistan's.

Riaz Haq said...

After nearly 55,000 tests, #Coronavirus case curve in #Pakistan continues to flatten at lower levels relative to #India and #Asia. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mint-covid-tracker-maharashtra-tamil-nadu-rajasthan-see-the-highest-spike-in-cases-this-week-11586489542950.html

https://twitter.com/haqsmusings/status/1248639773503156224?s=20

Riaz Haq said...

More medical supplies from #China reach #Islamabad, including 59 #ventilators, 936kg of #masks, #protective #suits, safety lenses, thermometers & 1720 kg of unstitched cloth for surgical gowns. NDMA will distribute these to all provinces. #PPE #coronavirus https://www.geo.tv/latest/282246-another-consignment-of-medical-supplies-from-china-reaches-islamabad


While talking to media, Chairman NDMA Lt General Mohammad Afzal stated that the consignment that arrived on Saturday was received by Minister of Climate Change Zartaj Gul at Islamabad International Airport.

He also said that Pakistan had the capacity to test virus patients across the country for another 75 days. "The supply of goods that arrived from China will be sent out to all small-scale hospitals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other provinces," he said.

The chairman went on to say that all supplies were purchased on the finances allocated by the federal government, and no provincial funds were used for the procurement of the medical relief equipment. “Army chief has also ensured testing facility in 11 army laboratories," he informed reporters.

Another shipment of resources from China was received by NDMA on Friday. The consignment included medical equipment such as PCR testing kits, mobile X-ray machines, Chinese KN95 masks, disposable medical masks and water-impermeable surgical gowns.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's #Coronavirus case curve is flattening faster relative to #India and other #Asian peers. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/india-s-corona-trajectory-tapered-but-still-remains-steeper-than-asian-peers-11586576536468.html

https://twitter.com/haqsmusings/status/1249072353855717376?s=20

Despite the slight tapering this week, India’s trajectory continues to be steeper than several Asian peers such as Singapore, Japan, and even Pakistan. But it is flatter than that of the US, which has emerged as the new epicenter of the global pandemic, with the most number of active cases and deaths at the moment.

Riaz Haq said...

The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Pakistan has risen to 5,038 as of 10 April. Increase of 250 new cases in the last 24 hours.
The most affected province due to COVID-19 virus is Punjab 2,425, followed by Sindh 1,318.
The National Disaster Management Authority is dispatching additional Personal Protection Equipment for doctors and health workers of 202 hospitals of Sindh.

https://reliefweb.int/report/pakistan/pakistan-covid-19-situation-update-12-april-2020

More than 1.5 million families will get severely affected if the lockdown continues for two months in Balochistan.
The public sector hospitals of the Islamabad city are again considering extending the closure of Outdoor Patient Departments for one month due to possible high risk of novel coronavirus spread from the facilities, The Nation learnt on Saturday.
The district administration of Rawalpindi has established a 120-bed quarantine facility at Shahbaz Sharif Sports Complex located on Sixth Road.
Minister for Aviation Ghulam Sarwar Khan on Saturday said the government would bring back 4,000 Pakistanis stranded across the world following Covid-19outbreak through special flights.
Chairman National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) Lieutenant General Muhammad Afzal said Pakistan has the testing facility available for 75-days to diagnose Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic disease.
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Saturday said the incentives announced by the central bank for the business community would prevent massive unemployment in the county because of the economic downturn caused by the coronavirus pandemic as the health minister warned against easing restrictions at the current stage of the outbreak.

Riaz Haq said...

Is #India #coronavirus #lockdown working? The need to leave one’s home to go to the #bathroom and collect #water at crowded communal taps hamper #SocialDistancing. #Modi #BJP #poverty #hygiene #sanitation - The Washington Post

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/04/13/millions-people-indias-crowded-slums-cant-keep-each-other-distance-during-pandemic-lockdown/

India’s lockdown to slow the spread of the coronavirus is laying bare immense social inequalities in the country’s sprawling cities. The plight of migrant laborers has been especially alarming. Following Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s sudden announcement of a 21-day lockdown on March 24, migrant laborers have scrambled to return to their villages of origin in search of food and shelter, in many cases on foot.

Residents of India’s urban slums represent another population whose vulnerabilities have intensified during the lockdown. According to India’s 2011 census, 65 million people, or 17 percent of the country’s urban population, live in slum settlements. Broadly, these are low-income neighborhoods, with dense and unplanned housing, often weak or absent formal property rights, and marginalized access to basic public services, including public health systems. Most residents work in a vast, largely unregulated informal economy and depend on daily wages to support their families.

How India plans to put 1.3 billion people on a coronavirus lockdown

What does social distancing — and the suspension of movement — mean for residents of India’s slum settlements? Here are some of the central challenges facing this segment of India’s population.


-----------

India’s slum settlements are highly congested spaces, leaving little or no room among neighbors. Take, for example, Kathputli Nagar, a settlement in central Jaipur. About 4,000 people live in Kathputli Nagar, on a small, 28,000-square-meter plot of land. One- and two-room jhuggies (shanties) are tightly packed and linked by narrow alleyways that allow just a few people to stand shoulder to shoulder.

Slum settlements often house residents who have migrated from various states in India. The community leader in Jaipur, Rajasthan quoted above pointed out that his settlement has about 5,000 residents, most of whom have migrated from villages in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. He noted that many returned to their villages after the announcement of the lockdown, joining other vulnerable migrants in India who have struggled to return to their villages of origin in the past few weeks.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Health Chief says #Coronavirus cases fatality rate ‘very low in Pakistan’. Actual #COVID19 cases by April 14 is 5,716 vs prediction of 18,000. Death rate 1.7% vs global avg of 6.2%. Sindh #lockdown very early stage but situation in Punjab better.https://tribune.com.pk/story/2197999/1-covid-19-cases-fertility-rate-low-pakistan/#click=https://t.co/XNgIWworAH

Special Assistant to Prime Minister on National Health Services Dr Zafar Mirza on Tuesday said the COVID-19 cases’ fatality rate reported in Pakistan was very low at 1.7% against the global figure of 6.2%.

In a briefing on COVID-19, he said the reason behind low number of deaths in Pakistan as compared to other countries was due to the immediate measures taken by the government to control the outbreak under the supervision of Prime Minister Imran Khan.

He said it was a sign of relief that despite the prediction of 18,000 COVID-19 positive cases in Pakistan by April 14, the reported cases were 5,716 so far, which were two-third lower than the expected trend.
Similarly, the figure of expected deaths was 191 in the country as of Tuesday while the actual deaths reported were 96 so far. He added the government has tried its best to control the disease.

He said although Sindh had taken measures at a very early stage, the situation in Punjab was better. He added the overall steps taken at the national level resulted in better control over the disease.

He, however, said all the countrymen have a role to play in controlling the disease as still there were threats and fluctuation in the figure of daily deaths’ number.

Dr Mirza said the first coronavirus case was reported very late in Pakistan as compared to other countries on February 26, while the first meeting of National Security Council (NSC) was held on March 13, to make major decisions over the situation.


Riaz Haq said...

#MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) & #BCG could serve as a preventive measure against the worst effects of #coronavirus (#COVID19 ). Live attenuated #vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen. #Pakistan. https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/3/e00907-20

Paul L. Fidel Jr., Mairi C. Noverr
Michael S. Gilmore, Editor

We propose the concept that administration of an unrelated live attenuated vaccine, such as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), could serve as a preventive measure against the worst sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is mounting evidence that live attenuated vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by inducing “trained” nonspecific innate immune cells for improved host responses against subsequent infections. Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly associated with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis. Vaccination with MMR in immunocompetent individuals has no contraindications and may be especially effective for health care workers who can easily be exposed to COVID-19. Following the lead of other countries conducting clinical trials with the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) vaccine under a similar concept, a clinical trial with MMR in high-risk populations may provide a “low-risk–high-reward” preventive measure in saving lives during this unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic.

Riaz Haq said...

One More Reason to Wear a Mask: You’ll Get Less Sick From COVID-19

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/07/418181/one-more-reason-wear-mask-youll-get-less-sick-covid-19

As more and more states promote face masks as a way to control the spread of COVID-19, the top-line message has been: wear a mask to protect others. While it’s true that most face masks are more effective in preventing you from launching droplets into the air than breathing in already dispersed droplets – that doesn’t mean masks offer no protection to the wearer.

It’s likely that face masks, by blocking even some of the virus-carrying droplets you inhale, can reduce your risk of falling seriously ill from COVID-19, according to Monica Gandhi, MD, an infectious disease specialist at UC San Francisco.

“The more virus you get into your body, the more sick you are likely to get,” she said.

In the latest wave of infections in the U.S., the wider use of masks may be one factor for the lower death rates – along with more testing, younger patients and better treatments – said Gandhi. A greater proportion of these new cases have been mild or asymptomatic, though more data is needed to see if they track geographically with higher rates of mask-wearing.

Worldwide, epidemiological patterns seem to provide a clue. In countries where mask wearing was already commonplace, such as Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, and Singapore, and in countries where mask wearing was quickly embraced, such as the Czech Republic, rates of severe illness and death have remained comparatively low.

These epidemiological observations are among the evidence that Gandhi and colleagues cite in a paper in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, in which they propose that masks can lead to milder or asymptomatic infections by cutting down on the dose of virus people take in.

“Masks can prevent many infections altogether, as was seen in health care workers when we moved to universal masking. We’re also saying that masks, which filter out a majority of viral particles, can lead to a less severe infection if you do get one,” said Gandhi. “If you get infected, but have no symptoms – that’s the best way you can ever get a virus.”

The idea that viral dose, also known as viral inoculum, determines the degree of illness is not new, said Gandhi. Descriptions of a dose-mortality curve – how much of a virus is needed to cause death in an animal – were first published in 1938. And after all, the earliest vaccines, which were documented in 16th century China, involved exposing someone to a small amount of smallpox virus to induce mild illness and subsequent immunity.

A small number viral particles is more likely to be quelled by the immune system before they can proliferate, said Gandhi.

Researchers have studied dose dependency experimentally with other viral infections, like the flu. In a study with healthy volunteers, those who received a higher dose of the influenza A virus developed more severe symptoms.

Because the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is potentially lethal, experiments on masking and disease severity have been necessarily limited to animals. In a hamster study, a surgical mask partition between the cages of infected and uninfected hamsters significantly cut COVID-19 transmission. Fewer hamsters caught the virus and those that did showed milder symptoms.

Tale of Two Cruise Ships
Gandhi believes the viral inoculum theory helps explain an unusual feature of the new coronavirus – what Anthony Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, has called its “protean” manifestations.

Early in the year, as COVID-19 spread around the world, infectious disease experts began to notice this strange aspect of the new virus – the extreme variation in its symptoms and severity. Some who tested positive didn’t seem sick at all, some had symptoms of a cold, others lost their sense of taste or developed delirium, and still others suffered severe pneumonia that led to death.

Riaz Haq said...

Immune system is like a muscle... you lose it you don’t use it

Vaccines for everything from influenza to measles provide partial protection against COVID-19, according to new Mayo Clinic research, suggesting that parents should get children up to date on shots before school this fall, and senior citizens should schedule their vaccinations before the winter flu season.

People showed a 28% reduction in COVID-19 risk if they received the PCV13 pneumonia vaccine in the past year compared with those who didn’t, and a 43% reduction if they received the polio vaccine before travels to at-risk locations, the study showed.


While the population-based study has limitations and was posted online Tuesday without peer review, Mayo officials said there is little harm in using the results to encourage people to seek shots that are recommended anyway.

“Make sure you get your scheduled vaccines,” said Dr. Andrew Badley, an author of the study and a leader of Mayo’s COVID research task force. “Not doing so is not doing everything you can to reduce your risks.”


The recommendation comes as Minnesota leaders wrestle with the dilemma of wanting to reopen K-12 schools this fall while facing a rising rate of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations.

Gov. Tim Walz will unveil his school reopening plan Thursday, but he made reference during a press briefing Wednesday to a “decision matrix” that will guide districts on whether to reopen with live classrooms, online sessions or a mix. The guidance is expected to give schools discretion, depending on COVID-19 levels in their communities.

“Our guiding principles are to keep our children and our staff in the buildings safe,” Walz said. “Our second goal right behind that is to get our children back in the schools, especially our littlest learners, if at all possible.”

The governor on Wednesday highlighted 4 million protective masks that are being distributed to help people comply with Minnesota’s new indoor mask mandate.

The Minnesota Department of Health on Wednesday reported nine COVID-19 deaths and 681 infections with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes the infectious disease. That brings the state’s totals to 1,589 deaths and 52,947 known infections.

The state reported 310 people hospitalized with COVID-19, and 143 of them needing intensive care. Those are both highs for the month of July.

Cases have been increasing for weeks, initially among teenagers and young adults but now among older, higher-risk individuals who are more likely to need hospital care, said Kris Ehresmann, state infectious disease director.


https://m.startribune.com/non-covid-vaccines-offer-some-covid-protection-mayo-reports/571949932/