Thursday, January 3, 2019

Clarivate Analytics Lists 6 Pakistanis and 10 Indians Among World's Top 4000 Scientists

Clarivate Analytics has listed 6 Pakistani and 10 Indian researchers in its latest list of the world's 4000 most highly cited researchers (HCR).  There are 12 Iranians and no Bangladeshis and no Sri Lankans on it.  Clarivate's citation analysis identifies influential researchers as determined by their peers around the globe – those who have consistently won recognition in the form of high citation counts over a decade. The Web of Science serves as the basis for the regular listings of researchers whose citation records position them in the top 1% by citations for their field and year.

Highly Cited Researchers (HCR): 

Clarivate Analytics has listed 6 Pakistani and 10 Indian researchers in its latest list of the world's 4000 most highly cited researchers (HCR).  There are 12 Iranians and no Bangladeshis and no Sri Lankans on it. This year's Highly Cited Researchers list includes 17 Nobel Laureates. It represents more than 60 nations, but more than 80% of them are from the 10 nations and 70% from the first five – a remarkable concentration of top talent. Here are the top 10 nations in order:  United States, United Kingdom, China, Germany, Australia, Netherlands, Canada, France, Switzerland and Spain.
Most Highly Cited Pakistani Scientists. Source: Clarivate Analytics


The United States leads among HCRs with 2,639 scientists followed by the United Kingdom's 546 and China's 482.  Top three institutions producing world's most highly cited researchers are: Harvard University (186), National Institutes of Health (148) and Stanford University (100).  Chinese Academy of Sciences ranks 4th with 99 highly cited researchers.

Research Output Growth: 

Pakistan is one of the world's top two countries where the research output rose the fastest in 2018, according to Nature Magazine. The publication reports that the "global production of scientific papers hit an all-time high this year...with emerging economies rising fastest".

Countries With Biggest Rises in Research Output. Source: Nature


Pakistan ranked first or second depending  on whether one accepts the text or the graphic (above) published by Nature.  The text says Egypt had 21% growth while the graph shows Pakistan with 21% growth. Here's an excerpt of the text: "Emerging economies showed some of the largest increases in research output in 2018, according to estimates from the publishing-services company Clarivate Analytics. Egypt and Pakistan topped the list in percentage terms, with rises of 21% and 15.9%, respectively. ...China’s publications rose by about 15%, and India, Brazil, Mexico and Iran all saw their output grow by more than 8% compared with 2017".

Scientific Output:

Pakistan's quality-adjusted scientific output (Weighted Functional Count) as reported in Nature Index has doubled from 18.03 in 2013 to 37.28 in 2017. Pakistan's global ranking has improved from 53 in 2013 to 40 in 2017. In the same period, India's WFC has increased from 850.97 in 2013 to 935.44 in 2017. India's global ranking has improved from 13 in 2013 to 11 in 2017.

Top 10 Pakistan Institutions in Scientific Output. Source: Nature Index
Pakistan's Global Ranking:

Pakistan ranks 40 among 161 countries for quality adjusted scientific output for year 2017 as reported by Nature Index 2018.  Pakistan ranks 40 with quality-adjusted scientific output of 37.28. India ranks 11 with 935. Malaysia ranks 61 with 6.73 and Indonesia ranks 63 with 6.41. Bangladesh ranks 100 with 0.81. Sri Lanka ranks 84 with 1.36. US leads with almost 15,800, followed by China's 7,500, Germany 3,800, UK 3,100 and Japan 2,700.

Nature Index:

The Nature Index is a database of author affiliation information collated from research articles published in an independently selected group of 82 high-quality science journals. The database is compiled by Nature Research. The Nature Index provides a close to real-time proxy of high-quality research output and collaboration at the institutional, national and regional level.

The Nature Index includes primary research articles published in a group of high-quality science journals. The journals included in the Nature Index are selected by a panel of active scientists, independently of Nature Research. The selection process reflects researchers’ perceptions of journal quality, rather than using quantitative measures such as Impact Factor. It is intended that the list of journals amounts to a reasonably consensual upper echelon of journals in the natural sciences and includes both multidisciplinary journals and some of the most highly selective journals within the main disciplines of the natural sciences. The journals included in the Nature Index represent less than 1% of the journals covering natural sciences in the Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) but account for close to 30% of total citations to natural science journals.

Pakistan vs BRICS:

In a report titled "Pakistan: Another BRIC in the Wall", author Lulian Herciu says that Pakistan’s scientific productivity has quadrupled, from approximately 2,000 articles per year in 2006 to more than 9,000 articles in 2015. During this time, the number of Highly Cited Papers featuring Pakistan-based authors increased tenfold, from 9 articles in 2006 to 98 in 2015.

Top Asian Universities:

British ranking agency Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) has recently ranked 23 Pakistani universities among the top 500 Asian universities for 2019, up from 16 in 2018.  Other South Asian universities figuring in the QS top universities report are 75 from India, 6 from Bangladesh and 4 from Sri Lanka.

In terms of the number of universities ranking in Asia's top 500, Pakistan with its 23 universities ranks second in South Asia and 7th among 17 Asian nations topped by China with 112, Japan 89, India 75, South Korea 57, Taiwan 36, Malaysia 26, Pakistan 23, Indonesia 22, Thailand 19, Philippines 8, Hong Kong 7, Vietnam 7, Bangladesh 6, Sri Lanka 4, Singapore 3, Macao 2 and Brunei 2.

Summary:

Clarivate Analytics has listed 6 Pakistani and 10 Indian researchers in its latest list of the world's 4000 most highly cited researchers (HCR). There are 12 Iranians and no Bangladeshis and no Sri Lankans on it.  Pakistan is among the world's top two countries where the research output rose the fastest in 2018. Pakistan's quality-adjusted scientific output (WFC) as reported in Nature Index has doubled from 18.03 in 2013 to 37.28 in 2017. Pakistan's global ranking has improved from 53 in 2013 to 40 in 2017.  Pakistan ranks 40 with quality-adjusted scientific output of 37.28. India ranks 11 with 935. Malaysia ranks 61 with 6.73 and Indonesia ranks 63 with 6.41. Bangladesh ranks 100 with 0.81. Sri Lanka ranks 84 with 1.36.  In a report titled "Pakistan: Another BRIC in the Wall", author Lulian Herciu says that Pakistan’s scientific productivity has quadrupled, from approximately 2,000 articles per year in 2006 to more than 9,000 articles in 2015. During this time, the number of Highly Cited Papers featuring Pakistan-based authors increased tenfold, from 9 articles in 2006 to 98 in 2015.   British ranking agency Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) has recently ranked 23 Pakistani universities among the top 500 Asian universities for 2019, up from 16 in 2018.

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Pakistan Becomes CERN Member

Pakistani Scientists at CERN

Rising College Enrollment in Pakistan

Pakistani Universities Listed Among Asia's Top 500 Jump From 16 to 23 in One Year

Genomics and Biotech Research in Pakistan

Human Capital Growth in Pakistan

Educational Attainment in Pakistan

Pakistan Human Development in Musharraf Years

10 comments:

NBRX said...

BAH HUMBUG!

Please verify the information. There are 17 Indian scientists listed not ten! (Page 2 has 7 listed)

Jamshed said...

with population one 5th of Indians that put pakistanis on lead

Riaz Haq said...

NBRX: "Please verify the information. There are 17 Indian scientists listed not ten! (Page 2 has 7 listed)"


It's 17 only if you include American researchers at Indiana University in the US State of Indiana who are included in the search result.

https://hcr.clarivate.com/#freeText%3Dind

Riaz Haq said...

Jamshed: "with population one 5th of Indians that put pakistanis on lead"

India’s population of 1.35 billion is almost 7X Pakistan’s 200 million

Rekha Hasan said...

You have posted up & coming progressive news on Pakistan.

"Rising College Enrollment in Pakistan"

"Pakistan Wealth Inequality Lowest in South Asia"

"Pakistan's Middle Class Larger and Richer Than India's"

"Pakistan Translates GDP Growth to Citizens' Well-being"

"Pakistani Universities Listed Among Asia's Top 500 Jump From 16 to 23 in One Year"

"Human Capital Growth in Pakistan"

"Educational Attainment in Pakistan"

"Pakistan's Trillion Dollar Economy Among top 25"

The million dollar question: Why does Pakistan is at the bottom in HDI in South Asia?

Riaz Haq said...

RH: "Why does Pakistan is at the bottom in HDI in South Asia?"

Why does the United States rank 13th in terms of Human Development Index?

Shouldn't it be number 1 given its world's highest number of top scientists, biggest most innovative tech companies and most Nobel Prize winners?

Here's an interesting analysis of problems with HDI:

In our view, the HDI has three main problems. First, it implicitly assumes trade-offs between its components. For example, the HDI measures health using life expectancy at birth and measures economic conditions using GDP per capita. So the same HDI score can be achieved with different combinations of the two.

As a result, the HDI implies a value of an additional year of life in terms of economic output. This value differs according to a country’s level of GDP per capita. Dig into the HDI and you will find whether it assumes an additional year of life is worth more in the US or Canada, more in Germany or France, and more in Norway or Niger.

The HDI also struggles with the accuracy and meaningfulness of the underlying data. Average income could be high in a country, but what if most of it goes to a small elite? The HDI does not distinguish between countries with the same GDP per capita, but different levels of income inequality or between countries based on the quality of education. By focusing on averages, the HDI can obscure important differences in human development. Incorporating inaccurate or incomplete data in an index reduces its usefulness.

Finally, data on different domains may be highly correlated. For example, the GDP per capita and the average level of education in countries are strongly related. Including two highly correlated indicators may provide little additional information compared to just using one.


https://qz.com/1456012/the-3-key-problems-with-the-uns-human-development-index/

Riaz Haq said...

#SaudiArabia offers 583 fully funded #scholarships for #Pakistani #students at 23 top #universities including King Abdul Aziz University, King Saud University, King Faisal University, King Khalid University, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. http://www.arabnews.com/node/1430591#.XDN1hqW1s1M.twitter

Saudi Arabia has announced 583 fully funded scholarships for Pakistani students at 23 leading universities in the Kingdom.
In a joint announcement, Saudi and Pakistani officials said that the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan will process applications and award 400 scholarships to students studying for bachelor’s degrees, 100 for master’s degrees and 83 for Ph.D. students hoping to study at Saudi universities.
The scholarships will cover all disciplines, except for health and medicine.
Planning for the scholarships was handled by Nawaf bin Said Al-Malki, the Saudi ambassador to Pakistan, and Ali Mohammed Hawsawi, the Kingdom’s cultural attache in Islamabad.
Hawsawi said Saudi Arabia has been awarding limited scholarships to Pakistani students for several years, but would now offer a much larger number.
“Pakistani students can gain admission at all Saudi universities in any subject of their choice, unlike in the past,” Hawsawi said. “We are brother countries and we hope this opportunity will benefit both Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.”

Hawsawi and Al-Malki discussed the selection procedure of students with Pakistan’s Education Ministry. In the past, Pakistani students had to apply directly to Saudi universities for scholarships or make inquiries through the Ministry of Education. Now only the HEC will process scholarship applications.
“We hope when Pakistani students return after the completion of their studies in Saudi universities, they will be able to contribute positively in their respective fields,” Hawsawi said.
The HEC is advertising the scholarships on Pakistan national media with Jan. 31 as an application deadline.
“This is a welcome addition to the HEC’s foreign scholarships program and we hope this collaboration with Saudi Arabia will continue in the years to come,” Ayesha Ikram, HEC’s media director, said.
She said all scholars would be selected “purely on merit” through a system devised by the commission. A total of 250 students would be selected for scholarships and the remainder would be picked next year.
The Kingdom will provide health care for students and their families as well as accommodation, food, return air tickets and special allowances, such as two months’ stipend on arrival in Saudi Arabia and three months’ graduation allowance for shipping books.
Tertiary institutes where Pakistani students can apply include King Abdul Aziz University, King Saud University, King Faisal University, King Khalid University, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, and Princess Nourah bint Abdul Rahman University.
“I am searching for my relevant discipline at Saudi universities and will apply for the scholarship in a couple of days,” said Azka Noreen, who plans to pursue a doctorate in biochemistry.
“This will help me to study at a top university in Saudi Arabia and also explore many historic places in the Kingdom.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Saudi partnerships too valuable to give up – #MIT report. Saudi money accounted for 44% of total spending, funding scholarships, fellowships and programs. Mohammed Jameel, a Saudi businessman and MIT #alumnus gave US$73 million. #ivyleague #universities https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20181208044009628

Last March the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) welcomed Mohammed bin Salman, the crown prince of Saudi Arabia, to its campus. Nearby, and captured in a photograph of the occasion, was Maher Abdulaziz Mutreb, reportedly an intelligence officer who is often seen in the prince’s company.

[This is an article from The Chronicle of Higher Education, America’s leading higher education publication. It is presented here under an agreement with University World News.]

Months later Mutreb was in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, allegedly helping oversee the murder and dismemberment of Jamal Khashoggi, the Saudi exile and Washington Post columnist, according to accounts from the news media and Turkish and United States officials. He is now one of 17 Saudi officials under sanction by the US government.

The ‘disturbing’ visit to the MIT campus is one of many facts laid out in a new report by Richard K Lester, MIT’s associate provost for international activities, that seeks to re-examine the university’s relationship with Saudi Arabia in the aftermath of Khashoggi’s killing.

But Lester, despite acknowledging that taking money from agencies affiliated with the Saudi government raises ethical issues, ended up recommending that MIT not sever those ties.

In short, Lester reasoned, no evidence has surfaced tying any of the organisations that MIT deals with – the state oil company, Saudi Aramco, for example – to the assassination. And, he wrote, cutting ties with them would probably do little to make Saudi Arabia less repressive.

“On the positive side,” he concluded, “these organisations are supporting important research and activities at MIT on terms that honour our principles and comply with our policies.”

MIT is just one of many colleges with financial ties to Saudi Arabia, but it was among the first to publicly re-examine its Saudi partnerships in October, when L Rafael Reif, its president, asked Lester to compile a report. MIT released Lester’s preliminary findings on 6 December.

The report provides an uncommonly candid argument in favour of maintaining ties with an autocratic state caught at the centre of an international furor. And it may dismay activists who have pressed MIT and other colleges to forgo the millions they reap from the regime and its affiliates.

The Khashoggi crisis broke out as MIT was considering a ‘significant expansion’ of its relationships with Saudi Arabia, according to the report. Despite the country’s illiberal domestic policies and involvement in the Yemeni civil war, MIT officials hoped to be a part of what they saw as the kingdom’s steps toward reform. “The Khashoggi murder has deflated many of those hopes,” Lester wrote.

Nevertheless, he recommended maintaining MIT’s ties to the kingdom. Saudi donors, state agencies, companies and state-owned enterprises have spent millions of dollars to sponsor research, scholarships and academic programmes.

Saudi Aramco, for instance, the largest Saudi funder of MIT’s sponsored research, has contributed about US$5 million to MIT per year for the past five years, according to an interview Lester gave to The Tech, the student newspaper.

Just over half of that overall Saudi spending in the past three years, from Saudi agencies, state-owned enterprises and universities, has funded research projects at MIT, according to the report. Lester emphasised that donors do not control the research they fund.

Gifts from Saudi donors accounted for 44% of overall spending, funding scholarships, fellowships and programmes. Many of those gifts came from Mohammed Abdul Latif Jameel, a Saudi businessman and MIT alumnus who has donated US$73 million to the college over the past decade, according to the Associated Press.

Riaz Haq said...


What Pakistan's Amazing Research Productivity Statistic Isn't Telling You
The journal Nature reported in December that Pakistan's research output increased the most among all countries in the world – by 21%.

https://thewire.in/education/research-productivity-increased-most-in-pakistan-last-year-at-first-glance

Academia in Pakistan appears to be booming.

Productivity has never been higher. A recent report by the publishing service Clarivate Analytics stated that Pakistan saw a 21% increase in research output in 2018 – the highest in the world. The number of research papers published increased fourfold between 2006 and 2015. According to Reuters, the number of ‘highly cited papers’ authored by Pakistani scholars has jumped significantly, from nine articles in 2006 to 98 in 2015.

According to Edarabia (https://www.edarabia.com/universities/pakistan/) , Pakistan now produces 445,000 university graduates every year. The number of Pakistani students studying in the US increased by 14.2% in 2017 and 7.4% in 2018. While scholarships contribute to this figure, it also reflects a changing socio-economic landscape in Pakistan, and the rise of an affluent class able to educate their children abroad. And since many scholarships require students to return to their countries of origin after graduation, more foreign-educated Pakistanis are returning to their homeland and often re-enter academia.

Reading all of this, one can be forgiven for thinking that a Pakistani higher education institute is a ticket to intellectual glory. The fact is that academic administrators have been delivering this spiel to hide numerous, and widening, cracks in the system.

The level of education has improved in the last decade or so with an explosion in the number of private universities (from two in 1992 to 188 recognised by the Higher Education Commission [HEC]). However, the quality of education has been falling and, with that, the quality of research papers as well.

------------------------

So it’s clear that the highest quality research being produced by Pakistanis is more often than not outside Pakistan. Inside, the country’s education system isn’t producing many students who can think critically about local problems and innovate solutions.

Together with a prevalent culture of dishonesty, where scientometric numbers are of greater interest than credible papers in credible journals, the situation can only deteriorate.

Reports like the one by Nature sound too good to be true because they are. Real achievements in research don’t happen spontaneously. They have to be earned with hard work and policies that orient that work towards the right goals.

There are two easy places at which to begin. First: the Pakistani government spends only 2% of its budget on education. Increasing this figure can only be a good thing. Second: the government should then undertake a structural overhaul of the country’s antiquated education system.


https://www.edarabia.com/universities/pakistan/

Riaz Haq said...

#Saudi to set up $10 billion #oil #refinery in #Pakistan."#SaudiArabia wants to make Pakistan's economic development stable through establishing an oil refinery and partnership with Pakistan in #CPEC" Saudi Energy Khalid al-Falih told reporters in #Gwadar https://cnb.cx/2TJMPDz

Saudi Arabia plans to set up a $10 billion oil refinery in Pakistan's deepwater port of Gwadar, the Saudi energy minister said on Saturday, speaking at the Indian Ocean port that is being developed with the help of China.

Pakistan wants to attract investment and other financial support to tackle a soaring current account deficit caused partly by rising oil prices. Last year, Saudi Arabia offered Pakistan a $6 billion package that included help to finance crude imports.

"Saudi Arabia wants to make Pakistan's economic development stable throughestablishing an oil refinery and partnership with Pakistan in the China Pakistan Economic Corridor," Saudi Energy Khalid al-Falih told reporters in Gwadar.

He said Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman would visit Pakistan in February to sign the agreement. The minister added that Saudi Arabia would also invest in other sectors.

Beijing has pledged $60 billion as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) that involves building power stations, major highways, new and upgraded railways and higher capacity ports, to help turn Pakistan into a major overland route linking western China to the world.

"With setting up of an oil refinery in Gwadar, Saudi Arabia will become an important partner in CPEC," Pakistan Petroleum Minister Ghulam Sarwar Khan said.

The Saudi news agency SPA earlier reported that Falih met Pakistan's petroleum minister and Maritime Affairs Minister Ali Zaidi in Gwadar to discuss cooperation in refining, petrochemicals, mining and renewable energy.

It said Falih would finalise arrangements ahead of signing memorandums of understanding.

Since the government of Prime Minister Imran Khan came to power in August, Pakistan has secured economic assistance packages from Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and China.

In November, Pakistan extended talks with the International Monetary Fund as it seeks its 13th bailout since the late 1980s to deal with a looming balance of payments crisis.

The Pakistani prime minister's office had said on Thursday that Islamabad expected to sign investment agreements with Saudi Arabia and the UAE in coming weeks.