|Pakistan's JF-17 Jet Fighter|
Development of a new advanced fighter is a wide-ranging effort that will encompass building human capital in a variety of fields including material science, physics, electronics, computer science, computer software, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, avionics, weapons design, etc etc.
Pakistan Air Force's Air University, established in 2002 in Islamabad, will add a new campus in Kamra Aviation City. The university already offers bachelor's master's and doctoral degrees in several subjects. Pakistan Air Force Chief Sohail Aman told Quwa Defense News that the campus will “provide the desired impetus for cutting-edge indigenization programs, strengthen the local industry and harness the demands of foreign aviation industry by reducing … imports and promoting joint research and production ventures.”
Air forces of about a dozen developing nations are buying and deploying Pakistani made aircrafts. The reasons for their choice of Pakistan manufactured airplanes range from lower cost to ease of acquisition, maintenance and training.
Pakistan started developing defense hardware for imports substitution to reduce external dependence and to save hard currency. Now the country's defense industry is coming of age to lead the way to high value-added manufactured exports.
|Pakistan Super Mushshak Trainer Aircraft|
Several other countries are in the process of making decisions to purchase aircraft from Pakistan. A report in Pakistan's Express Tribune newspaper says that Turkey has decided to buy 52 Super Mushshak trainer aircraft. The Tribune also reported that Azerbaijan may buy a couple of dozen JF-17 Thunder fighter jets jointly developed by Pakistan and China.
Along with exporting existing hardware, Pakistan is continuing its efforts to enhance the capabilities with new versions. For example, fighter-jet JF-17’s Block III is expected to open up new opportunities for Pakistani defense exports.
The new JF-17 Block III will be a twin-seat trainer version with advanced Active Electronically-Scanned Array radar and mid-air-refueliling probe. It will use new composite materials to increase its performance, besides addition of other updates in cockpit and weapons’ pods, according to Pakistani media reports.
Pakistan's Defense Industry Collaboration With China, Turkey:
Growing defense collaboration between China and Pakistan irks the West, according to a report in the UK's Financial Times newspaper. The paper specifically cites joint JF-17 Thunder fighter jet, armed drone Burraq and custom AIP-equipped submarines as examples of close cooperation between the two nations.
More recently, Pakistan has also begun to collaborate with Turkey in developing arms. In particular, Pakistan has been mentioned as a prospective partner in the TFX, Turkey’s next-generation fighter effort.
Pakistan's bitter experience with the unreliability of its cold war allies as weapons suppliers has proved to be a blessing in disguise. It has forced Pakistan to move toward self-reliance in production of the weapons it needs to defend itself from foreign and domestic enemies.
It all started back in 1965 when the US and its western allies placed an arms embargo on Pakistan during war with India. The bitterness grew stronger when the US forced France to cancel its contract to supply a breeder reactor to Pakistan in 1974 soon after India conducted its first nuclear test.
Khushab Nuclear Reactor:
Fortunately for Pakistan, the French had already given Pakistanis scientists drawings and specifications before canceling the breeder reactor contract. Work on Khushab reprocessing plant stated in 1974 when Pakistan signed a contract with the French company Saint-Gobain Techniques Nouvelles (SGN). In 1978, under U.S. pressure, France canceled the contract. Pakistan then proceeded to indigenously produce its own nuclear breeder reactors at Khushab. Four such reactors are now operating to produce plutonium for Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Having done its first nuclear test in 1998, Pakistan now has a large and growing nuclear arsenal it needs to deter any enemy adventurism against it.
Babar Cruise Missile:
Since MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) prevented Pakistan from acquiring delivery vehicles from other countries, the country had to develop its own ballistic and cruise missiles to carry nuclear weapons.
The story of Babar Cruise Missile development is particularly interesting. It is believed that Pakistani engineers learned the technology by dismantling and studying a US Tomahawk cruise missile that fell in Pakistani territory when President Bill Clinton fired these missiles to target Al Qaeda in Afghanistan.
JF-17 Thunder Fighter:
The development of JF-17, a modern highly capable and relatively inexpensive fighter jet, is the crowning achievement to-date of the Pakistan-China defense production cooperation. It's being deployed by Pakistan Air Force with Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) on recently rolling out the 16th Block 2 JF-17 aircraft for PAF's 4th squadron. The latest version is capable of launching a variety of nuclear and conventional weapons ranging from smart bombs and air-launched cruise missile Raad to anti-ship missiles.
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) got its start decades ago by setting up maintenance facilities for advanced fighters like French Mirage and US F-16s and by manufacturing Mushshak and Super Mushshak trainer aircraft. It is now also building JF-17s as well as a variety of drones, including combat UAV Burraq being used in Pakistan's war against militants in Waziristan.
Nuclear-Capable AIP Submarines:
Pakistan is expanding and modernizing its underwater fleet with 8 additional AIP-equipped submarines. Four of these subs will be manufactured in Pakistan. These will reportedly be custom versions of Yuan class diesel-electric subs with additional wider tubes from which cruise missiles can be launched. A key requirement for these submarines is to be stealthy—and the AIP-equipped Yuan class is indeed very quiet. The trick is in the submarine’s air-independent propulsion fuel cells, which provide power under the surface as the diesel engines—used for running on the surface—rest and recharge. Though relatively limited in range, this system is quieter than the nuclear-powered engines on American and Russian submarines, which must constantly circulate engine coolant.
Arms as Pakistan's Cottage Industry
Pakistan has a long history of arms manufacturing as a cottage industry. The dusty little town of Darra Adam Khel, only a half-hour drive from Peshawar, reminds visitors of America's Wild West. The craftsmen of this town are manufacturers and suppliers of small arms to the tribal residents of the nation's Federally Administered Tribal Areas who carry weapons as part of their ancient culture. The skilled craftsmen of FATA make revolvers, automatic pistols, shotguns and AK-47 rifles. Until five years ago, the list also had items such as anti-personnel mines, sub-machine guns, small cannons and even rocket launchers. Pakistani government has forced the tribesmen to stop making heavy assault weapons to try and prevent the Taliban and Al Qaeda from getting access to such weapons.
Pakistan's arms industry has come a long way from making small arms as a cottage industry in the last few decades. The US and Western arms embargoes imposed on Pakistan at critical moments in its history have proved to be a blessing in disguise. In particular, the problems Pakistan faced in the aftermath of Pressler Amendment in 1992 became an opportunity for the country to rely on indigenous development and production of defense equipment.
Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex
The country now boasts a powerful industrial, technological and research base developing and manufacturing for its armed forces a wide variety of small and large weapons ranging from modern fighter jets, battle tanks, armored vehicles, frigates and submarines to armed and unarmed aerial vehicles and high tech firearms and personal grenade launchers for urban combat. Some of these items were on display at IDEAS 2014, the 5-day biennial arms show held November 2014 in Karachi, Pakistan.
Praise by Vice Chief of Indian Army:
General Sarath Chand, the Vice Chief of Indian Army, has been quoted by the Indian media as saying: “I would even go to the extent of saying that Pakistan probably has a better industrial base, as far as defense production is concerned, than our country. In fact they export defense equipment abroad, definitely more than what we are doing.”
Pakistan has announced plans to develop and produce 5th generation fighter plane as part of the country's Air Force's highly ambitious Project Azm that includes building Kamra Aviation City dedicated to education, research and development and manufacturing of advanced fighter jets, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and weapon systems. It's a recognition that the country can not be truly independent and have real national security unless it can develop and manufacture the arms it needs to defend itself. Pakistan is just starting to do it but it has a very long way to go. Pakistan is also beginning to export defense hardware to developing nations. Pakistan is recognizing the need to develop significant human capital and build a vibrant economy to make progress on this front.
Pakistan-China Defense Industry Collaboration Irks West
Pakistan's Aircraft Exports
Pakistan Navy Modernization
IDEAS 2014 Arms Show
Pakistan Defense Industry
Silicon Valley Book Launch of "Eating Grass"
Pakistan's Human Capital
Pakistan Economy Nears Trillion Dollars
Pakistan's Sea-Based Second Strike Capability
What are the features of the fifth-generation fighter? Is it going to be a variant of the JF-17? And what are the aircraft of the first four generations? I am assuming that F-86 was the first generation and F-104/105 was the second generation. At some point came the F-15/16 generation and now the F-35. But that only adds up to four generations.
What are comparable aircraft in other air forces to this fifth generation fighter?
Ahmad: "What are the features of the fifth-generation fighter?"
Generally, any aircraft with stealth capability and advanced avionics with integrated all-digital flight system is considered 5th generation. Examples include US F-35, Chinese J-20 and Russian Sukhoi PAK FA.
Here is one ranking.
And here is another ranking. There are some differences between the two rankings but also many commonalities. The US, Russia, Israel, India, China are common. Pakistan does not appear in either of the two rankings.
Ahmad: "Pakistan does not appear in either of the two rankings."
Although the results of such exercises (Red Flag in Las Vegas, NV) are rarely made public, the USAF jumped the gun. Just as it leaked the results of Cope India 2004, in November 2008 a video surfaced of a US Air Force officer talking in a generally condescending manner about the IAF. In particular five things that Col Terence Fornof said stick out:
The IAF has problems with its Russian jet engines
Indian pilots were prone to fratricide – shooting down friendly aircraft
The IAF required 60-second intervals between takeoffs, compared with half that for other air forces (including PAF that participates in it)
The American F-15 can defeat the Su-30MKI, the most advanced fighter in the Su-30 series
IAF not keen on 1 vs 1 dogfights with the USAF.
"This airforce(the PAF), is second to none"
"The air war lasted two weeks and the Pakistanis scored a
three-to-one kill ratio, knocking out 102 Russian-made Indian jets and losing thirty-four airplanes of their own. I'm certain about the figures because I went out several times a day in a chopper and counted the wrecks below." "They were really good, aggressive dogfighters and proficient in gunnery and air combat tactics. I was damned impressed. Those guys just lived and breathed flying. "
(General (Retd.) Chuck Yeager (USAF) , Book: Yeager, the
Indian Air Force superiority claims debunked by RAF and USAF:
Here’s the report of the mock aerial combat exercises published on the NDTV website:
“The first week of the exercises pitted the Su-30, which NATO calls the Flanker, in a series of aerial dogfight scenarios. First, there were 1 v 1 encounters, where a single jet of each type engaged each other in Within Visual Range (WVR) combat, firing simulated missiles to a range of two miles. The exercises progressed to 2 v 2 engagements with two Eurofighters taking on two Su-30s and 2 v 1 exercises where two Sukhois took on a single Typhoon and vice versa. Notably, in the exercise where a lone Su-30 was engaged by two Typhoons, the IAF jet emerged the victor ‘shooting’ down both ‘enemy’ jets.”
So, not only held the Su-30s an edge on the Typhoons on 1 vs 1 and 2 vs 2, but even when a Sukhoi flew against two Typhoons, it managed to shoot down both enemies.
The response to such claims was almost immediate, even though not too detailed. According to an RAF source quoted in an Independent piece the Indian claims were “clearly designed for a domestic audience“.
A UK MoD blog on this topic said: “As you would expect, advanced military capabilities are rarely operated to the limits of their potential, especially when exercising against other nations’ aircraft. This exercise was no exception for the Typhoon Force.”
A spokesperson for the RAF just said:
“Our analysis does not match what has been reported, RAF pilots and the Typhoon performed well throughout the exercise with and against the Indian Air Force. Both forces learnt a great deal from the exercise and the RAF look forward to the next opportunity to train alongside the IAF.”
So, the outcome of the engagements is at least unclear. However something can be said.
First of all, the purpose of such exercises is usually to study the opponents, learn their tactics and strategy, sometimes without showing the “enemy” the full extent of a weapon system capability (even though the latter is also the “excuse” air arms most frequently use to comment alleged defeats). Then, the kill ratio depends on how the scenario has been set up, with the Rules Of Engagement affecting the number of simulated kills.
Actually, this wasn’t the first time the Indian Air Force publicly claimed a resounding (and debated) victory: during Cope India 04, Indian Su-30 were able to achieve a 9:1 kill ratio against U.S. Air Force F-15C jets from 3rd Wing based at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska.
In that case, the kill ratio was confirmed but it was also explained that the F-15s were defeated because they lacked an advanced active electronically scanned array (AESA) and were called to fight the Su-30s in scenarios that involved six Eagles against up to eighteen IAF aircraft with no chance to simulate any beyond visual range (BVR) missile shot (due to the Indian request of not using the AMRAAM). Furthermore, since the drills took place during F-22 budget reviews, some analysts affirm the Air Force intentionally accepted the challenging ROE (Rules Of Engagement) to gain more Raptors…
Anyway, just like all the simulated kills we have much talked about in the past, including some involving F-22 shot down, all these kill ratio claims should be taken with a grain of salt since they are often used for internal “propaganda” and marketing purposes and they have very little value unless we have some details about the scenario, the supporting assets involved in the engagement (AWACS, Electronic Warfare platforms, Ground Controlled Interceptors, etc.) and the ROE.
In this case, for instance, dealing with the ROE, an RAF source said the Typhoons fought “with one arm behind their backs.”
Moreover, WVR engagements, in which the super-maneuverable Su-30 excels, are less likely than BVR (Beyond Visual Range) ones where a Flanker would be much more vulnerable, as Indradhanush 2015 seems to have proved.
I am sure that the USAF is the world's best and the RAF is not that far away but much smaller in size and reach.
That is also the challenge for the PAF versus the IAF, which is so much bigger.
There is no point in underestimating the IAF. I don't think anyone at the PAF does that either.
Yeager was assigned as the US military advisor to Pakistan during the 1971 war. I don't know how much weight to put on his comments. He was an intellectual captive of his assignment and had to make his client look good.
Ahmad: "That is also the challenge for the PAF versus the IAF, which is so much bigger."
You are missing the point.
IAF's reputation is built on lies exposed by USAF and RAF
Any Air Force that has serious fratricide problem does not belong in any top rankings. USAF exposed IAF on this.
Any Air Force that requires twice as long as other air forces to scramble jets is not worthy. Again USAF exposed IAF here
Besides, Chuck Yeager is far more credible on this subject than any obscure rankers.
One of the reasons that Pakistan failed in all its wars is that it has vastly overestimated is own capabilities and seriously under estimated its enemy's capabilities. It has also assumed that its allies will bail it out of things don't go well.
No lessons have been learned, as Air Marshal Asghar Khan has said repeatedly.
The PAF is a lot smaller in size than the IAF. So to insist it is second to none and to imply that the IAF is second to everyone is to show the same hubris that has done Pakistan over and over again.
I don't know if you have read The Battle for Pakistan by John Fricker. It is a hero friendly portrayal of the PAF in the war of 1965. There are extensive quotations from Air Marshal Nur Khan. He is not bragging but gracefully recognizing the capabilities of the IAF.
He also says that he was glad the war ended quickly because there was no way that it could have prevailed over an enemy that was five times larger.
Ahmad: "One of the reasons that Pakistan failed in all its wars is that it has vastly overestimated is own capabilities and seriously under estimated its enemy's capabilities. It has also assumed that its allies will bail it out of things don't go well."
I'm reading Graham Allison's Destined For War in which the Harvard professor argues that the US has lost 4 out of 5 wars it has entered since WWII.
Does that mean the US military is incompetent, inferior and overconfident?
Do you think wars are only won by better military performance and military strength alone?
Don't you think a win for a relatively smaller power in a contest is in its ability to take on a much larger enemy and survive?
Do you think India is afraid of Pakistan in the opinion of many experts e.g. Stephen Cohen because as you continue to insist Pakistan performed poorly in wars?
I suggest you read The Art of War by Sun Tzu to get a better sense of the use of diplomacy, deception and military force.
Looks like AIP has killed the possibility of a nuclear sub for Pakistan.
Hassan: "Looks like AIP has killed the possibility of a nuclear sub for Pakistan."
AIP Subs are far more deadly than the nuclear subs because they are much quieter, stealthy and almost undetectable.
The AIP system is quieter than the nuclear-powered engines on American and Russian submarines, which must constantly circulate engine coolant. Nuclear submarines are virtually unlimited in terms of range, and are better used for deep-water operations. But Pakistanl has no need for nuclear-powered subs when quiet diesel subs can do the same job, according to Real Clear Defense.
Pakistan's nuclear program is a thorn in West's eyes: fact.
They will use India as the proxy to take on Pakistan's nuclear program: fact.
Before engaging in a full scale war they will neutralize our first strike capability: fact.
To neutralize our first strike they don't necessarily need to know the location of all nukes. They just need to neutralize one element in the entire chain from production to final descent: fact.
And before they do all this they will start tracking our subs: fact.
You are simply displaying ignorance of modern anti-submarine warfare as well as battle tactics if you think limiting a sub within a certain area does not sabotage its stealth capability. Consider that word sabotage again. I am using it on purpose. Too many enemy agents are out there in the guise of so called experts trying to peddle foolish strategies, and subverting public opinion towards ineffective defence choices. You don't want to be one of them.
Critic: " You are simply displaying ignorance of modern anti-submarine warfare as well as battle tactics if you think limiting a sub within a certain area does not sabotage its stealth capability."
USA is not buying the cheaper and deadlier AIP stealth submarine capabilities but the rest of the world is
Advances in modern, ultra-quiet conventional diesel-electric submarines are a serious challenge to US nuclear submarines and aircraft carrier groups
In 2005, The HMS Gotland, a modern AIP submarine serving in the Swedish Navy created havok in war games exercise. The Gotland virtually ‘sunk’ many U.S. nuclear fast attack subs, destroyers, frigates, cruisers and even made it into the ‘red zone’ beyond the last ring of anti-submarine defenses within a carrier strike group. Although it was rumored she got many simulated shots off on various U.S. super-carriers, one large-scale training exercise in particular with the then brand new USS Ronald Reagan ended with the little sub making multiple attack runs on the super-carrier, before slithering away without ever being detected.
The 1600 ton displacement Gotland Class was the first operational Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) submarines in the world.
AIP system can utilize advanced batteries that are charged by 75kw generators. The Gotland has generators run by a pair of diesel and liquid oxygen fueled Stirling Engines. The result of this unique, yet remarkably simple system is two weeks of submerged air independent propulsion while traveling at about 6mph. Kockums’ AIP system is virtually silent, even in comparison to multi-billion dollar nuclear powered boats that still have to pump high-volumes coolant to their reactors.
The Gotland Class hull was specifically designed for high efficiency while producing a very low noise signature and it is coated with sonar deadening materials. She also carries a series of electromagnets to counteract her magnetic signature and can short circuit very low frequency fields on command. Her sail is also covered with radar absorbent material and designers are said to have gone through great lengths masking the boat’s infrared signature even when surfaced. On her interior, every piece of machinery is mounted on a series of rubber acoustic and vibration deadening buffers so as to minimize the accumulation of noise emanating from the craft’s various mechanical subsystems.
The Gotland Class boats then participated in open-ocean exercises in the Atlantic where they trounced much more advanced Spanish, French and US players, including a French nuclear fast attack sub and the American Los Angeles Class SSN, the USS Houston.
In 2006, a Chinese Song-class attack submarine, created at least partially by Russian and Western technology and likely not nearly as advanced as the Gutland (the Song-class does not have AIP technology, for example) tailed the Japan-based U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk in the East China Sea near Okinawa without being identified. While such a shadowing operation is quite normal, the sub “surfaced within five miles of the carrier, in deep waters off Okinawa, and only then was it spotted, by one of the carrier’s planes on a routine surveillance flight.” Such submarines are armed with advanced anti-ship missile and wake-homing torpedoes
#Nigeria President unveils five Super Mushshak aircraft bought for Air Force from #Pakistan - Premium Times Nigeria
The Acting President, Yemi Osinbajo, on Tuesday in Kaduna unveiled five Super Mushshak trainer aircraft acquired by the federal government to boost the capacity of Nigeria Air Force personnel in the country.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the five aircraft are among the 10 acquired by the government from Pakistan.
Mr. Osinbajo, who was represented by Minister of Defence, Mansur Dan-Ali, said Nigeria would welcome more support from friendly nations in its efforts to mow down Boko Haram insurgency.
“I will not fail to mention that the decision to acquire the Super Mushshak aircraft from Pakistan has greatly promoted the existing bilateral relationship between the two sister countries.
“It is our hope that we will continue to have the support and collaboration of other friendly nations, especially as we continue to combat insurgency and other security challenges in our country.”
The Acting President, who also witnessed the graduation of 16 young student pilots from 401 Flying Training School, for the first time in 30 years, pledged that the administration would continue to invest in the country’s air arsenal.
He recalled that President Muhammadu Buhari had two years ago pledged to build the capacity of the armed forces to effectively address Boko Haram insurgency and other national security threats.
“These achievements are a demonstration of the commitment and visionary leadership of the administration,’’ he said.
Mr. Osinbajo stressed that the administration had remained committed to its desire of ensuring a peaceful country.
“This has been a major security policy thrust of this administration.
“We have since embarked on qualitative training and acquisition of new platforms and other supporting equipment for the Armed Forces and security agencies.
“We have also sanitised the procurement process of military hardware with a view to eliminating corruption and inefficiency.
“I make bold to say that we have achieved remarkable savings and infused quality into the system.
“This has contributed in no small way to the acquisition of these new aircraft without any encumbrances.
“It is now your responsibility to make good use of the aircraft as we await the delivery of the last batch by the end of the year.
“I have no doubt that the acquisition of the Super Mushshak aircraft would add impetus to the training efforts of 401 FTS.”
India to finalize fifth-gen fighter deal
India is going ahead with the acquisition of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft with Russia after an internal committee of the Ministry of Defence recommended that the purchase of the aircraft will duplicate India’s plan to develop a homegrown advanced medium combat aircraft, according to an MoD official.
“The internal committee, headed by retired Indian Air Force Air Marshal Simhakutty Varthaman, after studying technical parameters, has recommended India to acquire the Indo-Russian FGFA,” the MoD official said, referring to the fifth-generation fighter aircraft.
On the road ahead, the official said, a final agreement between India and Russia will be prepared that will pave the way for the release of over $5 billion toward India’s share to develop the FGFA
A preliminary development agreement was signed in 2010 between Russia’s United Aircraft Corporation and India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, or HAL, when India paid its 50 percent share of $250 million toward initial development cost.
“A firm order of 108 will be put in the final draft of the agreement being prepared,” said an IAF official.
India and Russia have yet to finalize the work share for the production and technology transfer.
“Defence Research and Development Organization has been involved regarding the work share and transfer of technology, whereas the IAF is involved in finalizing the operational requirements and the number of fighters,” said Daljit Singh, retired Indian Air Force air marshal and defense analyst.
“The involvement [of both Russia and India] is huge in the FGFA program, wherein HAL will be doing many systems like flight controls, avionics with inputs of DRDO and other establishments,” said the MoD official.
#Indian T-90S tanks crash out of #TankBiathlon2017 military games after engine troubles. #India http://toi.in/QDOusa via @timesofindia
The Indian Army has crashed out of a 19-nation military competition after its Russian-origin T-90S main-battle tanks broke down due to mechanical snags in the grueling sport, even as the armoured fighting vehicles from Russia, China, Belarus and Kazakhstan raced ahead to enter the finals.
The Army swears by the T-90S "Bhishma" tanks, which are being licensed-produced in India after the first 657 of them were imported for Rs 8,525 crore from Russia from 2001 onwards, though the DRDO accuses the force for cold-shouldering the indigenous Arjun tanks.
Sources said both the main and reserve T-90S tanks, shipped by India for the Tank Biathlon in the International Army Games at the Alabino ranges in Russia, developed "engine problems" after performing "exceedingly well" in the initial rounds of the competition.
"The fan belt snapped in the first tank. The reserve tank was then deployed for the race but its entire engine oil leaked just two kilometres before the end...it could not complete the race. It was sheer bad luck that led to the Indian team being disqualified," said an officer.
China, incidentally, has fielded its indigenous Type-96B tank in the competition, which includes firing on the tanks on the move by machine guns and anti-tank projectiles at a 2-km range while they negotiate rugged obstacles. Russia and Kazakhstan have deployed T-72B3 tanks, while Belarus has a modernized T-72 tank. The four are now competing for the top honours.
The T-90S tanks are the fulcrum of the Indian Army's "shock and awe" armoured battle plans. The force has 63 armoured regiments with around 800 T-90S, 124 Arjun and 2,400 older T-72 tanks as of now.
After the first 657 T-90S tanks were imported, the Avadi heavy vehicles Factory under the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) is progressively "producing" 1,000 more tanks with Russian kits. In November last year, the defence ministry had approved the procurement of 464 T-90S tanks from the OFB for Rs 13,448 crore to add to the 536 tanks ordered earlier.
The DRDO remains upset+ that the Army has not yet ordered upgraded Arjun Mark-II tanks after inducting the first lot of 124 Mark-I variants, stressing the indigenous tanks did better than the T-90S tanks in comparative trials in 2010.
The Army, however, contends that the 62-tonne Arjun, with its excessive weight and width, has poor operational mobility and flexibility. It has also launched a hunt for a "future ready combat vehicle (FRCV)" to meet its requirements after 2027.
#Pakistan's #IT industry exports jump 19% last year hit all-time high near $1 Billion. #technology http://bit.ly/2w82sgr via @techjuicepk
Pakistan’s IT exports have hit an all-time high in the outgoing financial year of 2016-2017.
The country is witnessing a growth boom in the IT industry like never before and the government is also taking steps to support the IT infrastructure. And the numbers prove that the positive activity in the IT industry is delivering good results. According to ProPakistani, figures provided by the State Bank of Pakistan(SBP) indicate that the IT industry’s exports – which includes telecom, and computer and information services – in the outgoing financial year were of $938.640 million. The exports made in the previous financial year of 2015-2016 were worth $788.640 million. This indicates a year-on-year growth of 19%.
The Pakistan Software Exchange Board(PSEB), on the other hand, has reported figures that are three times greater than those reported by the SBP. According to the PSEB, the IT exports stand at a whopping $2.8 billion. There is a huge disparity in the numbers that have been reported by the SBP and the PSEB. However, it should be noted here that the SBP and the PSEB calculate the final figure of IT exports in a different manner. The PSEB reports in different sectors such as financial services, healthcare sector, e-commerce, e-health, but to estimate the final figure of total exports it takes into consideration all the exports done by local software houses to international clients.
If Pakistan’s IT industry keeps thriving at this rate, it certainly rings good news for the country’s economy. Could Pakistan hit the target of $6 billion software exports by 2020 or the target of $10 billion IT exports by 2025? We’ll have to wait and see. But the present certainly does look good.
#US denies #Turkey permission to use #F16 pilots from #Pakistan to train #Turkish Air Force pilots. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/us-refuses-to-send-f-16-training-pilots-to-turkey-prevents-pakistan-from-doing-so--.aspx?PageID=238&NID=117363&NewsCatID=510 …
The Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) has been trying to increase the number of its jet pilots after the Air Forces were hit by dismissals carried out after the failed July 15, 2016 coup attempt, widely believed to have been masterminded by the Fethullahist Terrorist Organization (FETÖ).
During the thwarted coup, 25 coup pilots flew with F-16 jets and 11 of them bombed strategic sites.
After the thwarted coup, it was revealed that a significant number of followers of the U.S.-based Islamic preacher Fehullah Gülen were in the Air Forces Command and 1,752 personnel were dismissed with state of emergency decrees.
According to official numbers, between 300 and 350 of those dismissed were warplane pilots and as a result the ratio of number of seats and the number of pilots decreased to 1/0.8, when it should be 1/1.5.
The F-16 jets of American firm Lockheed Martin constitute a majority of Turkey’s warplane fleet with 240 jets.
The government, which has been focused on measures that would increase the number of jet pilots, is searching for F-16 trainers abroad. Pakistan was the only country to accept Turkey’s request.
However, the U.S. objected to Pakistan sending F-16 jet pilot trainers to Turkey, based on the agreement that U.S.-origin equipment’s purchase, sale, maintenance and training between third countries needed approval from Washington.
Upon the prevention of Pakistani trainers from coming to Turkey, Ankara renewed its request from the U.S.
According to information obtained by daily Hürriyet, the Pentagon has once again rejected Ankara’s request, saying “there is no program regarding training pilots abroad.”
“If you send your F-16 pilots to the U.S., we can train them here,” the U.S. response read, while Ankara insisted on pilots receiving treatment in the bases in Turkey and in their own geographical conditions.
The fact that a majority of U.S. jet pilots are on active duty against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Iraq and Syria is reportedly among the reasons why Washington is reluctant to send pilots to Turkey at present.
PAKISTAN ASPIRES FOR CPEC-DRIVEN AVIATION INDUSTRY GROWTH
In a one-day symposium – titled “CPEC vis-à-vis Opportunities for Aviation Industry and Way Forward” – the Government of Pakistan, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (PCAA) and members of the private sector collectively expressed hope that the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) would spur growth in Pakistan’s aviation sector.
The Daily Times (Pakistan) compiled a report outlining the thoughts and aspirations of each symposium participant, which included the Federal Interior Minister Dr. Ahsan Iqbal, the PAF Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal (ACM) Sohail Aman and other leading officials and industry representatives.
Short-term objectives center on guaranteeing the security of CPEC projects. In this respect, the PAF had outlined its success in building a capable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) element for providing situational awareness for all relevant parties, including its sister services the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF had also expressed confidence in its ability to counter asymmetrical threats through precision-guided airstrikes. It is also committed to providing search-and-rescue support.
The panel’s long-term aspirations echoed earlier government sentiments, namely of channeling projected economic growth from CPEC to effect industry gains. In this case, it is aviation.
PCAA Additional Director of Air Transport International Regulation Syed Muzaffar Alam projected that air travel in Pakistan will see an additional three million passengers in the next three to four years. Alam believed that this growth will present opportunities for growth in Pakistan’s commercial airline sector, be it new airlines or expanded ground support providers. In relation, PAF Air Vice Marshal Razi Nawab, the Deputy Managing Director of the Shaheen Foundation, stressed that investment be made in raising new maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) entities and airlines in Pakistan to support growth in air travel.
Interior Minister Dr. Ahsan Iqbal called for developing Pakistan’s aviation development and manufacturing sectors, particularly through “Technology Intensive Clusters” at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) in Kamra. He also advocated for research and development, joint-ventures and public-private partnerships.
The participating stakeholders proposed raising a joint working group comprising of representatives from the Government of Pakistan, the PAF, PCAA, the private sector and academic institutions to steward the objectives discussed at the symposium.
#Pakistan plans to produce small commercial #airplanes for 10 to 30 passengers. #DubaiAirshow
Pakistan will soon start producing commercial aircraft for the domestic and international markets, said a senior official.
Air Marshal Ahmer Shahzad of Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) told Khaleej Times in an interview that they are looking at producing commercial aircraft with 10 to 30-seat capacity both for executive and non-executive passengers.
“As economic activity picks up with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, we require fast and efficient air transportation to fulfill domestic requirements. We’re also eyeing international requirements in the Middle East and Central Asia,” Shahzad said on the sidelines of the Dubai Airshow 2017.
The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex is a Pakistani aerospace, defence, aviation contractor and military corporation producing aerial systems for both military and civilian usage.
Pakistan has put up a pavilion at the Airshow, displaying its Super Mushshak and JF-17 Thunder as well as advanced avionics and electronic equipment. The Pakistan Air Force is participating with the JF-17 Thunder. One light fighter aircraft has been put on static display while another takes part in the daily airshow. In addition, Pakistan is also displaying its technological prowess in advanced avionics and electronic components and production potential at the Airshow.
Shahzad said work on the commercial plane project is expected to start soon.
Commenting on competition in the commercial aircraft segment, Shahzad said: “We’ve produced the Super Mushshak and it’s being sold successfully despite competition. If we make it [commercial aircraft] cost-effective, with sustained logistics and maintenance, it is going to be attractive to international customers.”
The aircraft will be produced at the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex’s headquarters in Kamra.
Shahzad revealed that Pakistan is going to resume production of more advanced unmanned aerial vehicles too.
Replying to a query about expectations of orders for the JF-17 Thunder and Super Mushshak, the PAC chief said they’re looking for new markets in the Middle East and Far East.
“There are a number of potential buyers for Super Mushshak — which is used for training purposes too. We are fulfilling the requirements of the Pakistan Air Force and are capable of manufacturing aircraft for exports too. Right now, our annual production for JF-17 is 20 aircraft.”
The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex has already signed deals with Turkey, Qatar, Nigeria and Azerbaijan for aircraft export orders.
Pakistan’s largest Olympiad ‘AirTect ’17’ to be conducted by Air University in Islamabad
Air University Vice-Chancellor Air Vice Marshal (retd) Faaiz Amir announced during a press conference on Tuesday that Pakistan’s largest technical and scientific Olympiad “Airtech’17” will be held at the main campus of Air University from December 7-10.
The Olympiad would include 26 technological competitions as well as other value-added events like an AirTech conference, embedded workshops, a national photography competition, project expo, an aeromodelling show, an air techno-show, bonfire, sky lantern show and more.
Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman will deliver his keynote address as chief guest on the occasion of AirTech’17 Conference.
“AirTech’17 is designed to serve as a platform where a fair and competitive environment will be provided to young students to design, build & present technical solutions and perform innovative tasks in respective fields by utilising their creative skills blended with their scientific academic knowledge and technical capabilities”, the Vice-Chancellor said during the briefing.
While talking to media, Students Affairs Deputy Director Ms Fazaila Ali Qazi said that the chief guest would deliver his keynote address on “leadership, education & society development” on December 7. It will include various topics related to robotics, artificial intelligence and other emerging technologies. Furthermore, student competitions will be held on the second day and would be divided into five key categories – robotics, mechanical, electrical, computer sciences and applied sciences.
A “TechnoShow” will be held on day 3 of the Olympiad. The show will include events like “AirBot”, “Robo War”, “Quadro Show” and “Robo Dance”. As a secondary activity, a workshop on international scholarships will also be held on the occasion. On day 4 (Sunday), a tremendous Air Show will be presented over F-9 Park in Islamabad. The Project Expo will also be held on the concluding day, followed by a sky lantern show.
A number of industry leaders, decision-makers and professionals are invited to appreciate students’ efforts and to identify opportunities to collaborate with students and discuss future prospects
AirTech’17 aims to enhance and polish the conceptual, analytical and practical skills and expertise of youth, with the intention of cultivating and nurturing their talent, thus enabling them to envision themselves to be the future of a dynamic and technologically advanced Pakistan.
Pakistan AF Chief announces in an Air show/Techno exhibition:
All drones including those of US to be shot down if they violate Pakistan air space
Astronauts to be sent to space in 2 years.
Fifth generation fighter jets to be manufactured in Pakistan in five years.
Pakistan to be completely self sufficient in armament and become an exporter by 2020.
The first astronaut (the first person to be sent out) should be "Oye Kanjro, Oye Dallio" Rizvi.
Does anybody else in Pakistan government (Prime Minister, President, Minister of Defense, Minister of Defense Production, Army, Navy, Senate, Parliament) know about this?
Rashid" "Great ambitions."
It may not all happen in the Air Marshall's timeframe.
But notwithstanding the cynics and the skeptics here on this forum and elsewhere, it'll all be accomplished in the future.
Pakistan is a large country with lots of very bright young people studying at over 160 Pakistani universities, including Air University where the Air Marshall spoke.
I have a lot of faith in them.
Pakistan Tests An Indigenously Developed Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Pakistan introduces the Harbah, a cruise missile with anti-ship and land-attack roles.
By Ankit Panda
January 08, 2018
Last week, the Pakistani Navy carried out the first-ever test launch of its Harbah anti-ship and land-attack cruise missile (LACM/ASCM). The test was carried out in the North Arabian Sea on January 3, according to a press release from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR).
“The successful live weapon firing has once again demonstrated the credible fire power of Pakistan Navy and the impeccable level of indigenization in high tech weaponry achieved by Pakistan’s defence industry,” ISPR noted in a statement. “The missile accurately hit its target signifying the impressive capabilities of Harbah Naval Weapon System.”
The Harbah is thought to be derived from Pakistan’s Babur family of cruise missiles. Pakistan has tested multiple Babur variants, beginning with the ground-launched Babur-I to the submarine-launched Babur-III, which was first tested last January. Though ISPR made no comment on the missile’s payload capabilities, its origin in the Babur family would suggest that it could be converted for both conventional and nuclear payload delivery.
According to Pakistani media reports, Pakistan’s Ministry of Defense Production had planned to develop a missile system for the PNS Himmat by October 2018. According to the Ministry’s 2014-2015 yearbook, the Directorate General of Munitions Production (DGMP) had been tasked with “the indigenous (sic) developing of ship-borne system with Land Attack Missile [LACM] and Anti ship Missile” by that date.
The missile was launched from an Azmat-class fast attack craft, PNS Himmat. PNS Himmat was commissioned into the Pakistan Navy last summer after extensive sea trials. Along with PNS Himmat, PNS Azmat and PNS Deshat are likely to also operate the Harbah ASCM once the system is declared operational.
Pakistan’s test-firing of the Harbah came shortly after U.S. President Donald Trump threatened to end U.S. military aid to the country in a tweet. While U.S. aid does not go toward Pakistan’s indigenous strategic weapons research and development, the ISPR statement noted that Pakistan’s chief of naval staff, Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, said that Pakistan needed to “reduce reliance on foreign countries” and “emphasized the need to capitalize on indigenous defense capabilities.”
Pakistan’s biggest Science Olympiad LUMS PsiFi set to kick off this Friday
The biggest science Olympiad of the country, PsiFi, which is hosted by the Lahore University of Management and Sciences’ Society for Promotion of Engineering and Sciences is set to start from tomorrow.
PsiFi is entering into its 9th edition, thus the name “PsiFi IX”. The first edition of the series gave LUMS the honour of being the pioneer of Science Olympiads in Pakistan. Since then, PsiFi has been held on an annual basis and each event promises a better experience than before.
SPADES’ executive body is determined to make this year’s event a success, putting in days and nights to ensure that the participants have an exhilarating start to the year. PsiFi consists of a bundle of science-oriented competitions. It revolves around 16 academic events and 4 socials spread over 4 days, starting from the 13th till the 16th of January, 2018.
SPADES quotes the drive to counter the narrative of science being a “boring” field as the root cause of the efforts to make Psifi a “Feast of Fun”. It has set out with all the right weapons required to convince everyone that science is fun and interesting.
The 16 academic events are spread over a wide array of backgrounds and are not confined to one branch of science. Some of them are:
See also: Upcoming Lahore Science Mela is all about blending science with culture
1. Diagnosis Dilemma
This event is based on 3 rounds, starting off from a Crisis scenario wherein participants will take up the role of a paramedic and try to counter the crisis situation, participants will put their surgical ability to test and pull out a tumor from a dummy without damaging internal organs.
This event aims to bring out the Matt Damon in everyone and test their knowledge of space and planets. Nowadays, space travel and the possibility of people living on other planets is constantly being explored by governments and firms like SpaceX. Now, students have the chance to present their proposals in front of a learned judging panel. Galactica, where limits extend beyond the sky.
3. Geek Wars
This event is bound to exploit the movie and seasons knowledge of the participants. Based on 5 rounds, this event will bring out the sci-fi movie nerd inside everyone. The rounds will comprise of MCQs, riddles and dares, all of them aiming to bring the Sci-Fi element in Psifi!
4. Vine’d Up
This event is all about laughter, humor and the best thing in our lives: Memes! Based on 3 rounds in addition to a bonus round, this event will comprise of participants making memes out of images given to them and using imaginary gadgets in (hopefully) funny videos. This event promises to be one of the most enjoyable of the roster of events, and rightfully so. After all, what’s life without laughter, right?
Other than the academic events, Psifi will also host 4 social events including a concert which is bound to be the highlight of the event. Starting from the amazing opening ceremony all the way up to the Black and Gold themed Closing Dinner, the socials will be an amazing remedy for the stress from the academic events.
POSSIBLE MALE UAV CONCEPTS AT PAKISTAN’S AVIATION DESIGN INSTITUTE
In a promotional video for the breaking-ground event for Air University’s Aerospace and Aviation Campus in Kamra, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) revealed design concepts of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designs made by the Aviation Design Institute (AvDI) which may be related to “Project Azm.”
Under Project Azm, AvDI – which is part of PAC – was tasked by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) to design and develop a medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV.
While preliminary and tentative, AvDI’s mock-ups broadly mirrored the MALE UAVs being produced in China and Turkey, such as the Wing Loong as well as CH-4 and the Anka, respectively. However, technical specifics such as prospective powerplant, payload, hardpoints and weaponization were not disclosed.
In December 2017, the PAF CAS reportedly stated that the AvDI MALE UAV will materialize in 18 months.
The PAF Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal (ACM) Sohail Aman formally announced Project Azm in July 2017 in the inauguration event of the Kamra Aviation City complex, which is envisaged as the home of PAC, AvDI, Air University and other state-owned and potentially private sector aviation companies.
Recently, analysts belonging to the Center for Study of the Drone at Bard College, New York identified a Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group (CAIG) Wing Loong UAV stationed at PAF M.M. Alam in Mianwali by using commercial satellite imagery. It appears that the Wing Loong arrived to Mianwali in late November 2017.
Currently, it appears that Pakistan is continuing its tests of the Wing Loong, having flown it through 2016 under “experimental flights.” CAIG is also test-flying the improved Wing Loong II, which has a payload of 400 kg, top speed of 370 km/h, service ceiling of 30,000 ft and endurance of 32 hours. The Chinese press claim that the Wing Loong II secured its launch export orders before its flight, but it is unknown who has the drones on order, though it is said to be the largest overseas sale of Chinese drones to-date.
Notes & Comments:
The PAF’s UAV attack UAV is the Burraq, produced by the National Engineering and Scientific Commission. It can carry up two laser-guided air-to-ground missiles. Thus far, it appears that the PAF has been using the Burraq for time-sensitive and/or targeted strikes as part of its counterinsurgency (COIN) and counter-terrorism (CT) operations. The PAF has been using the Leonardo Falco and General Industrial & Defence Solutions (GIDS) Shahpar for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) in its COIN/CT operations.
Pakistan began inducting the Falco in 2009 under a co-production agreement involving PAC and Leonardo. The Falco has a payload of 25 kg available for electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) turrets. The Falco was later joined by the Shahpar, which has a payload of 50 kg and endurance of seven hours.
The introduction of MALE UAVs – be it the Wing Loong-series or a potentially original design by PAC and AvDI – would provide the PAF with increased attack capabilities and ISR coverages through the use of its drones. It could also spur the introduction of using heavier munitions, such as 100 kg precision-guided bombs, from drones. This would extend the use of these aircraft from time-sensitive strikes and targeted attacks against individuals to close air support (CAS)-level missions in COIN/CT, such as attacking moving vehicles and neutralizing enemy firing positions. In terms of ISR, the PAF can equip these new drones with synthetic aperture radars for real-time image intelligence and use ground-moving target-indication for target acquisition – this information could be provided to other airborne and/or land units via data-link. Pakistan can leverage the endurance of a MALE UAV to sustain a ISR coverage unit for a longer time period.
#Pakistan successfully test-fires bvr (beyond visual range) infrared #missile from #JF17 Thunder jet fighter. #PAF #infrared
It was a landmark occasion for Pakistan Air Force (PAF) as well as the whole nation, when the indigenously produced JF-17 Thunder shot down a slow speed target with BVR (Beyond Visual Range) and IR (Infrared) missile with a pin-point accuracy at Sonmiani firing range on Friday.
Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman witnessed the live demonstration, displaying PAF’s capability to successfully locate and destroy high/ slow speed moving targets by employing high-tech inventory of aircraft and missiles, said a PAF press release.
Addressing the ceremony, the air chief said, “We are thankful to Allah Almighty who has given us the strength to achieve this extraordinary milestone. The successful testing of these sophisticated weapons is a testimony of JF-17 Thunder’s multirole capabilities.”
He said it was a matter of immense pride that six PAF fighter squadrons had already been equipped with the pride of the nation JF-17 Thunder aircraft, making it the backbone of our aerial defence.
The air chief also lauded the hard work put in by PAF and Chinese personnel in making the event a success.
“The day marked a monumental episode in the glorious history of PAF as a state-of-the-art Weapon Test Range has been made operational to track the complete trajectory of the aircraft and launched missiles,” read the press release.
The facility, developed in collaboration with Chinese authorities, is equipped with real time tracking and measuring equipment to qualify the indigenously developed and procured weapon systems.
Earlier, Air Vice Marshal Haseeb Paracha, Air Officer Commanding, Southern Air Command received the chief guest on his arrival at the venue. High ranking PAF officers along with civil and military officials also witnessed this historic event.
Around 700 Awarded Degrees At PAF Karachi Institute Of Economics & Technology Convocation
KARACHI, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 18th Feb, 2018 ):As many as 698 graduates were conferred degrees in the disciplines of Management Sciences, Computer Sciences and Engineering at the 15th convocation of Pakistan Air Force - Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology.
The convocation was held at the Convention Centre, PAF Museum, PAF Base Faisal, Karachi, said a statement issued, here on Sunday. The College of Management Sciences awarded 99 degrees in BBA and BSAF, 145 in MBA and 1 in MS-MS degree programs.
The College of Computing & Information Sciences awarded 122 degrees in BSCS, 48 in BS-ERP, 28 in MCS, 5 in MBA-ERP, 10 in MS-CS and 41 degrees were awarded to BCA and 6 to MCA graduates. Furthermore, the College of Engineering awarded 11 degrees to MS-EE and 182 to the graduates of BE Electronics degree program.
Vice Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal Farooq Habib, was the Chief Guest at the occasion and awarded Gold and Silver Medals to the distinguished students. The chief guest emphasised the importance of higher education and the significance of research and development for the progress of the country.
In his welcome address, President of the Institute, Air Vice Marshal (retd) Tubrez Asif, praised the efforts of the students and faculty while emphasising the role of education in the development of Pakistan.
He thanked the chief guest for his presence at the convocation. The names and degree programs of the gold medalists are Sarang Saeed Agha BBA; Yusra Mansoor BSCS; Saaniya Sualeh Faisal BE; Hoor-Ul-Ain Durrani BCA; Shiza Kokab Iqbal BS-ERP; Fawad Musharaf MCS; Muhammad Araib Khan MBA; Muhammad Mubeen MS-SE; Ayesha Hassan MS-EE.
The names and degree programs of the silver medalists are Muhammad Amin BBA; Omaima Tauqeer BSCS; Abdul Rehman BE; Rana Raheel Naseer BS-ERP; Binish MBA; Asma Mazhar MS-EE. APP/pas/mkm/
China to upgrade radar of Pakistan’s JF-17 fighter aircraft
Gabriel Dominguez, London - IHS Jane's Defence Weekly
China will upgrade Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder multirole combat aircraft with the KLJ-7A active electronically scanned-array (AESA) radar, according to a 28 March report by the China Daily newspaper.
Hu Mingchun, head of the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology (NRIET) in Jiangsu province, was quoted by the state-owned paper as saying that the newest version of the KLJ-7 fire-control radar (FCR) will substantially improve the combat capabilities of the aircraft.
“Our product will tremendously extend the fighter jet’s detection range, giving it a much longer sight that will help it detect the enemy’s aircraft before they do; and this is very important, because in real combat if you see first, you fire first,” he said.
In comparison to current-generation mechanically-steered radars, AESA radars provide key defensibility gains against electronic warfare (EW) jamming and enemy radar detection. Instead of relying on a single array that transmits a different frequency per-single-pulse, AESA radars utilize many arrays – i.e. transmit and receive modules (TRM) – that can each transmit in a different frequency. In unison, these TRMs enable a single AESA radar unit to transmit in different frequencies simultaneously.
East Pendulum was informed by NRIET deputy director Wang Hongzhe that the KLJ-7A has a range of 170 km, though it is unclear if this is against 5m² RCS (radar cross-section) or 3m² RCS targets. It can track 15 targets and engage four simultaneously. Though equipped with 1,000 TRMs, it is not known if the KLJ-7A’s TRMs are built from gallium arsenide (GaA) or gallium nitride (GaN).
In China, NRIET is competing with AVIC’s 607 research institute – i.e. Leihua Electronic Technology Research Institute (LETRI) – for the PAF’s Block-III contract, which is expected to comprise of 50 new-built aircraft. LETRI is pitching an air-cooled AESA radar, which omits dedicated liquid-cooling systems, thereby providing valuable space and weight benefits optimal for lightweight fighter platforms.
Leonardo’s Selex ES division had pitched the Vixen 1000E AESA radar as well, though industry analysts are skeptical that the PAF will select the Vixen. The PAF’s JF-17s are equipped with the SD-10 beyond-visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM) and C-802 anti-ship missile (AShM). These necessitate direct linkage to the radar for pre-terminal-stage guidance. It is unlikely that either side will cede their respective source codes to make linkage between Chinese munitions and European radars possible.
The PAF is also hoping to eventually manufacture AESA radars domestically at PAC. Proceeding with NRIET and/or LETRI for the JF-17 could set the stage for those entities to assist Pakistan in its efforts, which will be an integral aspect of Project Azm, which envisages developing and producing a 5th-generation fighter for the PAF. It is unlikely that Leonardo would be as forthcoming in this regard.
Pakistan needs a balanced mix of quality skilled workers, technicians, technologists, engineers, researchers and development scientists to promote the country's industrialization. National University of Technology is Pakistan government's answer to fulfill this need.
The problem with Pakistan’s technological education hitherto has been a surfeit of theory adept engineers, who lack practical skills upon graduation and are therefore of limited use for industry that demands hands on technologists, who could run industrial processes with the desired degree of competence. NUTECH seeks to fill that void through degree programs that will give both respectability and international recognition to the technologists who would undergo four year degree programs in different disciplines of engineering technology. These engineering technology graduates would be exposed to a curriculum geared towards practical aspects of technology that come in handy for an industrial employer. While the engineering degree holders would concentrate on designing and policy aspects the graduates of NUTECH would be focused on actual execution of technological tasks on shop floor. With a practical orientation these engineering technology graduates would already be adept in engineering practices on graduation unlike a normal engineering graduate whose learning starts upon graduation.
The production of top quality engineering technologists accredited to top class international technology regimes like the ‘Dublin, Sydney, and Bologna Accords’ would be a big shot in the arm for our human resource starved industrial sector. As a pioneer technology university under the Ministry of Education and affiliated with the Higher Education Commission, the University is charged with forging a direct linkage with the industry. While NUTECH would be mainly conducting Degree Programs, it is capable of reaching out to less developed areas through its widespread network of technical and vocational training institutes, producing skilled workers for the industry. With more focus on hands on practical training and inclusion of the industrial sector as a stakeholder in designing of curricula, it would synergise the academic output for the benefit of industry.
Pakistan that has suffered because it has completely bypassed industrial development by taking a shortcut to the services sector. Without industrial sinews, no country in the contemporary world can enjoy sustainable economic development. The time has come to correct that egregious flaw in our national development planning through sustainable initiatives. NUTECH is one such initiative, which was long overdue.
One million youth to be trained each year under new TVET policy: Cheema
Islamabad: This national policy for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), sets out for the first time in our country’s history – the commitment to invest in skill development is vital fast-changing and transforming global economy. The government is committed to increasing access, relevant and the quality of technical &vocational training. We are improving higher education provision. But as this TVET policy document demonstrates so clearly, as a nation we must develop skills to transform on youth into an asset-instead of a burden. The government of Pakistan has stoic resolve and commitment to ensure the implementation of the TVET policy, encouraging technical and vocational training for national and international labour markets.
TVET policy envisages the need for expansion of provision and a greater role for the private sector. It also ensuring the creation of a national quality assurance and qualification system. The importance of developing a new approach to planning and implementation is also part of this policy. This involves partnership working and greater emphasis on performance, accountability and evidence-based decision-making.
NAVTTC Chief Zulfiqar Ahmad Cheema has said that National TVET Policy is an important milestone towards strengthening the TVET sector which would contribute to boost our economy.
“This is indeed a historic moment for us and a clear demonstration of the importance of skills development to achieve sustained economic growth, to increase productivity and to provide opportunities for people to contribute to the economy and to their communities, particularly the country’s growing young population”, he said.
The Head of NAVTTC thanked the cabinet members, provincial TEVTAs, development partners of TVET Reform Support Program, GIZ, Industrial sector of Pakistan and the industrial sector for their cooperation and support.
The National TVET Policy has following salient features:
Secure a national commitment to the importance of skills development to achieve sustained economic growth, to increase productivity and to provide opportunities for people to contribute to the economy and to their communities, particularly the country’s growing youthful population.
Increase the number and quality of training opportunities so that in the short-term at least one million youth will be trained each year. By 2025, the objective is to train 20 percent of all school-leavers, in addition to up-skilling and re-skilling existing workers. Such expansion will not be achieved by the public sector alone and the active engagement of the private sector will be required.
To introduce a national standards-based qualification, assessment and certification system.
To design and deliver competency-based education and training programmes that concentrate on the skills required to perform jobs.
To forge new partnerships between the public and private sectors and to encourage employers to train more directly and to contribute to the reform of public TVET provision.
Maintenance and expansion of the export of labour by encouraging people to obtain internationally recognized qualifications.
Encourage the informal sector of the economy by providing people with opportunities to gain formal certification. Continue the reform and revitalization of the TVET sector.
Development of an integrated TVET to strengthen collaboration and consultation with the provincial TEVTAS.
IDEAS 2018: PROJECT AZM UPDATES
During the 2018 International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS), the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal (ACM) Mujahid Anwar Khan stated that Project Azm, the PAF’s next-generation fighter, was “indigenous” and “not dependent upon western or eastern partners.”
The statement outlined an ambitious scope, to say the least. However, one would be right to be skeptical considering that Pakistan lacks the industrial inputs necessary to design and develop such a fighter. There are a handful of countries in the world with all those inputs; in most cases, a foreign partner is needed.
In his statements before retiring, the previous CAS, ACM Sohail Aman, had said (in December 2017) that “Pakistan is engaged with Chinese experts in manufacturing the next generation aircraft.”
This is the most realistic scenario because — besides the fact that China is Pakistan’s top defence partner — but because China is the most accessible turnkey industrial power available to Pakistan. One can argue that besides the US, France, Russia, and China, there are no countries that can contribute to any part of a next-generation fighter. But for Pakistan, the US, France, and Russia are non-factors in this respect.
Recently, the New York Times reported that a proposal was made to form “a special economic zone (SEZ) [in Pakistan]…to produce a new generation of fighter jets.” This SEZ would produce critical subsystems, such as “navigation systems, radar systems and onboard weapons.”
Based on the two aspects (e.g., the PAF stating that its next-generation fighter is ‘indigenous’ and the fact that Pakistan will likely need China), one might be hard-pressed to find alignment. However, it is certainly there, albeit with caveats – i.e., Pakistan will not be independent from all foreign partners…
From Wikipedia on Project Sabre II:
Project Sabre II was the Pakistan Air Force's program to develop a feasible and low-cost multirole combat jet based on an existing design—the Chengdu F-7 Skybolt, a Chinese variant of the MiG–21PFM. The Pakistani Air Force (PAF) initiated Project Sabre II in 1987, hiring the American aerospace firm Grumman, to provide crucial expertise to refine the baseline aircraft design along with specialists from the PAF and the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
After studying the Sabre II concept with Grumman, the PAF terminated the program as unfeasible on economic grounds. Grumman withdrew from the project after sanctions were imposed by the United States on the China after Beijing's suppression of the Tiananmen Square student protests in 1989. A embargo on military aid to Pakistan imposed by the United States further hampered the Sabre II development effort in the 1990s. In 1995, Pakistan and China began a collaboration which led to the successful JF-17 Thunderprogram.
The idea of developing an indigenous fighter in Pakistan goes back to the 1980s when Pakistan hired Northrop Grumman to help develop Sabre II as replacement for its aging fleet. Chinese were also involved in it, Then the US imposed sanctions on China and Pakistan that forced Grumman to withdraw from the project. .
Pakistan picked it up again during Musharraf years to develop JF17. Pakistan Air Force inputs based on its knowledge of F-16 have heavily influenced JF-17 design.
#JF17Thunder Block III Production Starts. Fighter will feature #AESCAN radar, new electronic warfare system, upgraded avionics with a 3-axis fly-by-wire digital flight controls, and helmet-mounted display and sight system. #Pakistan #China @Diplomat_APAC http://thediplomat.com/2019/03/report-jf-17-thunder-block-iii-fighter-jet-production-is-underway/
Development and production of the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex/Chengdu Aerospace Corporation (PAC/CAC) JF-17 “Thunder” Block III multirole fighter aircraft is reportedly underway, the chief designer of the fighter jet, Yang Wei, said at press conference in China last week.
“All related work is being carried out,” Yang was quoted as saying by Chinese state media. “The third block will see the JF-17’s informatized warfare capability and weapons upgraded.” As I reported previously, JF-Block-III fighter jets are expected to receive the Chinese-made KLJ-7A active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system. It would be the Pakistan Air Force’s first AESA-equipped fighter aircraft.
JF-17 Block III aircraft will reportedly also feature a new electronic warfare system, upgraded avionics including a three-axis fly-by-wire digital flight control system, and a helmet-mounted display and sight system. With its new integrated sensor package, the aircraft will have the capability for quick information sharing and network-enabled operations that facilitate earlier detection and interception of enemy aircraft.
When discussing the start of aircraft production, Yang was most likely referring to the manufacturing of the JF-17’s airframe, with PAC reportedly producing 58 percent and CAC 42 percent of it. The development status of any of the new Block III subsystems is not known. However, once the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology (NRIET) completes development of the new AESA radar system, it “can be fitted on the airframe very fast, ensuring a quick delivery time,” Yang emphasized.
(Notably, Yang in his comments named neither NRIET nor the exact AESA radar system to be installed on the JF-17 Block III.)
JF-17 Block I and Block II aircraft, of which the PAF operates around 85 in total as of March 2019, have been fitted with NRIET’s older KLJ-7 X-band fire control radar. All three JF-17 variants are powered by a Chinese license-built Klimov RD-93 (an RD-33 derivative) turbofan engine. The JF-17 has an approximate combat radius of up to 1,200 kilometers without refueling and can reach a maximum speed of up to Mach 1.6.
The JF-17 costs $25 million per unit, although the Block III per-unit price is expected to go up as a result of the new subsystems, including the expensive new AESA radar system. The PAF intends to procure up to 50 new Block III aircraft.
The aircraft can alternatively be armed with air-to-air, air-to-surface, and anti-ship missiles. It will also be able to fire beyond-visual-range air-to-air missiles (BVRAAM). An unnamed BVRAAM was test fired by the PAF last month and possibly today.
During a recent military standoff with India, a PAF JF-17 may have engaged an Indian Air Force fighter jet.
In 1980s, #Pakistan Air Force shot down 4 Su-22s supersonic fighter-bombers, 1 Su-25 “flying tank” piloted by future #Russian vice president Alexander Rutskoy. #PAF lost a single #F16, apparently struck by a missile fired by its own wingman. https://news.yahoo.com/pakistan-long-controversial-love-affair-095900593.html?soc_src=hl-viewer&soc_trk=tw via @YahooNews
Pakistan’s F-16s have been no stranger to controversy for nearly four decades.
In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, Islamabad and Washington collaborated to train, organize and arm mujahideen resistance fighters in Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan. In retaliation, Afghan and Soviet warplanes began bombing the camps—and the PAF’s Chinese-made J-6 jets proved too slow to catch them.
Thus in 1981, Pakistan convinced the United States to sell it F-16 Fighting Falcon single-engine multi-role fighters—a then cutting-edge yet inexpensive-to-operate design with fly-by-wire controls affording it extraordinary maneuverability. The agile Falcon could attain speeds as high as Mach 2 and lug heavy weapons loads, though it did have a limited combat radius (around 350 miles) and early production models lacked beyond-visual-range missiles.
Between October 1982 and 1986, a total of twenty-eight F-16As and twelve two-seat F-16Bs were delivered to Pakistan via Saudi Arabia in Operations Peace Gate I and II. These outfitted the PAF’s No. 9, 11 and 14 Squadrons which flew patrols along the Afghan border, typically carrying two advanced AIM-9L and two cheaper AIMP-9P-4 Sidewinder heat-seeking missiles.
Unlike earlier heat-seekers which could lock on to the hot tail-pipe at the rear of an aircraft, the AIM-9L “Lima” Sidewinders could engage from any angle. The AIM-9L’s ability to hit opponents in a head-on-pass would soon prove particularly effective.
Between 1986 and 1990, the PAF credited th F-16 with shooting down ten Afghan and Soviet jets, helicopters and transport planes, with many additional claims unconfirmed. Soviet and Afghan records definitively confirm only six losses: four Su-22s supersonic fighter-bombers, one Su-25 “flying tank” piloted by future Russian vice president Alexander Rutskoy, and one An-26 cargo plane.
The PAF lost a single F-16, apparently struck by a missile fired by its own wingman. The F-16 patrols reportedly deterred more extensive bombardment of refugee camps on Pakistani soil, and disrupted Soviet efforts to resupply isolated outposts.
The Nuclear F-16 Controversy
By 1990 Pakistan had already placed Peace Gate III and IV orders for seventy-one improved F-16A/B Block 15s. But in October 1990, Pakistan’s nuclear research program led the United States to impose sanctions. Thus, twenty-eight newly-built F-16s for which Pakistan had already paid $23 million apiece were consigned to the desert Boneyard facility in Arizona, where they remained for over a decade.
In the late 1990s, the Clinton administration offered to deliver the jets in return for Pakistan refraining from nuclear tests—but such was not to be. On May 28, 1998 Pakistan detonated five underground nuclear devices in response to an Indian nuclear test. It became evident that the heavy-lifting F-16s would serve as one of Pakistan’s primary nuclear-weapon delivery systems, and intelligence reports indicated that No. 9 and No. 11 squadron F-16s were modified to deliver nuclear gravity bombs on their center pylons.
A year later the two nuclear powers engaged in a limited war when Pakistani commandos infiltrated the mountainous Kargil region of India. As Indian Mirage 2000s pounded the infiltrators while escorted by MiG-29s, F-16s flew combat air patrols along the Pakistani side of the Line of Control reportedly painting the Indian jets with their targeting radars—and vice-versa—in an effort to intimidate.
However, neither air arm was authorized to engage the other, so no air battles occurred. Nonetheless, three years later a PAF F-16B shot down an Indian Searcher II drone that had penetrated deep into Pakistani airspace.
Who will buy the JF-17?
Danial Shazly, Ex-Editor, Asian Defence & Diplomacy
Answered Mar 11
There are many countries interested to look at what the JF-17 have to offer. The Block III version is a significant milestone for this multirole fighter. It carries forth some of the most advance systems and weapons that is associated with 4+ generation fighter. This includes
Advance BVR missiles
Helmet Cueing System
IRST & advance BVR active missiles
The JF-17 Block 1 and 2 models. Both versions are very capable. Able to conduct air-dominance mission equipped with short range and medium range missiles.
This could probably be the JF-17 Block III with some elements of new design to the existing air frame. It is quite amazing that the JF-17 Thunder has potential growth….Once it was from the DNA of Super 7, which was a DNA of the MiG-21. From that design to this with some modifications has transform the JF-17 into a modern design. Amazing. The Iranians did theres on the trusted F-5E Tiger II but it did have the same DNA after slight modification to the twin tail. But for the JF-17, it was a big transformation.
The aircraft is:
As agile as the early model F-16A. Tested by Pakistan the newer Block 50 is not as agile. The JF-17 is expected to be the premier fighter in the PAF
Uses proven Russian engine, currently under license in China. The engine comes from the MiG-29 Fulcrum. This would be an ideal jet for countries who are already using the MiG-29
It is have a strong supply chain management from Pakistan and China.
The aircraft is an ideal export opportunity for nations who can’t afford Western and Russian jets or was barred from buying
The aircraft is affordable at US$25 million per unit
The aircraft was developed with Pakistan’s experience in using the F-16 and combat missions
The JF-17 should be easier to maintain
It is equipped with Fly-By-Wire
It has an inflight refuelling probe
The jet with this price should be a formidable player on the fighter market. Countries in Asia, Middle East and Africa are evaluating the jet.
Here is a list of countries that is evaluating the JF-17 Block 3: Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Albania, Malaysia, Sudan, Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, Oman, Algeria, Morocco, Argentina, Peru and Jordan.
Malaysia is currently evaluating the JF-17 alongside the F/A-50, Tejas and M-346 FA under its RfI for light combat aircraft. Saudi Arabia has shown great interest in the Block 3 model with a potential order of up to 120 jets. That would certainly beef up the Pakistani income and provide Saudi Arabia a very capable machines to fly alongside its more expensive and high technological jets like the Eurofighter Typhoon and F-15SA Eagle. Nigeria has taken on 3- jets for evaluation and has an option on 21 jets as per various sources.
At US$25 million per unit. This would sound a very good proposition for any air force to build numbers. The product is backed by China. For US$1 billion, a country is able to acquire 40 units as well as training, spares and weapons, with
#Pakistan outlines 5th gen fighter #aircraft industrial aims. "Such large-scale (Project Azm) requires synergetic efforts from a number of #industrial (public and private) and #academic organizations to fulfill the enormous task." #jf17thunder |Jane's 360 https://www.janes.com/article/87669/pakistan-outlines-fgfa-industrial-aims#.XKYrRPt9RKY.twitter
The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) has outlined ambitious plans to support its development of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) - otherwise known in Pakistan as Project AZM.
The PAC enterprise, which is owned and run by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), has established a new office - the Aviation Research, Indigenization & Development (AvRID) unit - to lead the FGFA programme, it confirmed.
The development programme is supported through Pakistan's development of a new aerospace complex - named 'Aviation City' - that was launched in 2017 to support Project AZM and other national military aerospace requirements.
"The office of DG [Director General] AvRID has been established to transform into reality the [PAF's] air staff vision… with the long-term goal of developing our own fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA)," PAC said on its website.
"[The] development of [the] FGFA would be a major national programme that would entail a massive amount of work, not all of which may possibly be carried out within PAC or even within Pakistan.
"Such large-scale development requires synergetic efforts from a number of industrial (public and private) and academic organisations to fulfill the enormous task," it added.
In order to "manage an engineering development programme of this magnitude", effective technical, engineering, and project management processes need to be established, PAC said.
PAC also outlined several specialist project teams that it will establish in collaboration with other national agencies as part of the Aviation City initiative.
These include an engineering management and support office, an Aviation Design Institute, a Mission Electronics Design Institute, an Aero Structures Design Institute, an Advanced Technologies Centre, and a Flight Test Centre.
PAC states that AvRID will collaborate with and leverage the capabilities of these various Aviation City agencies in undertaking Project AZM. "This [will] put together components of industry and academia to build a high-end research centre to enhance indigenisation capability.
#Qatar #Rafale, #Pakistani hands: "#Pakistan Air Force pilots will fly all these aircraft being procured by Qatar. It is irrelevant whether they have been trained in #France on the Rafale. In all likelihood, they would have" #India #IAF
Over the last few weeks, much has been written about the controversy emanating from the possibility of Pakistan Air Force pilots having trained and flown the Rafale aircraft in France. One needs to examine the possibilities of PAF pilots being engage...
Most critical would be the operational knowledge of the AESA radar. However, deeper technical knowledge of systems like the radar would not be available to Qatar. Given the nature of the long-standing relationship between France and Qatar, any
More importantly, it is inevitable that it would need pilots on hire to fly these aircraft. This is where the Pakistani relationship comes into focus. That PAF pilots fly for the Qatar Air Force is well established.
#Pakistan to develop private sector #defense industry. Pakistan's Integrated Dynamics (ID) has exported its #drone to U.S. Border Patrol. It also developed Shahpar #UAV, later turned into Burraq. #China weaponized & exporting it as the CH-3/5 series.
The Pakistani government is promoting aims to increase public-private cooperation and develop a self-reliant, self-sustained defense industry. But the private sector is skeptical.
The aims were outlined by Army chief, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, in a government-hosted seminar earlier this month, which included public and private sector representatives.
The seminar recommended establishment of a task force to develop a roadmap for aiding indigenous defense production, establishing a raw material industry in conjunction with the private sector, utilizing surplus production capacity for export, and establishing ‘digital parks’ to exploit software industry potential and promote university level research and development.
However, Shehzad Ahmed Mir, managing director of Bow Systems Ltd, a private sector defense contracting company, says bureaucratic resistance needs to be overcome.
“Army chiefs come and go, only policies stay. So far there is no government policy to support such repetitive statements made by many an armed forces chief,” he said.
Mir blames Pakistan’s civilian bureaucracy for resisting change.
“The problem lies in the acceptance of the bare fact that private industry can do the job far better, and at much lower cost than these bureaucrats. Unless the defense ministry in Pakistan seriously invites the private industry to sit across the table, go through a lengthy and complex process of negotiations to formulate a standard policy for such matters, such statements are worthless in the business world.”
Exports are a key aspect of the drive, but the problems Mir highlights have already taken their toll. Among other things, Pakistan may already have killed off a golden egg laying goose.
The head of UAV firm Integrated Dynamics (ID), Raja S Khan, says the once thriving private UAV industry essentially collapsed when state bodies took their projects in house.
ID has had notable export success, including with U.S. Border Patrol. It is most renowned though for developing the Shahpar UAV, later developed into the Burraq armed drone. China weaponized the drone, further developing and successfully exporting it as the CH-3/5 series, for which Pakistan appears to receive nothing.
Khan believes the “major element” required to revive the industry and make it an export competitor is a UAV regulatory policy to “allow private sector entities to develop and test their designs.”
“India has recently introduced its UAV regulatory policy and is far more proactive in allowing its private sector a foothold in the global UAV industry by freely allowing test zones, development and access to regulatory permissions for registered users," he noted. “Nothing of the sort exists in Pakistan and even a company with the track record of ID is at a loss to test new developments in the absence of regulatory permissions and no accessible or designated flight test zones.”
He is not optimistic for the future.
“The future of development and our export potential looks bleak unless these issues are addressed with policies formulated with UAV professionals on board.”
After #ImranKhan's meeting with #Trump, #Pakistan's F-16 P&W engines to be upgraded with some advanced F-22 Raptor and F-35 features, according to #Indian defense/security analyst Bharat Karnad. https://bharatkarnad.com/2019/07/27/payoffs-post-trump-imran-meeting/ via @BharatKarnad
Imran returned home a hero having consolidated Pakistan’s status — surprise! surprise! — as the indispensable front line state the US desperately needs to zero out its military presence in Afghanistan at any and all cost, along with a goodies bag for the Pakistan armed services, which indubitably is the first tranche of upfront payoffs — a $125 million package to retrofit 12 PAF F-16Cs and six two-seater trainer version F-16Ds with the technologically updated Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 jet engine with 79 kiloNewton dry thrust and 129.7 kN with afterburner. Most likely, senior PAF officers accompanying the COAS General Qamar Bajwa, who was part of Imran’s delegation, wangled the EEP (Engine Enhancement Program) version.
The P&W website reveals the EEP as incorporating advances in such areas as turbine materials, cooling management techniques, compressor aerodynamics, and electronic controls, from the F-22 Raptor’s turbofan engine and from the propulsion system in the latest American combat aircraft F-35 jet power plant, thereby increasing the “Depot maintenance interval” of the warplane from 4,300 to 6,000 hours or, to put it differently, from 7 to 10 years, while easing upkeep procedures and reducing the lifetime costs by almost a third. In other words, PAF is well on its way to at once refurbishing its entire F-16 fleet, lengthening its life, and making it more affordable.
Again by design and, perhaps, to suppress any hard reaction from Delhi, the US insisted on placing 60 Lockheed representatives in Pakistan (whether on PAF air bases, is not clear) constituting a Technical Security Team (TST) to monitor the end-use of these revamped F-16s. Except, a Pentagon official told Indian news agency, PTI, that the Americans would be there to also, as he put it, protect the engine technology, presumably from being onpassed to China — one of the usual channels Beijing has used over the years to access US technologies. Pakistan, for instance, shipped an F-16 for Chinese engineers to study and reverse engineer its many technologies when it was first inducted into PAF in 1982 and, likewise, moved the high-performance, silenced, rotor system in the US helicopter that crashed during the 2011 American Operation Neptune Spear to take out Osama bin Laden, to China for a decent amount of time before returning the damaged ‘copter to America.
The fact is even with Americans exercising physical oversight of the revamped F-16s, there’s no way they can prevent these aircraft from being flown to satellite air fields ostensibly on routine exercise either for the Chinese aviation designers and engineers to closely inspect them there, or to embark them on offensive sorties (assuming the TST is really there to deter such uses, which is doubtful).
Curiously, at the same time as the F-16 deal was announced in Washington a couple of days after Imran’s departure, the US Defence Security Cooperation Agency issued a statement saying that India had asked to buy spare parts and test equipment for IAF’s C-17 transport planes, and that it “is seeking personnel training, among other things, “for an estimated cost of $670 million.” India, it added, “needs this follow-on support to maintain its operational readiness and ability to provide Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) assistance in the region…[and] will have no difficulty absorbing this support into its armed forces.” Both the press releases announcing the F-16 upgrade and the the Indian buy of C-17 support, iterated that these sales “will not alter the basic military balance in the region.”
Pakistan close to buying 36 fighter jets from Egypt
Pakistan’s Air Force is close to closing a deal with Egypt to buy Dassault Mirage-V aircraft after long negotiations head towards a close.
The Egyptian Air Force has retired the aircraft from service which means they will have to be refurbished before going into service.
Last year Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi met with Pakistan’s Joint Chief of Staff Committee Chairman Generl Zubair Mahmood Hayat to discuss military cooperation and the fight against terror.
The two countries have had a long and steady relationship. Last year they celebrated 70 years of diplomatic relations after Egypt was the first country to open an embassy in Pakistan after it achieved independence.
In June Egypt’s ambassador to Pakistan said his country values relations with Pakistan. In May Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Al-Sisi and the leaders agreed to upgrade cooperation.
Egyptian Minister of Planning Hala Al-Saeed said she was keen to promote and develop bilateral relations in various fields and has said: “Long live Egypt. Long live Pakistan.”
Pakistan also has strategic relations with some of Egypt’s major allies, including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
Yesterday Saudi Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Adel Al-Jubeir and UAE Foreign Minister Shaikh Abdullah Bin Zayed Al Nahyan met their counterpart Shah Mamood Qureshi and Prime Minister Imran Khan to discuss the issue of Kashmir in a symbolic show of unity, according to Pakistan.
The visit comes after the UAE honoured Indian Prime Minister Narenda Modi in a highly controversial decision.
After India revoked the special status of Kashmir neighbouring Pakistan said it would downgrade diplomatic ties with India and called on New Delhi to reverse its “illegal annexation of Kashmir”.
On Sunday, thousands of Pakistanis protested for the fourth week against India’s decision
Pakistan has kept its ageing Mirage jets flying after 50 years with DIY repairs and upgrades
Fifty years after Pakistan bought its first Mirages, many planes in the venerable fleet are still being patched up, overhauled and upgraded for use in combat
The sprawling complex at Kamra, west of Islamabad, reverbates at the thundering take-off of a Mirage Rose-1, the latest ageing fighter jet to have been gutted and reassembled by the Pakistani Air Force.
Fifty years after Pakistan bought its first Mirages, many planes in the venerable fleet are still being patched up, overhauled and upgraded for use in combat, years after conventional wisdom dictates they should be grounded.
That includes one of the first two planes originally purchased from France’s Dassault in 1967, which was in a hangar at Kamra after its record fifth overhaul.
The techniques they have developed are reminiscent of – but far more hi-tech and lethal than – the improvised methods used to keep classic American cars running on the streets of Havana.
“We have achieved such a capability that our experts can integrate any latest system with the ageing Mirages,” says Air Commodore Salman M. Farooqi, deputy managing director of the Mirage Rebuild Factory (MRF) at the Kamra complex.
Pakistan bought its first Mirages to diversify its fleet, which in the late 1960s largely consisted of US-built planes: F-104 Starfighters, T-37 Tweety Birds and F-86 Sabres.
But Mirages flew on, also carrying out reconnaissance missions in India, and intercepting and shooting down Soviet and Afghan planes that violated Pakistani airspace during the Soviet war.
Usually the jet has two or three life cycles, each spanning around 12 years. But overhauling them abroad was expensive for Pakistan, a developing country whose budget is already disproportionately tilted towards its military and which has historically received billions in military help from countries such as the US.
So, with the help of experts from Dassault, the air force decided if you want something done for the right price, you’ve got to do it yourself.
The Mirage Rebuild Factory was established at the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) in 1978, and in the years since has saved “billions” of dollars for Pakistan, according to Group Captain Muhammad Farooq, in charge of one of the maintenance hangars – though he said the exact figure was difficult to pin down.
The planes take some seven weeks to be overhauled and repainted, he said, adding that usually the MRF has the capacity for more than a dozen planes a year. Its calendar for the next decade or so is already booked up.
At least eight different Mirage variants, including the Mirage 5-EF, Mirage III-DP and Mirage-III Rose-I, were in one of the maintenance hangers when AFP visited.
Engineers and technicians were dismantling cockpit instrument panels and landing gear while undertaking a “non-destructive inspection”, essentially an X-ray to detect faults in the wings and airframe.
Dozens of engines awaiting overhaul were piled in one hangar. Even planes that had suffered accidents such as fires breaking out have been patched back together at the facility.
Pakistan has also been buying up discarded Mirages from other countries to bring through the facility, said retired Air Marshal Shahid Lateef.
The most important technological improvement, developed with the help of South Africa, is the ability to integrate air-to-air refuelling, Farooqi said.
The “identification of friend and foe” (IFF) system, which detects when a Mirage has been locked on to by the system of another plane, was also a key development, he said.
The “identification of friend and foe” (IFF) system, which detects when a Mirage has been locked on to by the system of another plane, was also a key development, he said.
#Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) has signed an agreement with the #Aviation Industry Corporation of #China (AVIC) for the “co-production of Chinese #commercial aircraft.” AVIC’s #aircraft include Xian MA60/600/700 and/or ARJ-21. https://quwa.org/2020/01/02/pakistans-pac-and-avic-sign-agreement-to-co-produce-chinese-commercial-aircraft/ via @QuwaGroup
On 27 December 2019, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) announced that it signed an agreement with the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) for the “co-production of Chinese commercial aircraft.”
Neither PAC nor AVIC offered additional details.
In 2017, PAC had expressed interest in manufacturing a 10-30 passenger commercial airliner or commuter aircraft to support the growing demand for domestic air travel. It is not known if PAC is still pursuing that goal, but the recent agreement AVIC could point towards a more manageable objective.
In 2018, PAC revealed that it was working on an expanded aerospace cluster (as part of the Kamra Aviation City initiative), and that it was hoping to attract Tier 1-4 production work from Boeing, Airbus, and other aircraft manufacturers. PAC was hopeful that the initiative could result in the domestic assembly of single-aisle commuter aircraft and jet airliners (Aviation Week – subscription required).
It is possible that this recent agreement with AVIC is tied to the objective of expanding Pakistan’s share in the supply chains of various airliner/commuter aircraft manufacturers. In this case, PAC would enter the supply chain of AVIC’s aircraft, such as the Xian MA60/600/700 and/or ARJ-21.
It is worth noting that Hybrid Aviation, a privately-owned Pakistani aviation company is a launch customer of the Xian MA700 (Reuters).
Interestingly, Russia’s Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov reportedly announced that talks were ongoing with Islamabad for the sale of six to 16 Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ-100) airliners to Pakistan’s state-owned airline, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).
In other words, there could be a regional airliner requirement in place (by PIA as well as Pakistan’s private sector airlines) that could link into production work for PAC. The latter could materialize through industrial offsets, or possibly a joint-venture or partnership for an airliner-focused spinoff of PAC.
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Replicate multi-ship training events through high-fidelity networking and immersive, high-definition, realistic synthetic environments
Can be scaled to match the customer’s need, from the most robust full-mission trainer to L3 Link's F-16 SimuStrike™, a part task trainer focused on critical pilot skills in lead and wingman operations
F-16 Training Systems Technology
L3 Link F-16 trainers are designed to support both local- and wide-area networking, enabling multiple simulators to participate in a combined exercise scenario.
Multi-tier commonality is a key value driver in L3 Link F-16 trainer technology, simplifying upgrades to maintain concurrency and lowering the overall cost of ownership
L3 Link’s HD World® combines high-definition displays, image generators, databases and physics processing technology for highly realistic and relevant F-16 fighter training environments
Aerodynamic model based on actual flight test data and computational fluid dynamics
L3 Link Night Vision Training System—a 360-degree near-eye-limiting visual system that provides the ability for pilots to bring in their NVG for simulated NVG training
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Pakistan F16 upgrades contract to Lockheed Martin
The Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod provides precision targeting and situational awareness to combat aircraft crews, and is among the most widely deployed targeting system for fixed-wing aircraft in use by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. allies.
The pod provides precision strike, as well as non-traditional intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (NTISR) for close air support of ground forces. The pod has electro-optical imagery capability, a video datalink, and J-series coordinates.
The pod has image processing algorithms, stabilization, high-resolution, mid-wave forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and daylight TV sensors, dual-mode laser for geo-location, laser spot tracker, infrared marker, meta-data for video, and common software and hardware interfaces.
The pod has been flown on U.S. Air Force and international F-15E, F-16, B-1, A-10C, Harrier GR7/9, and CF-18 combat aircraft, and is suitable for the B-52 strategic bomber.
LANTIRN is a combined navigation and targeting pod system for use on the F-15E Strike Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. It enables these aircraft to fly at low altitudes, at night, and under-the-weather to attack ground targets with a variety of precision-guided weapons.
The LANTIRN's AN/AAQ-13 navigation pod provides high-speed penetration and precision attack on tactical targets at night and in adverse weather, and contains a terrain-following radar and a fixed thermographic camera, which provides a visual cue and input to the aircraft's flight control system, enabling it to maintain a pre-selected altitude above the terrain and avoid obstacles.
The system's AN/AAQ-14 targeting pod contains a high-resolution, forward looking infrared sensor, which displays an infrared image of the target to the pilot; a laser designator and rangefinder for precise delivery of laser-guided munitions; a missile boresight; and software for automatic target tracking. LANTIRN has been in full-rate production since 1986.
IRST is a longwave infrared detection system that targets aircraft in a radar-denied environment. The system uses infrared search and track technology to detect and provide weapon-quality track solutions on potentially hostile aircraft.
Related: Raytheon to provide UAV electro-optical targeting systems in $50.2 million contract
The system has a processor, inertial measurement unit, and environmental control unit that fit inside the sensor pod, which attaches to a weapons station underneath the aircraft.
Infrared sensors like the IRST detect the heat from an aircraft's engine exhaust or even the heat generated by the friction of an aircraft as it passes through the atmosphere. Unlike radar, infrared sensors do not emit electronic signals, and do not give away their presence to adversaries.
On this contract Lockheed Martin will do the work in Orlando, Fla., and at locations to be identified with each order, and should be finished by May 2025. For more information contact Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control online at www.lockheedmartin.com, or the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center-Robins at www.robins.af.mil/Units/AFLCMC.
Peace Gate: US F-16 Sales to Pakistan 1984
The sale of 40 F-16 Multi-role fighter aircraft to the
emerging nation of Pakistan not only encompasses a variety
of geo-political, economic, and military consequences for the
country itself but subsequently creates unique challenges
for USAF foreign military sales program managers. This
thesis examines the managerial challenges and program management performance during the acquisition and logistics
support phases of the Peace Gate program. By first analyzing
Pakistan as an emerging nation and recipient of F-16 aircraft
under the Zia dictatorship, the thesis then discusses program
management impediments and consequent management action taken
by the USAF, Pakistan Air Force, and contractor management
teams. Managerial decisions and strategies applied during
the sale and support phases are assessed in light of accomplishing Peace Gate program objectives. Conclusions regarding the contribution of specific managment techniques toward
program success are made.
As of May 1984, 15 aircraft have been
delivered (six from PG I and nine from PG II); the entire
program cost for PG I has been aid by the Government of
Pakistan (GOP); and ten PAF pilots and over 100 maintenance
technicians have been trained in CONUS. CIS work for PG I
has been completed and PG II CIS work has begun (19).
Because the economic, political and military elements of
the Peace Gate environment determine, to a large extent, the
potential for program success and the character of program
decision making during the life of Peace Gate, this chapter
attempts to provide some insight into the program's operating
Pakistan's world position and perception of international events is largely determined by its strategic loca- r
tion. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a South Asian Third
World country approximately the size and shape of California, *.
is surrounded by either historic or current adversarial
nations. Pakistan has four neighboring states: Iran to the
southwest, Afghanistan to the north and west, China to the
northeast, and India to the east; all of which play an
important part in determining its security requirements
(14:680). Pakistan is a country of considerable environmental variety. The northern border of its 1100 mile expanse
is comprised of the Hindu Kush mountains--the greatest
concentration of high peaks in the world.
Because of Pakistan's tenuous agricultural and industrial development, it is one of the 49 United
Nations (UN) designated "low income countries of the world"
(28:1367). Its low per capita Gross National Product (GNP)
of about $300 (70:128) is aggravated by its 3.2 percent
population growth rate--one of the highest in the world
(66:37). The full extent of Pakistan's economic plight is
perhaps best expressed by the tragic fact that 34 percent of
its population is still classified as "living in a state of
absolute poverty" (28:1367).
Needless to say, the industrial capacity and economic
base of Pakistan are of great concern to American Foreign
Military Sales decision makers (66:41). Pakistan lacks the
industrial capacity to sustain a technical defense program
without substantial support. Additionally, economic conditions have led a number of U.S. government officials to
question Pakistan's ability to afford a major military
modernization program, either in the short run or long term
#PAF has upgraded its 150 #French #Mirage III/V jet fighters from 1960s with modern radars, new avionics, IFF (ID Friend/Foe) #technology at #Pakistan Aeronautical Complex under ROSE program. Pakistan is acquiring more used Mirage III/Vs for spares. https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2019/02/26/Mirage-2000-is-IAF-warhorse-but-Pakistan-has-an-older-French-ROSE.html
About a year ago, Agence France Presse (AFP) did a special report on an older French-built fighter, which holds a similar reputation with the Pakistan Air Force—the Mirage III/V.
The American-built F-16, of which the Pakistan Air Force is thought to operate around 75 jets, is Pakistan’s most advanced fighter. But strict US export controls and monitoring has meant Islamabad has been unable to modify the F-16 for long-range attack missions.
This has left the Pakistan Air Force heavily reliant on the Mirage III/V for the stand-off strike role. And Pakistan has virtually trawled the world for used Mirage III/V jets, buying variants from the likes of Australia, Libya, Lebanon, Spain and, of course, France.
Since the mid-1990s, Pakistan has upgraded dozens of Mirage-III/Vs with Italian radars and other electronics at the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex under the ROSE programme.
In addition to improved air-to-air capabilities, Pakistan has modified the Mirage ROSE aircraft with the capability to fire long-range glide bombs developed with South African assistance. The Mirage ROSE was also the launch aircraft on tests of the Ra’ad cruise missile, which has been fired at least seven times since 2007. The Ra’ad has been claimed to have a range of up to 350km and can carry conventional or nuclear warheads.
The AFP report was intended to mark the 50th anniversary of the Mirage III/V’s entry into Pakistani service. The AFP feature specifically covered the upgrade of the Mirage III/V called the retrofit of strike element, or the morbidly ‘romantic’ acronym, ROSE. Over the past five decades, Pakistan has purchased nearly 150 Mirage III/V fighters.
The Mirage III was the first European combat aircraft capable of flying at twice the speed of sound and made its maiden flight in 1956. The Mirage V was a dedicated ground attack variant of the Mirage III, with greater space for fuel, in place of avionics. The only thing these aircraft share in common with the Indian Mirage 2000 is their ‘delta wing’ design. The Mirage 2000 is a far newer and capable design that uses ‘fly-by-wire’ technology (flight control by computers) instead of hydraulic controls on the older jets.
The AFP article from 2018 mentioned the Pakistan Air Force intended to replace the Mirage ROSE aircraft with the Chinese-designed JF-17 as the French aircraft are becoming difficult to maintain. However, Pakistan officials praised the Mirage ROSE aircraft as being “very agile” and capable of penetrating deep into enemy territory without being detected.
So, while tension rises between India and Pakistan, it is difficult to miss the irony in the fact that two French-designed aircraft play key roles in the two militaries.
P.S.: In the mid-1990s, Asif Ali Zardari, husband of then Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, was accused of taking a bribe of $200 million from Dassault to facilitate a deal for 32 advanced Mirage 2000 fighters for the Pakistan Air Force. The deal was scuppered when Bhutto's government was dismissed in 1996.
#Pakistan #AirForce Chief Opens Centre Of Artificial Intelligence & Computing. #technology has altered the nature of warfare in the 21st century & the vision of the center is to harness the potential of #ArtificialIntelligence in #PAF ops. UrduPoint
Chief of the Air Staff, Pakistan Air Force Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan was the chief guest at the occasion, said a PAF press release.
The Air Chief formally inaugurated the newly established centre by unveiling the plaque.
Addressing the ceremony, the Air Chief said that establishment of CENTAIC was indeed a landmark initiative in the evolutionary journey of PAF which would lead Artificial Inteligence Research and Development in both civil and military spheres.
It’s just one AI application the Army is exploring with combat applications, said Brig. Gen. Matt Easley, head of the service’s Artificial Intelligence Task Force, said last week at the Association of the U.S. Army annual meeting in Washington.
Shooting down drones, aiming tank guns, coordinating resupply and maintenance, planning artillery barrages, stitching different sensor feeds together into a coherent picture, analyzing how terrain blocks units’ fields of fire and warning commanders where there are blind spots in their defenses are all military applications for which the Army will test AI.
The most high-profile example of AI on the battlefield to date, the controversial Project Maven, used machine learning algorithms to sift hours of full-motion video looking for suspected terrorists and insurgents. By contrast, Easley said, the new application looks for tanks and other targets of interest in a major-power war, he said, in keeping with the Pentagon’s increasing focus on Russia and China. https://www.militaryaerospace.com/computers/article/14069203/artificial-intelligence-ai-machine-learning-military-applications
#Pakistan’s #Chinese made 3D long-range anti-stealth radar is capable of detecting #stealth aircraft like F-22 from 500km (310 miles) away with its active phased array antenna. it could also guide surface-to-air missiles to strike incoming aircraft. #PAF
China is reported to be boosting its arms links with South Asian nations, with further supply of an advanced anti-stealth radar to Pakistan as well as frigates to Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Jane’s Defence Weekly, a magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, said it had identified Chinese-made JY-27A counter-very-low-observable radar from satellite images of Pakistan’s Mianwali Air Base, captured on August 29.
This 3D long-range radar is capable of detecting stealth aircraft such as the F-22 from 500km (310 miles) away with its active phased array antenna using very high frequency waves. Either installed on land or mobile on vehicles, it is jamming-resistant and could also guide surface-to-air missiles to strike incoming aircraft.
The radar is believed to have arrived at the airbase in northeast Pakistan between June 5 and August 29, and was not fully operational as of September 2, according to Jane’s.
Neither Pakistan nor China made the sale of the JY-27A public, but earlier this month representatives of both sides attended a ceremony at a Shanghai shipyard to mark the steel-cutting of a second batch of Type 054A guided-missile frigates.
They were the third and fourth vessels the Chinese shipbuilder CSSC had built for the Pakistan Navy. Construction on the first two of the Type 054A/P began in December 2018 and they are expected to be delivered in 2021.
Is China’s US$62 billion investment fuelling resentment in Pakistan?
3 Jul 2018
Type 054A frigate has been the main strength frigate in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy since 2007. The Pakistan Navy already has four F22P frigates in service – a Chinese design based on the previous Type 053 and Type 054 – and three of them were built in China.
“Compared with their potential adversary the Indian Navy, the Pakistani navy will be better equipped,” Shi Lao, a Shanghai-based military commentator, said.
Last week’s amateur photos also showed that two newly retired PLA Navy frigates, Type 053H3 Putian and Lianyungang, had been refurbished in Shanghai and painted in the colours and numbers of the Bangladesh Navy. They had been bought by the latter and are expected to be handed over by the end of the year.
China also gifted a retired Type 053H2G ship, Tongling, to the Sri Lanka Navy. It was renamed Parakramabahu and commissioned in Colombo in late August, adding to the Chinese-built warships operating in the Indian Ocean.
Chinese efforts to strengthen military ties in the region have long caused concern in India, whose “string of pearls” theory contends that China is encircling India by developing relationships with its neighbours around the Indian Ocean.
“China’s military cooperation with South Asian nations is nothing new. It has been going on for decades,” said Wang Dehua, a South Asia expert at the Shanghai Municipal Centre for International Studies.
Wang said that what China offered to those countries, including Pakistan, would not pose much threat to India because it could not match the level of armament that India possessed or had access to, such as aircraft carriers and Su-30 fighters.
India’s military ties with countries including Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were also much stronger and more long-standing, he said.
“India sees South Asia as its backyard and is paranoid about China’s presence in the region,” Wang said. “Such a mindset should end.”
great work by Pakistan even great news by any Pakistani. Pakistan zindabad
Pakistan is Working on it's own 5th generation Fighter Aircraft
#NASA #astronauts, #scientists answer #Pakistani fourth-graders’ #science questions on Twitter. #Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield, #American TV host Emily Calandrelli replied to the tweet https://gn24.ae/aa2409bc4ec6000
A group of fourth graders from Karachi got the surprise of their lives today when they wrote a letter asking American space agency Nasa (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) some questions about space and got replies from astronauts and space experts.
Students of The Cornerstone School in Karachi, Pakistan, had some questions for astronauts about travelling to space. Promoting curiosity in her students, their teacher helped them post the questions on Twitter. She tagged Nasa’s official Twitter account as well as some astronauts in hopes of getting a response.
The tweet soon started gaining attention as people began retweeting it to help make it viral. Eventually, astronauts and space experts took notice of it and replied.
The Emmy-nominated American science TV host Emily Calandrelli, who hosts Xploration Outer Space and Emily’s Wonder Lab, was the first expert to reply to the tweet.
A 10-year-old student Alisha had asked: “What fuel does a spaceship use?”
Calandrelli replied: “All different types! Some popular rockets that you’ll see will use a fuel plus an oxidiser. For example, something called RP-1 and then liquid oxygen. These are combined and then *ignited* and burned to create a big (controlled) explosion that moves the rocket!”
Nine-year-old Haniyah asked: “Is it true that it rains diamonds on Jupiter?”
The MIT-engineer replied: “It’s definitely possible!! The same physics and chemistry that creates diamonds here on Earth (putting carbon under super high heat/pressure) exist on planets like Jupiter, so some scientists hypothesize that it’s raining diamonds there. Wouldn’t it be fun to see that?”
Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield who often shares space videos replied to 10-year-old Mahrukh’s question: “How do you feel when you get blasted off in a space shuttle?”
@Cmdr_Hadfield replied: “Mahrukh - I flew in the Space Shuttle twice. You feel violently shaken, squished, super-focused, excited, and lucky.”
He also replied to another student named Rayyan, who asked: “Do you get scared that your space shuttle might get lost?”
Along with a picture of Karachi from space, @Cmdr_Hadfield tweeted: “Rayyan - I wasn't scared we'd get lost. We had the Earth nearby, and used the stars to steer. I felt especially comforted when I flew over home. Here's a photo I took of Karachi - can you find your school?”
By October 15 morning, screenshots of the tweet were viral on other social media platforms as well. And Nasa scientists and space experts started replying to the questions on Reddit. Twitter users later posted these responses in reply to the teacher’s original tweet.
Tweep @tahaazher wrote: “Also these replies from Nasa scientists on @reddit. They have invited the students when the pandemic is over.”
That’s not all. The students got a reply from the control centre of Ariane 6, which is a launch system developed and manufactured under the authority of the European Space Agency. And the German Aerospace Center also sent replies to their questions.
The excited teacher, Aimun, shared an update with the reactions the students had when she handed them the responses that all the space experts had sent in.
Twitter users found the thread of questions and answers very heartening, and some even felt emotional after reading it.
Many Pakistani tweeps also commended the teacher for thinking of putting the questions on Twitter. @smoodwrites replied: "I'm really glad you did this. I was a super space-curious kid... Pakistan needs more teachers like you."
Huawei to set up ICT academy at #Pakistan Air University. It's the 24th #Huawei #ICT Academy established under the MOU signed between the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Huawei Technologies Co. #communications #technology #cyber https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2020/11/02/huawei-to-set-up-ict-academy-at-air-university/ via @Profitpk
A strategic memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed between Air University and Huawei Technologies Pakistan for the establishment of the Huawei ICT Academy at the university.
The ceremony was attended by the university’s Vice Chancellor Air Marshal (r) Javaid Ahmed, Dean Kashif Kifayat, Huawei Service Director Zhangwenwu as well as other respective professors and members from both organizations.
The academy at Air University will be the 24th Huawei ICT Academy established under the MOU signed between the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and Huawei Technologies Co Ltd aimed at promoting the studies of advanced technologies and adopting the globally renowned university-enterprise cooperation model for course development, training and certification in HEIs.
Students from BS-cyber security, IT, computer science, software engineering and engineering will be able to get Huawei certified at an associate, professional and expert level.
Addressing the ceremony, Professor Kashif Kifayat stated, “Air University is the headquarters of the National Centre of Cyber Security, establishing the Huawei academy here will attract more external students due to the trust Air university has developed. This initiative will have a significant impact on the cyber security culture of Pakistan and produce more Huawei cyber security product line experts in the country.”
Adding to that, Huawei Service Director Zhangwenwu emphasized on the importance of creating intellectually independent individuals, saying, “Huawei understands that with the constant technological advancements happening in the world right now it is necessary to focus on youth development programs to build a skilled workforce for our future digital economy.
“Similarly, the Digital Pakistan initiative by the Prime Minister of Pakistan also emphasizes this need to create skilled youth and to bolster the IT industry by building a digital ecosystem.”
Echoing his statement, Vice Chancellor Javaid Ahmed stated, “This initiative by Huawei and Air University will benefit us in multiple dimensions. We will embed the Huawei certification in our BS-Cyber Security, IT and Computer Science as special courses. This academy will enable our faculty members to get training from Huawei experts to become professional trainers.”
Over 9000 people have so far received Huawei certifications in Pakistan.
New Extension to the Chashma Plutonium Separation Facility
by Neil Hyatt and Sarah Burkhard
November 30, 2020
Pakistan first developed plans to acquire reprocessing technology in the 1960s. In 1972, Pakistan entered into talks with Saint Gobain Technique Nouvell (SGN) of France to procure a reprocessing facility with a design capacity of 100 tons of heavy metal (tHM) per year.4 A contract for a basic design was signed in 1973, and another for a detailed design in 1974, but France eventually cancelled the deal in 1978, due to U.S. government concern that the facility would benefit Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program. However, construction of the reprocessing facility had already commenced and a considerable amount of design and specification information had already been transferred by SGN to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Pakistan stated its intent to complete the facility, but failed to find another supplier.5 Construction stalled. Historic imagery shows that the plant became overgrown and remained dormant for many years. No further progress was apparently made until construction resumed some time between 2000 and 2002.6 In the interim, Pakistan built the smaller New Labs reprocessing facility at PINSTECH, near Islamabad, to reprocess spent fuel from the unsafeguarded Khushab I heavy water reactor. In parallel to the resumption of construction at Chashma, an expansion at PINSTECH began which appeared to be a second reprocessing facility, roughly doubling the reprocessing capacity at that location.7
The investment in additional reprocessing capabilities occurred in parallel with the construction of three additional unsafeguarded heavy water reactors at the Khushab site from 2001 – 2015, Khushab II, III, and IV. All four Khushab reactors are believed to be operational and dedicated to plutonium production.8 With the additional Khushab reactors, located approximately 80 km east from Chashma, and 200 km from the New Labs facility, the need for a larger plutonium separation capability is credible.
Additionally, at the Chashma site, four 300 MWe pressurised water reactors (CHASNUPP 1 – 4) were constructed and brought into operation from 2000 – 2017, with a fifth unit planned.9 These reactors operate under IAEA safeguards. A 2019 PAEC slide presentation to an IAEA conference stated an intention for on-site dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel from the CHASNUPP reactors.10 It stated that currently, all spent fuel from Pakistan’s safeguarded reactors is in wet storage. An associated graphic indicates with a question mark that the decision whether to pursue reprocessing of the spent fuel had not yet been made. Already a few years prior, in 2014, a PAEC slide presentation had stated that after dry and wet storage, the fate of the spent fuel had “yet to be decided.”11
Figure 1, a May 2020 Google Earth satellite image, gives an overview of the Chashma nuclear complex, highlighting the four CHASNUPP reactor units and the reprocessing plant. Also highlighted is the likely Kundian fuel production plant (the Kundian Nuclear Complex 1) which manufactures fuel for the KANUPP reactor.
The majority of the apparent construction of the Chashma reprocessing plant and associated facilities lasted from 2002 to 2013 and was documented by ISIS.12 For the reasons given above, the plant’s primary purpose is assumed to be plutonium separation from unsafeguarded heavy water reactors at the Khushab site. The plant may have become operational around 2015, 13 but it is unknown whether the facility continued to operate during the most recent and possibly still on-going constructions.
Indian defense analyst Pravin Sawhney on PAF Center for artificial intelligence with PLAAF
Earlier this month, on September 7th, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) presented a number of innovations that it had made as part of the Kamra Aviation City initiative. The Kamra City initiative is part of the PAF’s effort to set up a domestic aerospace development and manufacturing cluster reported “Quwa.”
Project Azm, a project that was started in 2017 seeks to secure a domestically produced next-generation fighter aircraft (NGFA). The project also seeks to be able to produce unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s), and state of the art munitions. Videos of the progress of these projects were shown at the event.
Speculation, according to Quwa, leans towards the production of a twin-engine fighter. The PAF Chief, Air Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan, had outlined that the PAF had been seeking a single-seat, twin-engine design equipped with super-cruising and laser-based weapons.
Thus the airforce seeks to develop an aircraft with ‘fifth-generational-capabilities’ such as low-observable (LO) and low radar cross-section (RCS) airframes.
PAF reveals artificial intelligence program
The PAF also revealed that its newly raised Centre of Artificial Intelligence and Computing (CENTRIC) is undertaking a ‘Cognitive Electronic Warfare’ (or Cognitive EW) program. In order to manage and analyze vast amounts of data. Artificial intelligence can calculate and disseminate quickly vast amount of data regarding any potential enemy.
Today’s EW systems can collect a considerable amount of data about an enemy’s frequency use, radar deployment, and many other factors. However, the analysis function of using that data to find actionable results is left on solely human operators, which may not be an efficient use of personnel, nor effective
Cognitive Electronic Warfare (CEW) is the use of cognitive systems – commonly known as Artificial Intelligence (AI) or machine learning – to enhance development and operation of Electronic Warfare (EW) technologies for the defense community.
Cognitive systems can sense, learn, reason, and interact naturally with people and environments, accelerating development and implementation of next generation EW threat detection, suppression, and neutralization technologies.
Applying cognitive systems to EW development helps defense researchers identify patterns and develop hypotheses that can result in broad improvements across multiple systems, while also anticipating demands specific only to particular missions. While these Cognitive Electronic Warfare systems do not "know" definitive answers to problems, they are able to interpret a vast amount of data from a range of complex sources to provide well-reasoned hypotheses for consideration.
The most successful uses of CEW are not those that rely entirely on computers, but are instead those which combine computer input with human strategies and understanding. Assigning data collection, information storage, and probability calculations to computers allows humans more capacity for focusing their creativity and insights on better solutions.
RUSI Paper on Chinese military aircraft development:
China has developed J-11 and J-16 series Flanker derivatives featuring AESA radars, new datalinks, improved EW systems and increased use of composites, which give them a superior level of overall combat capability to the latest Russian Flanker, the Su-35S.
This advantage is increased by Chinese advances in both within-visual-range (WVR) and beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air missiles. Unlike the latest Russian R-73M, the PL-10 features an imaging infrared seeker, improving resistance to countermeasures. More significantly, the PL-15 features a miniature AESA seeker head and outranges the US-made AIM-120C/D AMRAAM series. China is also testing a very-long-range air-to-air missile, known as PL-X or PL-17, which has a 400-km class range, multimode seeker and appears to have been designed to attack US big-wing ISTAR and tanker aircraft.
China has developed and introduced into service the first credible non-US-made LO, or fifth-generation, fighter in the form of the J-20A ‘Mighty Dragon’. Subsequent developments are likely to increase its LO characteristics and sensor capabilities, as well as engine performance, with construction of the first production prototypes of the J-20B having begun in 2020.
Overall, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and People’s Liberation Army Navy are rapidly improving their combat air capabilities, including a focus on the sensors, platforms, network connectivity and weapons needed to compete with the US in cutting-edge, predominantly passive-sensor air combat tactics.
The Russian Su-57 Felon is assessed as not yet having matured into a credible frontline weapons system, and as lacking the basic design features required for true LO signature. However, it does offer the potential to correct many of the Flanker family weaknesses with greatly reduced signature and an AESA radar, while improving the already superb agility and performance of the Flanker series.
The Russian Air Force (VKS) does not currently field targeting pods for its ground-attack and multirole fleets. This limits the ground-attack aircraft to internal equivalents with inferior field of view and tactical flexibility, and the multirole fighters to reliance on either pre-briefed GPS/GLONASS target coordinates, radar-guided weapons or target acquisition using fixed seekers on the weapons themselves. This limits VKS fixed-wing capabilities against dynamic battlefield targets compared to Western or Chinese equivalents.
China is actively pursuing unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) designs with multiple programmes at various stages of development. Detailed assessment is hindered by tight control of information leaks by the Chinese Communist Party. Of those known to be in development, the GJ-11 subsonic attack UCAV appears the most advanced.
Russia is also pursuing UCAV-style technologies and has produced the Su-70 ‘Okhotnik-B’ technology demonstrator. However, it is not yet clear what degree of practical operational capability the Russian aircraft industry will be able to develop through the Su-70, especially given the demands for significant levels of in-flight autonomy inherent in UCAVs designed for state-on-state warfare in heavy EW conditions.
China’s advanced and efficient Flanker derivatives, as well as lightweight multirole fighters in the shape of the J-10B/C series and potentially a developmental FC-31 LO fighter programme, are likely to provide the leading source of non-Western combat aircraft from the mid-2020s onwards. Likewise, their air-launched munitions will increasingly outcompete Russian equivalents on the export market. As such, the development of Chinese capabilities should be closely monitored even by air forces which do not include the PLAAF in their direct threat assessments.
GIKI students beat top universities to clinch 2nd place in Design, Build and Fly competition
Team Invictus from GIKI has clinched 2nd position in Design, Build and Fly competition, hosted by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The competition had participation from students from all across the globe including renowned institutions such as MIT, UC Berkeley, and Stanford and GIKI students clinched the second spot to beat many of these institutions and bring the prize home.
The 2021 iteration of the competition aimed to build and test a UAV with a towed sensor. All student teams were tasked to design, fabricate and demonstrate capabilities of their unmanned radio controlled aircraft which is designed to meet a specific mission objective. As per the GIK University announcement, the team used advanced manufacturing techniques which included 3D printed parts and a pod and boom aircraft configuration to get their design ready.
The students of GIKI were also congratulated by the U.S Embassy of Pakistan in a Facebook post:
The team’s proposal for the unmanned aircraft was scored 85.9, which was 1st best in Asia whereas it was rated 2nd best globally. The proposal document consisted of 60 pages of highly technical information plus fly-offs that took place in alternately in Kansas and Arizona, USA. It must also be noted that due to COVID for the first time, digital collaboration tools had to be used but that didn’t hinder the team’s progress at all as they set forth to clinch the second position.
The team’s future plans are to be the face of the radio-controlled aircraft industry in Pakistan and they aim to promote aeronautics and aviation as a hobby in the country so that more people get involved.
Growing #Turkey-#Pakistan #Defense Collaboration: Turkey sees #nuclear power Pakistan as a strategic ally and partner in building its Siper long-range missile-defense project and TF-X fighter jet. Ankara seeks to be a power center in a multipolar world. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-02/turkey-expands-war-tech-search-by-tapping-pakistan-s-china-ties
Turkey is pushing to co-manufacture warplanes and missiles with Pakistan, a hookup that could also give it access to prized war technology from China.
Turkish defense and government officials have held periodic talks with Pakistani counterparts -- the last high-level discussion was in January -- about developing and manufacturing military hardware with Pakistan, according to people from both countries who are familiar with the negotiations. The people didn’t say when they’ll meet again or how close they are to an agreement.
A deal would get NATO-member Turkey closer to some of China’s military technology. Pakistan builds its JF-17 fighter jets with China and is said to have adapted Chinese designs for its Shaheen ballistic missile.
Turkey sees nuclear power Pakistan as a strategic ally and potential partner in building its Siper long-range missile-defense project and TF-X fighter jet, the people familiar said, speaking on condition of anonymity to discuss strategic goals. The people didn’t say whether the talks have gotten to the point of seeking Beijing’s consent to share Chinese defense technology.
Asked about restrictions imposed on weapons exports, China’s Foreign Ministry said in a statement Tuesday that the Chinese government “has always adopted a prudent and responsible attitude in the export of military products and strictly implements China’s military export management laws and regulations as well as its international duties.”
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has hailed “very serious potential” for collaboration with Pakistan on defense projects, and top defense officials have met in recent months. Pakistani Defense Secretary Mian Muhammad Hilal Hussain met with top Turkish officials including Defense Minister Hulusi Akar in December, and discussed defense industry cooperation, the people familiar said. Akar has also met with Pakistan’s defense minister, military chief and air force chief, and accompanied Erdogan on a visit to Pakistan over the past year.
The countries already have some cooperation in the defense industry, including co-producing warships Turkey has sold Pakistan.
Turkish adoption of Chinese military technology could cause new frictions with the U.S., which would be loath to see Ankara move further away from the Western military alliance. Washington is already sanctioning Turkey for buying a missile-defense system from Russia, and has suspended Turkish companies from participating in the development of Lockheed Martin Corp.’s F-35 stealth fighter jet.
The Turkish officials who spoke on the contacts with Pakistan said the outreach meshes with Ankara’s aspiration to become a power center in an increasingly multipolar world.
#Pakistan Prime Minister #ImranKhan approves establishment of Civil #Drone Authority to regulate the use of drones and also boost local production | Pakistan – Gulf News
Developing a policy framework for the adoption and management of drones is essential for businesses, agriculture, research and development, and other areas, said Khan.
The new drone authority would not only fill the regulatory void but would also be instrumental in the promotion and domestic production of drones. “Efficient use of drone technology will help improve utilization of resources and service levels,” the premier said. He urged to speed up the formation of the organization after the cabinet’s approval.
Pakistan’s first drone regulatory authority will supervise and implement several regulations related to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) or drones including licensing or drone permits, import, local manufacturing of drones and develop the standards for drone production, operations, training, research and development. It would also provide guidance for operating and flying drones to ensure public safety. The authority would also be empowered to undertake enforcement actions through warnings, fines and imprisonment.
The new organization would be headed by secretary aviation division Shoukat Ali and would comprise of top officers from Pakistan Air Force (PAF), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), Ministry of Defence Production, Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Science and Technology and representatives from each federating units. Three independent experts, whose names have not been decided yet, would also be part of the organization.
The public safety and national security challenges posed by unmanned aircraft demand a strong regulatory framework. Experts have welcomed Pakistan government’s drone regulation move but some believe that the country needed a ‘drone policy not an authority.’
“There is no reason to have a separate drone authority when civil aviation authority already exists. Drones are unmanned aircraft and that comes under aviation authority” Mosharraf Zaidi, public policy professional, told Gulf News. He says that a new organization with a few high-paying jobs could add a significant burden on the national exchequer. More importantly, “the new body would make the execution of public policy and regulation less coherent and more open to misuse”, he said.
The policy is seen as the first step towards building the drone industry in a country where the import of drones is practically banned due to security concerns. Experts say the regulation would help Pakistan tap into the commercial drone market, which is expected to touch US$43 billion by 2025 with an annual 20 per cent growth rate.
Minister for Science and Technology Fawad Chaudhry described the development as a new “milestone” and said that the ministry’s current focus is agricultural and police drones. Pakistan’s police recently started using drones to ensure public safety and the country also utilized locally developed drones to fight the locust attack.
Incentives for private firms
Pakistani drone manufacturers insist the federal government must encourage the private sector by offering direct support and tax incentives to develop the local industry and attract foreign investments and joint ventures.
“Pakistan is missing out on a huge potential to build its drone industry due to excessive red tape and high custom duties” Imran Wazeer, the COO of ABM SATUMA, a private company with two decades of drone manufacturing and integrated technologies experience, told Gulf News.
The private sector has been at the forefront of developing drone technologies with the support of government all over the world, he said
#Azerbaijan (Su-25), #Pakistan (JF-17) And #Qatar Emiri Air Force Combat Aircraft (Rafale) and #Turkey (F-16) Stole the Scene At Anatolian Eagle 2021 in Turkey, attracting aviation spotters from many foreign countries. https://theaviationist.com/2021/07/14/anatolian-eagle-2021/
Anatolian Eagle (AE) does not need introductions: organized by the Turkish Air Force at Konya Air Base, in central Anatolia, south of Ankara, Turkey, AE is a very well-known series of exercises hosted by the Turkish and attended each year by several foreign air arms. It is inspired by the U.S. Red Flag and Maple Flag series, the aim of which is to train fighter pilots for the first few days of a modern conflict.
The exercise provides the participating Turkish and foreign nations air forces an interesting opportunity to perform joint combat training in real-world scenarios that include Combined Air Operations (COMAOs) on tactical and strategic targets defended by Aggressors aircraft and Surface to Air Missile (SAM) threats of all types. A wide array of missions are planned and executed during Anatolian Eagle, spanning from CAP (Combat Air Patrol), Fighter Sweep and SEAD/DEAD (Suppression/Destruction of Enemy Air Defenses) to AI (Air Interdiction), CAS (Close Air Support) and CSAR (Combat SAR).
This is what we wrote about Konya, in one of our previous reports about the drills (you can find on our site the 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2019 reports):
Konya is an important base, the headquarters of the Anatolian Eagle Training Center Command, that plans, organizes and conducts the AE drills and has the important role of testing and validating TuAF’s aircraft and units’ ability and preparedness for combat, establishing a background knowledge to achieve the military aims at war in the shortest time and with minimum effort. In simple words, Konya is where tactics are developed and put to test. Moreover, it hosts the 131 Filo, the squadron that operates the E-7T (B737AEW&C); 132 Filo that flies the F-16C/D Block 50; 135 Filo, equipped with AS532AL, CN235M-100 and UH-1H helicopters and it is the homebase of the Turkish Stars, the TuAF display team.
The latest iteration of the exercise, AE 2021, was held at Konya between Jun. 21 and Jul. 2, 2021 and saw, for the first time, the participation of the Azerbaijan Air Force. Four Azerbaijani aircraft, two MiG-29s from Nasosnaya AB and two Su-25s from Kürdəmir AB joined the drills along with four Qatar Emiri Air Force Rafales from Tamim, Qatar, and five Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder from Minhas/Kamra Air Base, Pakistan. The foreign attendees cooperated with the Turkish Air Force contingent, including 39 F-16C/D jets and several supporting assets (among them, at least one E-7T and one KC-135R). A NATO E-3A AWACS also supported the exercise.
China tests new space capability with hypersonic missile
Launch in August of nuclear-capable rocket that circled the globe took US intelligence by surprise
Demetri Sevastopulo in Washington and Kathrin Hille in Taipei OCTOBER 16 2021
China tested a nuclear-capable hypersonic missile in August that circled the globe before speeding towards its target, demonstrating an advanced space capability that caught US intelligence by surprise.
Five people familiar with the test said the Chinese military launched a rocket that carried a hypersonic glide vehicle which flew through low-orbit space before cruising down towards its target.
The missile missed its target by about two-dozen miles, according to three people briefed on the intelligence. But two said the test showed that China had made astounding progress on hypersonic weapons and was far more advanced than US officials realised.
The test has raised new questions about why the US often underestimated China’s military modernisation.
“We have no idea how they did this,” said a fourth person.
The US, Russia and China are all developing hypersonic weapons, including glide vehicles that are launched into space on a rocket but orbit the earth under their own momentum. They fly at five times the speed of sound, slower than a ballistic missile. But they do not follow the fixed parabolic trajectory of a ballistic missile and are manoeuvrable, making them harder to track.
Taylor Fravel, an expert on Chinese nuclear weapons policy who was unaware of the test, said a hypersonic glide vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead could help China “negate” US missile defence systems which are designed to destroy incoming ballistic missiles.
“Hypersonic glide vehicles . . . fly at lower trajectories and can manoeuvre in flight, which makes them hard to track and destroy,” said Fravel, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Fravel added that it would be “destabilising” if China fully developed and deployed such a weapon, but he cautioned that a test did not necessarily mean that Beijing would deploy the capability.
Mounting concern about China’s nuclear capabilities comes as Beijing continues to build up its conventional military forces and engages in increasingly assertive military activity near Taiwan.
Tensions between the US and China have risen as the Biden administration has taken a tough tack on Beijing, which has accused Washington of being overly hostile.
Michael Gallagher, a Republican member of the House armed services committee, said the test should “serve as a call to action”.
“The People’s Liberation Army now has an increasingly credible capability to undermine our missile defences and threaten the American homeland with both conventional and nuclear strikes,” said Gallagher. “Even more disturbing is the fact that American technology has contributed to the PLA’s hypersonic missile programme.”
US military officials in recent months have warned about China’s growing nuclear capabilities, particularly after the release of satellite imagery that showed it was building more than 200 intercontinental missile silos. China is not bound by any arms-control deals and has been unwilling to engage the US in talks about its nuclear arsenal and policy.
#Pakistan To Add 50 #JF17 Block 3 To Counter #India’s Powerful S-400 Missiles. “JF-17 Block III fighters are near stealth with advanced software and radar capabilities that can be used to deceive the tracking system of S-400 missiles, among other systems". https://eurasiantimes.com/pakistan-to-add-50-jf-17-block-iii-fighter-jets-to-its-air-force/
For the uninitiated, S-400 is considered one of the most powerful air defense systems in the world. It is claimed to be effective against various weapons such as rockets, missiles, cruise missiles, and even aircraft.
As previously highlighted by The EurAsian Times, while the missile system is known for its defensive capabilities such as anti-access and area-denial, it can also be used in an offensive role. This can apparently restrict an adversary’s use of their own airspace. Pakistan may particularly feel vulnerable as India’s S-400s would cover most of its territory, including key cities.
The system provides layered coverage via a combination of the 40-kilometer-range 9M96E, 120-kilometer-range 9M96E2, 250-kilometer-range 48N6, and the 400-kilometer-range 40N6E missiles. Such a concentric circle of defense enables the S-400 to protect large areas, high-value targets as well as the system itself from potential attacks.
China also possesses the S-400 system, which is believed to have been deployed in Xinjiang and Tibet regions.
Pakistan Getting More JF-17s
According to Nikkei Asia, PAF will receive 50 JF-17 Block III fighter jets next month. A rollout ceremony was held in December and the new jets will apparently fly during the Pakistan Day military parade on March 23.
The JF-17 is a medium-sized multi-role fighter plane developed jointly by China’s Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) for PAF. The service has inducted more than 100 Thunder jets since 2007. Of this, 26 are Block II variants that were added in 2020.
Block III is the latest version of JF-17 and is believed to have made its maiden flight in December 2019. Last year, the JF-17 Block III was seen carrying PL-10E, which China calls its most advanced air-to-air missile (AAM). Two infrared (IR)-guided PL-10E AAMs are also seen for the first time on a JF-17.
According to reports, the new aircraft has a wide-angle holographic head-up display and a new imaging infrared (IIR)-based missile approach warning system.
A military expert in Beijing was quoted by Global Times as saying, “With the PL-10, the JF-17 Block 3 will gain tremendous dogfight capability and have an edge even against its heavier opposing counterparts in homeland air defense.”
It has an integrated cockpit display similar to the one used by the J-20 stealth fighter besides an advanced infrared missile approach warning system. The aircraft is equipped with KLJ-7A airborne active electronically scanned array fire-control radar.
New jets boast improved “high off-boresight” capability. This means the “aircraft can fire from whatever position, and its missiles will adjust thrust, speed and trajectory to hit targets.” Experts believe this will boost PAF’s capability against India’s S-400 air defense system.
“These jets possess capabilities that make them the best option to counter S-400,” Taimur Fahad Khan, a research associate at the Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad, told Nikkei Asia.
“JF-17 Block III fighters are near stealth with advanced software and radar capabilities that can be used to deceive the tracking system of S-400 missiles, among other systems,” he said.
Khan claimed Block III variant can detect adversary’s jets from almost 170 kilometers and launch attacks preemptively, thanks to the latest fire control radar system that improves detection of enemy aircraft by 65 percent.
S-400 Can Detect Advanced Jets
But there is a counterview to this argument. Not only Russia, but western military experts also claimed that S-400 can detect both conventional and stealth warplanes. It has an interception range of up to 400 kilometers.
China will deliver 25 J-10C fighter jets to Pakistan within weeks as part of a deal that will bolster Islamabad’s military capabilities against mutual rival India.
Beijing’s first export of the advanced jets marks a big step-up in its decades-old arms relationship with Islamabad and entails providing its ally with some of the latest equipment that China’s own armed forces are using. China will also broaden its support to Pakistan’s navy.
The first batch of the combat aircraft is being tested in Chengdu, the base of its manufacturer Chengdu Aerospace Corporation, according to a journalist at a Chinese military publication.
“They will be transferred to Pakistan once Pakistan air force pilots and technicians have completed an introduction to the aircraft,” he said.
Senior officials in Islamabad said the jets would be delivered before the end of the month.
Last week, Chinese and foreign military watchers posted photos and a video showing several J-10C aircraft flying the colours of the Pakistan air force on social media.
China is also selling Pakistan four Type 054A frigates, the first of which began service in November, and is expected to begin delivery of up to eight Type 041 submarines, its quietest attack submarine, this year.
India, which has been engaged in a stand-off on its Himalayan border with China for nearly two years, believes the arms deliveries to Pakistan are an attempt to amplify the threat from Islamabad. India shares long land borders with both Pakistan and China.
“There’s a clear strategic nexus between China and Pakistan,” said Brahma Chellaney, a professor of strategic studies at the Centre for Policy Research, a New Delhi think-tank. “That nexus is clearly designed to contain India, to pin India down and keep it preoccupied. That’s the Chinese strategic aim.”
He described the latest arms deals as a significant shift, adding that “China is now selling or transferring its top of the line weapons systems to Pakistan”.
The J-10C aircraft will help Pakistan close the air-power gap with India following New Delhi’s acquisition of 36 Rafale fighter jets from France. “This is our response to [India’s] Rafale,” Sheikh Rasheed Ahmed, Pakistan’s interior minister, said when he revealed the J-10C agreement in December.
The new Chinese ships would boost Pakistan’s capabilities in the Indian Ocean, an area of strategic importance for Beijing.
“They want Pakistan to have naval bases ready that China could also use, and to be able to protect them,” said Siemon Wezeman, an arms trade expert at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
“The Chinese have shown that they will sell to Pakistan when others won’t. I suspect that China is very easy to persuade [to sell], not only for commercial but also for political reasons,” he said.
India is also planning a naval expansion. The navy’s deputy chief said late last year that it aimed to increase the size of its fleet from 130 vessels to 170 by 2027, including four frigates being developed in partnership with Russia.
Despite the upgrades, Chellaney said the Himalayan stand-off was draining India’s defence resources. “The Indian navy is supposed to be undergoing modernisation, but the modernisation is happening at a relatively slow pace, largely because of the land military confrontations that India faces,” he said.
Images emerge of J-10C fighters for Pakistan
A CAIG J-10C fighter aircraft on display at the China Airshow 2021. The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) has been identified as the first export customer of the J-10C, after images emerged on 15 February of at least two aircraft in PAF markings. (VCG via Getty Images)
Images have emerged of two Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group (CAIG) J-10C ‘Firebird' multi-role fighter aircraft in Pakistan Air Force's (PAF's) markings, suggesting that a contract is in place and deliveries will start soon.
The images, which emerged on social media on 15 February, show two aircraft (serial number 22-102 and 22-106) equipped with a single Chinese-made Shenyang-Liming WS-10B ‘Taihang'-series turbofan engine, undertaking test flights at an undisclosed location in China – likely the manufacturer's factory in Chengdu.
The recent images confirm that a procurement programme is progressing, although no information is available on the value of the contract and the number of aircraft involved. Janes assesses that the PAF will receive at least two squadrons of J-10C fighters, although past reports have mentioned as many as 36 aircraft.
The latest development comes after Pakistan Interior Minister Skeish Rashid Ahmed told the media in December 2021 that a first batch of J-10Cs will be introduced during the fly past that will be held for the commemoration of Pakistan's Republic Day on 23 March 2022.
Pakistan is the first confirmed export customer of the J-10C, and these aircraft are likely an export derivative of the J-10C currently in service with the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PAAF).
The J-10C deal builds upon past collaboration between China and Pakistan in the manufacturing of the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex/Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group (PAC/CAIG) JF-17 Thunder/FC-1 Xiaolong light fighter aircraft.
China’s J-10C secures Pakistan as its first export market
A Pakistani J-10 buy has been rumoured for over a decade. It is not clear how many examples Islamabad will obtain, but reports have placed the number in the 25 to 36 range. So far, two distinct serial numbers have been spotted, with the aircraft apparently conducting flight tests.
Judging from the aircraft’s thrust petals, the Pakistani J-10s use are powered by the Shenyang WS-10B engine, as opposed to the Saturn AL-31F. It was only in May 2021 that the first clear images emerged of a Peoples’ Liberation Army Air Force J-10Cs powered by the WS-10B.
Mounted inside the J-10, the WS-10 can be identified by a few subtle features. One is that the afterburner nozzle petals are notably wider on the WS-10 than on the AL-31. The WS-10 also has a ring structure around the interior of the nozzle that is absent on the AL-31.
A Pakistani J-10 buy has been rumoured for over a decade. It is not clear how many examples Islamabad will obtain, but reports have placed the number in the 25 to 36 range. So far, two distinct serial numbers have been spotted, with the aircraft apparently conducting flight tests.
Judging from the aircraft’s thrust petals, the Pakistani J-10s use are powered by the Shenyang WS-10B engine, as opposed to the Saturn AL-31F. It was only in May 2021 that the first clear images emerged of a Peoples’ Liberation Army Air Force J-10Cs powered by the WS-10B.
Mounted inside the J-10, the WS-10 can be identified by a few subtle features. One is that the afterburner nozzle petals are notably wider on the WS-10 than on the AL-31. The WS-10 also has a ring structure around the interior of the nozzle that is absent on the AL-31.
Compared with previous versions of the J-10 – the J-10A and J-10B - the J-10C is equipped with an active electronically scanned array radar and an updated cockpit. It carries a broader array of weapons, including the long-range PL-15 air-to-air missile, which is believed to have a range greater than 107nm (200km).
According to AVIC, the export version of the J-10C is designated J-10CE. It claims that the aircraft has several advanced capabilities, including the ability to carry advanced beyond visual range missiles, and that it can also operate in a challenging electromagnetic environment. Moreover, it can perform a range of ground attack missions.
PAKISTAN, TURKEY TO JOINTLY DEVELOP NEXT GENERATION FIGHTER
The Government of #Pakistan 🇵🇰has officially merged the Next Generation Fighter Aircraft Program (NGFA), under the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex’s Project AZM, with #Turkey’s 🇹🇷 T-FX Program.
Why Turkey wants tie-up with Pakistan to build '1st big fighter jet of Muslims'
The TF-X project is considered cornerstone of Turkey's defence modernisation plans
Over the past decade, Turkey under President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has adopted an independent foreign policy. Erdogan has aimed to project Turkey as a major industrial and military power in the Middle East and also cultivate strategic ties with prominent Muslim nations.
However, this independent approach to foreign policy has frayed ties with NATO, and in particular with the US, Turkey's main security partner.
In December 2017, Turkey signed a deal worth around $2.5 billion to buy Russia's S-400 surface-to-air missile system, provoking outrage in Washington DC. In 2019, the Donald Trump administration removed Turkey as a partner from the F-35 stealth fighter project and imposed restrictions on deals with Turkish defence companies. Despite the pressure from the US, Erdogan's government has remained defiant in going ahead with the S-400 deal.
On Tuesday, Bloomberg reported that Turkey is pushing to co-manufacture warplanes and missiles with Pakistan. "Turkish defense and government officials have held periodic talks with Pakistani counterparts—the last high-level discussion was in January—about developing and manufacturing military hardware with Pakistan, according to people from both countries who are familiar with the negotiations," Bloomberg reported.
"Turkey sees nuclear power Pakistan as a strategic ally and potential partner in building its Siper long-range missile-defense project and TF-X fighter jet," the report added. According to reports, the Siper is a long-range, high-altitude surface-to-air missile system that can engage both aircraft and ballistic missiles. However, it is the TF-X project that is considered the cornerstone of Turkey's defence modernisation plans.
The TF-X (Turkish Fighter-Experimental) is a stealthy twin-engine fighter jet that Turkey intends to use as the replacement for its vast fleet of F-16 fighters. Turkey received at least 240 F-16 fighters from the US, making it the largest operator of the type after Israel and the US.
The TF-X project was launched in 2011. Turkey intends the fighter to carry indigenously developed radar, missiles and electronics. In 2015, Turkey chose BAE Systems, a UK-based aerospace company, to assist in development of the TF-X. Mock-ups of the TF-X have shown a fighter with 'stealth features' such as internal weapons bays and angled air intakes for the engines.
How China and Pakistan Built a Rival to the F-16
It is yet to be seen whether it can actually perform at its price point in combat, but Pakistan seems to be satisfied with what the JF-17 can do in trials.
In 1998 China and Pakistan recommenced serious development of the Super 7. Costs were split 50/50 between the Pakistani government and CAC and the aircraft was renamed JF-17 As Grumman had dropped out, the fighter needed a new powerplant. A solution was found in the Russian Mikoyan design bureau, which offered the Klimov RD-93 engine which was originally designed for the canceled MiG-33 fighter jet. The RD-93 was an advanced version of the RD-33 used on the MiG-29, however, only one RD-93 is used on the JF-17 in contrast to two RD-33s in a MiG-29.
Another key innovation that occurred during the development process was the inclusion of diverterless supersonic intakes (DSI) on the JF-17 design. The design went through several iterations but is seen on current JF-17 production aircraft. In 2003 the first prototype took to the air. By 2006 the JF-17 was finalized and ready to enter serial production. It was formally adopted in 2007. The first fully Pakistani-manufactured JF-17 was created in 2008.
The JF-17’s designers have proven adept at keeping up with the times following its entry into service. The initial run of fighters for Pakistan have been referred to as Block I JF-17s. Block II JF-17s introduced a multitude of new capabilities and upgrades, including composites in the airframe for reduced weight, air to air refueling, a full fly-by-wire system, and a better radar. China offered to replace the Russian RD-93s with their own WS-13 in Block II JF-17s, but Pakistan opted to stick with the Russian engine.
For the Block III, China hopes to add an AESA radar to the JF-17 and further improve the avionics and weapons compatibility of the JF-17. The standard JF-17 features the MIL-STD-1760 databus in some implementations, allowing for compatibility with Western and Eastern weapons. One potential weakness of the JF-17 is its internal cannon, which is still the double-barrel GSh-23, a legacy of its MiG-21 heritage. This cannon is outperformed by practically any other autocannon mounted on a modern combat aircraft. However, given the relative infrequency of cannon usage in modern air combat, this is not a big issue.
The largest advantage of the JF-17 is its cost. At only 15 million per plane in its most basic configuration, the JF-17 is far cheaper than any of its competitors, even used. Block II JF-17s cost around the same margin, with Myanmar buying them for only 16 million per unit. This has been the key to the JF-17’s export success. A poor nation can field a relatively modern fighter for a very low price. It is yet to be seen whether it can actually perform at its price point in combat, but Pakistan seems to be satisfied with what the JF-17 can do in trials. In many ways, China has updated the budget fighter of the last generation, the MiG-21, for the modern era with the help and additional design cues from the F-16.
#WorldDefenceShow in #Riyadh: #Pakistan strengthens #intelligence cooperation with #SaudiArabia, and achieving more #Saudi #investments in the #defense industry. The #Arab kingdom is the largest POF (Pak Ordnance Factories) customer, beating the #UAE. https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20220319-world-defence-show-pakistan-strengthens-intelligence-cooperation-with-saudi/
Pakistan is strengthening its intelligence cooperation with Saudi Arabia and achieving more Saudi investments in the defence industry, as discussed at the first World Defence Show earlier this month. Pakistan is also intensifying its partnerships with China.
The first World Defence Show was launched in Riyadh between 6-9 March and received a great reception. It hosted the Pakistan Pavilion, which displayed equipment from the Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF), the Ministry of Defence Production's largest defence complex in the country.
The kingdom is the largest POF customer, beating the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Pakistani government, led by Imran Khan, is looking to attract more Saudi investments after obtaining a $4.2 billion loan from the Saudi Fund for Development. It relies on its defence industry to attract new capital.
The POF, headed by Ali Amir Awan, has factories in the Wah Cantonment in Punjab, whose pavilion in Riyadh was visited by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman. Partnership agreements were signed with CEO of Saudi Arabia Military Industries (SAMI) Walid Abukhaled and Governor of General Authority for Military Industries (GAMI) Ahmed Bin Abdulaziz Al-Ohali.
At the defence exhibition, the Pakistani military revealed its new BW20 assault rifle and promoted its work with the Pakistan Machine Tool Factory (PMTF), which assembles US, French and Chinese weapons.
Led by retired Army Chief of Staff Raheel Sharif, who now heads the Riyadh-based Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, the Pakistan Defence Industry delegation showcased its latest products, including the JF-17 fighter jet.
The aircraft was developed in partnership with China's Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group and is not the only Pakistani equipment that China has participated in manufacturing.
With Chinese assistance, the Pakistan Air Force has also developed the Burraq drone, derived from the Uqab drone.
The Chinese Norinco Company for General Defence also participated in the exhibition in Riyadh. It regularly attends the Dubai Airshow and IDEX UAE.
Saudi Ambassador to Islamabad Nawaf Bin Saeed Al-Maliki and Chairman of the Pakistan Investment Council Mohammed Azfar Ahsan discussed increasing economic cooperation between the two countries last month, with the negotiations continuing at the World Defence Show.
The only tangible deal was the Saudi Telecom Company's investment in Pakistan's Awal Telecom.
Riyadh and Islamabad also continue their security cooperation, with the head of Saudi Arabia's General Intelligence, Khalid Bin Ali al-Humaidan, entering into an agreement with the head of Internal Intelligence (ISI), Nadim Ahmed Anjum, in Islamabad in December.
Pakistan showcased its latest defense equipment at its annual Pakistan Day Parade on Wednesday, highlighting ongoing efforts to maintain a credible conventional deterrent against India.
One notable element of the parade including aerial displays, which this year began with an F-16C Block 52 escorted by a pair of newly inducted Chinese J-10C Firebird fighters. Three Firebird fighters from an initial order of 25 are believed to be in Pakistan.
Kaiser Tufail, an analyst who previously flew the F-16 during his military career, thinks the Firebird was a good choice for the Pakistan Air Force.
“The J-10, being in the class of the F-16C Block 52 in terms of range and weapons payload, it was the obvious choice for adding to the numbers of PAF’s [fourth-generation-plus] fighters,” he said.
However, he added, “any acquisition from [the United States] under the current ‘cold’ relationship was neither possible nor feasible.”
He also believes the acquisition was an “appropriate response” to India’s Rafale purchase. Although Pakistan has historically been a committed French customer, the high costs of that country’s hardware encouraged Islamabad to look to Beijing, “an old and trusted friend.”
He also said the J-10C and Rafale are comparable due to the former’s active electronically scanned array radar and PL-15 beyond visual range air-to-air missile.
“While the radar and [beyond visual range] missile capabilities of the Rafale and J-10 are highly classified, it is fair to say that they have broadly similar capabilities,” he noted. “With no possibility of [the Pakistan Air Force] being able to upgrade its [advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles] to the longer-ranged versions, the PL-15 is considered the right antidote to the Rafale’s Meteor.”
The Firebird is also a high-end complement to the more numerous JF-17 jets.
“The J-10 is by no means a substitute to the JF-17, as it is in a different class altogether. With more range and weapons payload, the J-10 forms the ‘high’ end of the high-low mix, with the JF-17 workhorse performing the bulk of ‘routine’ operations. Both types can also be perfectly ‘paired,’ as both share many avionics, data link and [electronic warfare] capabilities,” Tufail explained.
Other new equipment showcased during the parade included the Chinese-supplied SH-15 155mm truck-mounted howitzer and HQ-9P long-range air defense system, as well as the indigenous Shahpar-2 combat drone.
The SH-15 has a maximum reported firing range of about 53 kilometers, making it Pakistan’s longest-range tube artillery system, and helping the country standardize on a single caliber along with its U.S.-supplied M109 and M198 howitzers.
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a think tank that tracks arms sales, has not listed the HQ-9P in Pakistan’s inventory, and the Asian nation has not officially confirmed its acceptance into the military. SIPRI does, however, list the CH-3.
Raja Khan, who leads drone-maker Integrated Dynamics, previously told Defense News the Burraq was locally developed based on the configuration of a 1970s kit plane designed by Burt Rutan. China helped rig the finished product with missiles, but then copied and exported it as the CH-3.
The Shahpar-2 is a larger and more heavily armed combat UAV based on the same design lineage.
Despite Pakistan’s ability to domestically develop UAVs, the country still purchases Chinese and Turkish drones. None were on display.
The parade was witnessed by foreign ministers from the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, who are attending a conference in Islamabad.
AEROSINT Division PSF
#Pakistan has inducted state-of-the-art, “game changer” EW systems from a friendly strategic partner and has already successfully built an integrated offensive+defensive ECM and electronic warfare force by early 2022.
The capability is simply unrivalled in the region and beyond.
AEROSINT Division PSF
These systems are mostly ground based & were inducted in 2021. They represent the Pakistan Air Force’s renewed focus on smart inductions, with EW playing a big role meant to significantly erode the adversary’s capability to operate near Pakistan’s borders and deny tactical space.
AEROSINT Division PSF
These systems are highly mobile, and rapidly deployable to the front lines and consist of multiple jammers for different bandwidths, comprising an integrated electronic air defence system.
#Pakistan #PAF to Unveil Locally Made #AESA radar sending radio waves of multiple frequencies in different directions without moving the antenna. Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) #radar to be deployed in both ground-based and airborne roles. https://propakistani.pk/2022/03/24/paf-to-unveil-locally-made-stealth-radars-for-fighter-jets/
AESA is a second-generation phased radar in which radio waves of multiple frequencies can be sent in different directions without moving the antenna. AESA radars allow aircraft and ships to send powerful signals while remaining stealthy and resistant to jamming.
According to details, Pakistan’s local AESA radar is being developed by the Air Weapon Complex (AWC), an R&D facility of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), in collaboration with the National University of Science and Technology (NUST).
Although complete details of the radar are unavailable at the moment, sources have claimed that the indigenously developed AESA radar will use the latest gallium nitride (GaN) transmit and receive modules that are owned by only a few countries.
AWC reportedly designed two types of GaN transmit and receive modules- S-band and X-band- in late 2019 and early 2020 respectively.
Both modules have different functionalities. The S-band module is used in ground-based and airborne search radars for target search and detection. On the other hand, the X-band module is associated with fire control due to its superior resolution.
The indigenous AESA radar is expected to officially make its debut in the JF-17 Block 4 fighter jet or the fifth-generation stealth fighter jet being developed under Project Azm.
Turkey and Pakistan have joined forces in the development and production of a new fifth-generation fighter aircraft.
“This is a Turkish-Pakistani fighter programme,” said Turkish Aerospace Industries (TUSAŞ) CEO, Temel Kotil, while holding a scale model of the Turkish Fighter Experimental (TF-X)/National Combat Aircraft (MMU) single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter aircraft in an interview with a Pakistani TV channel on 18 February.
“This is a fifth-generation fighter aircraft in which Pakistan and Turkey are now collaborating,” Pakistan Air Force (PAF) Air Vice Marshal Rizwan Riaz, pro-rector for Research, Innovation & Commercialisation (RIC) at National University of Science and Technology (NUST), said during the same interview.
The new fifth-generation fighter aircraft will be developed to meet the operational requirements for a fifth-generation aircraft of both countries and will replace the existing Lockheed Martin F-16 fighter aircraft fleets in service with the Turkish Air Force and the PAF.
According to the interview, the aircraft development will be conducted jointly, with TUSAŞ leading the programme and employing engineers from Pakistan's NUST. Kotil said that some of TUSAŞ's operations will move to Pakistan in 2022, as part of a series of activities to further bilateral defence industry co-operation between the two countries.
Both Pakistan and Turkey had begun development activities in the mid-late 2010s for their respective indigenous fighter aircraft programmes – the Next Generation Fighter Aircraft (NGFA) programme under the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex's (PAC's) Project AZM and Turkey's TF-X programme.
ASELSAN produces several EWSs and platforms, but one of them, KORAL, occupies a unique position and has played a critical role in Ankara’s recent involvements in several regional theatres. Although Turkey’s unmanned aerial combat vehicles (UACVs) have been making headlines in the last few years, the KORAL has been the invisible power behind their success.
Not much credit is given to this system due to its silent role and lack of publicity; however, there is no doubt that this system has enabled Turkey’s strategic and military planners to boost the efficiency and lethality of its UACVs. This is not to underestimate the unique capabilities of Ankara’s drones, but rather to underscore the value and role of the KORAL.
The KORAL is a land-based transportable EWS with an effective range of 150–200 km. The system offers advanced options and supports Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) operations. It consists of two subsystems: the first provides electronic support operations for conducting ISR, while the other is dedicated to attack operations to degrade, neutralise or destroy enemy combat capabilities. This kind of operation usually involves the use of electromagnetic energy against communication systems and radar systems.
The KORAL was part of a Land-Based Stand-off Jammer System project adopted by the Defence Industry Executive Committee around two decades ago. It came as a response to increasing threats and to meet the growing needs of the Turkish air force command. The system was contracted in 2009, and within seven years, the KORAL EWS entered the Turkey Armed Forces’ (TSK) inventory. In this sense, the EWS filled a gap and offered new opportunities for the TSK.
Since 2016, the KORAL has been battle-tested in different environments, including critical theatres in Syria, Libya and Azerbaijan, demonstrating impressive capabilities and executing complex roles in the first-ever wars won by unmanned systems. Ankara incorporated the KORAL in a new unconventional drone doctrine that prescribes the use of drones as an air force in a conventional battle. The doctrine requires a high level of cooperation, coordination and integration between the deployed EWS (KORAL in this case), the UAVs (Aerospace Anka-S and Bayraktar TB2) and the smart micro-munitions (MAM-L and MAM-C).
This innovative military doctrine has generated a lot of discussion. Many defence ministers, military experts and security analysts worldwide have called on their countries and armies to observe what Turkey has done in this field and to draw appropriate lessons, in order to be prepared for the new age of automated wars. During the Royal Air Force’s online Air and Space Power Conference 2020, UK Defence Secretary Ben Wallace urged the force to go in this direction, hinting that ‘Even if half the claims [about Turkey’s drones and EWSs] are true, the implications are game-changing’.
During Operation Spring Shield against the Syrian regime and pro-Iranian militias, the KORAL set the stage for Ankara’s drones by securing aerial dominance for the TSK. As a result, Turkey’s drones were able to wipe out a large portion of Bashar al-Assad’s army in Idlib using pinpoint technology. During the battle, the Assad regime lost 151 tanks, eight helicopters, three drones, three fighter jets (including two Russian-made Sukhoi Su-24s), around 100 armoured military vehicles, eight aerial defence systems, 86 cannons and howitzers, multiple ammunition trucks and one headquarters, among other military equipment and facilities. Additionally, the KORAL humiliated Russia’s technology, including the air defence systems (ADSs) designed specifically to counter such drone threats.
Turkey’s Electronic Warfare (Koral) Capabilities: The Invisible Power Behind its UACVs
Video captures by Turkey’s Ministry of Defence proved that Ankara was able to identify, locate, monitor, follow and target several Russian-made ADSs, including the Pantsir, without fear of being hit. One video which went viral on social media showed that the Turkish drones targeted and destroyed the Pantsir, even though its radar was active and combat-ready. Considering the close-up nature of the video and the large size of the TB2, it is highly likely that the KORAL managed to blind the Russian radar. During the operations, the TSK successfully destroyed eight Pantsir ADS units.
In Libya, Ankara’s intervention in favour of the UN-recognised government and against Khalifa Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA) – which has been supported by a host of countries including the UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, France and Russia – turned the tide of the war. Turkey’s deployment of the KORAL alongside its TB2s dramatically changed the equation on the ground.
The KORAL disrupted the LNA’s Chinese-made Wing Loong drones supplied by the UAE, and established local aerial superiority for Turkey’s UACVs by rendering the LNA’s ADSs useless (including S-125, SA-6 and Pantsir S-1 systems). Furthermore, it enabled the lethal and precise targeting of Haftar’s military bases, supply lines, military equipment, fortified positions and ground targets. Clash Report claimed that Turkey destroyed at least 15 Pantsir systems in Libya. Once again, in at least one case, a video recording showed a Pantsir’s radar active and hopelessly looking for a threat to engage with, before being hit and destroyed by Ankara’s state-of-the-art drone, the TB2.
During the 44-day war between Azerbaijan and Armenia last year, the KORAL demonstrated its critical capacity on a broader scale. The Turkish-made EWS prepared the ground for a swift and decisive Azeri victory. The KORAL reportedly reduced the formidable Russian-made Armenian formations of ground-based ADSs to junk, enabling the Azeri forces to wipe them out, and thus leaving the Armenian Army at the mercy of Azeri TB2s acquired from Turkey.
Turkey’s Electronic Warfare (Koral) Capabilities: The Invisible Power Behind its UACVs
Armenia lost around 256 tanks, 50 BMP vehicles, 40 OSA SAM systems, over 400 trucks, hundreds of artillery pieces, and other military equipment during the war. In an act of psychological and information warfare, Azerbaijan’s Ministry of Defence released video recordings showing Armenian ADSs of all types (SA 8 Osa, SA 13 Strela 10, SA 15 Buk and even Russian-made S-300) being hit and destroyed by its forces. According to Azerbaijan’s President Ilham Aliyev, the Azeri military destroyed at least six S-300 missile systems using mainly Turkish and some Harop loitering munitions or Kamikaze drones.
To gain leverage over Azerbaijan, Yerevan acquired Russia’s Iskander ballistic missile and Repellent EWS in 2016 and 2017. Yet, Armenia’s Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan discovered that these systems – worth tens of millions of dollars each – did not actually work, despite Moscow promoting them as advanced, complex and superior systems. Azerbaijan managed to disable and/or destroy many of these systems along with Armenia’s ADSs. In one documented case, an Armenian ADS is seen executing a series of unsuccessful attempts to launch missiles against an aerial target due to the powerful suppression targeting of the KORAL.
In November 2020, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan praised the KORAL. Confirming the EWS’s critical role in Ankara’s latest battles, he revealed that his country is working on a new, more advanced version of the KORAL. Under the leadership of the Presidency of Defence Industries, ASELSAN has been working on a new generation of KORAL with advanced capabilities, the Kara SOJ-2. More recently, the TSK added the new highly capable SANCAK EWS to its inventory.
These new developments mean that Ankara is now open to exporting the KORAL. Several news platforms claimed that Ankara signed a $50.7 million contract to sell the KORAL EWS to Morocco’s Royal Armed Forces. Last August, a report indicated that the Royal Army of Oman was mulling the possibility of buying the Turkish-made EWS. At the end of that month, Iraq’s Defence Minister Jouma Saadoun reportedly expressed his country’s willingness to purchase Turkish-made military equipment, including TB2 UACVs, 12 T-129 ATAK helicopters and six KORAL EWSs.
Considering Ankara’s rising ambition to become a leader in robotic warfare systems and its relentless effort to add more unmanned offensive and defensive systems to the TSK’s inventory in the coming years, it will definitely focus on boosting its electronic warfare capabilities in the future.
JF-17 Block 3 vs. F-16C: How Pakistan’s New Fighter Will Leave the American Fighting Falcon Far Behind
With the JF-17 Block 3 fighter unveiled in December 2019, and expected to enter service from around 2022, the aircraft will outperform all existing Pakistani fighters, the F-16C included, by a considerable margin. While the new aircraft has a new engine and makes more use of light composite materials for a superior flight performance, including the ability to exceed Mach 2 speeds, the platform’s most significant improvements are arguably those made to its beyond visual range capabilities. The JF-17 Block 3’s avionics are nothing less than state of the art, with a heads up display, a full glass cockpit and new single panel multi functional display, and the aircraft also integrates a powerful AESA radar - possibly the KLJ-7A. An AESA radar will be key to the JF-17 Block 3’s performance, and its sophistication will compensate for the relatively small size of the radar the fighter can accommodate and provide the situational awareness needed to make effective use of longer ranged munitions such as the PL-15 air to air missile. This missile has approximately double the range of the AIM-120C used by the F-16C - approximately 200km where the AIM-120 is restricted to around 105km. The PL-15 has been integrated onto China’s new generation of fighters which all integrate AESA radars, the J-20, J-16, and J-10C, and has reportedly begun integration onto older designs such as the J-11B.
Advantages of integrating an AESA radar not only allows the JF-17 Block 3 to detect targets at far longer ranges, and to track and lock onto more targets simultaneously, but its is also less prone to jamming and leaves a far lower radar signature - meaning it is both more reliable and makes the fighter more difficult to detect. Alongside state of the art Chinese electronic warfare systems, and what appears to be a radar cross section reducing profile, a combination of modern avionics, and AESA radar and PL-15 missiles will make the JF-17 Block 3 an extremely lethal fighter for beyond visual range combat considerably more capable than any fighter currently in Pakistani service including the F-16. While some more sophisticated variants of the F-16 can boast capabilities which rival the JF-17 Block 3, namely the F-16E and F-2, only two countries operate these aircraft which have not been made available to the vast majority of clients. Compared to the JF-17 Block 3, the F-16C is expected to have a slower speed, lower sortie rate, lower operational altitude, poorer situational awareness and electronic warfare capabilities, inferior anti shipping capabilities and a considerably lower air to air engagement range. The JF-17 Block 3 is thus expected to form the elite of the Pakistani fleet, and have considerable export success to a range of interested clients such as Egypt and Myanmar. A more ambitious light fighter project is currently under way to succeed the JF-17 Block 3, the Project AZM stealth fighter program, which is also being pursued jointly by China and Pakistan.
Nigerian Air Force using targeting pod with JF-17
by Jack Iraboh
The Aselpod is almost certainly in service with the Nigerian Air Force. (Aselsan)
A Nigerian Air Force (NAF) JF-17 Thunder multirole fighter has been seen carrying what is almost certainly an Aselpod targeting pod made by Turkish company Aselsan.
A short clip posted on social media on 14 August showed a Nigerian JF-17 with the number 720 taxiing with a dark grey pod on its centreline hardpoint.
Earlier this year, a photograph emerged showing a man next to a JF-17 carrying a targeting pod with an air intake on its starboard side that looked more like the one on the Aselpod than the smaller intakes on the Chinese WMD-7 targeting pod that has also been integrated with the aircraft.
The man, evidently not Nigerian, wore a badge with the Pakistani flag and what appeared to be ‘Aselpod' written on it. However, his cap had the name of the NAF's 131 Engineering Group on it, indicating he was helping that unit with the new pod.
Aselsan integrated the Aselpod on the Pakistan Air Force's JF-17s under a contract that was first reported in 2017. The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex delivered the three JF-17s ordered by the NAF in March 2021.
The photograph also showed a bomb with a laser-guidance kit on one of the JF-17's wings. This could be an Mk 82 fitted with a GBU-12 Paveway II kit as the United States approved the sale of these weapons to Nigeria along with the 12 A-29 Super Tucano turboprop aircraft that were delivered to the NAF in 2021.
The key word in the US DSCA announcement of the F-16 package for Pakistan's 80 fighter jets is "interoperability" with USAF and NATO air forces. "Interoperability" includes necessary upgrades. Below is the US announcement:
“This proposed sale ($450 million F-16 package) will support the foreign policy and national security objectives of the United States by allowing Pakistan to retain interoperability with US and partner forces in ongoing counter-terrorism efforts and in preparation for future contingency operations.”
Pakistan F-16 Package: US Fooling Whom? – OpEd
The Pentagon said the proposed sale “greatly improves Pakistan’s ability to support counterterrorism operations through its robust air-to-ground capability”. External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar took a sharp dig at the US deciding to send the F-16 fighter jet fleet sustainment programme to Pakistan earlier this month to meet ‘current and future counterterrorism threats’, he said “you are not fooling anybody by saying these things”. On F-16 aircraft he said, “For someone to say I am doing this because it is all counter-terrorism content and so when you are talking of an aircraft like a capability of an F-16 where everybody knows, you know where they are deployed and their use. In 2019, Pakistan had used the same aircraft to target India after the Balakot strike and used American supplied AIM-120 C-5 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile), to shoot down then Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman’s MiG 21 Bison.
This is the first American military assistance package to Pakistan after the Trump Administration ended defence and security co-operation with the country in 2018 after accusing it of giving only “lies and deceit” for the billions of dollars that the US had “foolishly” given it.
Despite considerable strategic convergence between the US and India of late in the Indo-Pacific through QUAD, the announcement by the Biden administration at this stage, however, approved a $450 million F-16 aircraft fleet sustainment programme for Pakistan sends confused signals. The US government led by President Joe Biden decided to overturn the decision of his predecessor Donald Trump to suspend military aid to Pakistan in lieu of it providing safe havens for the Afghan Taliban and Haqqani network.
State Department Spokesperson Ned Price told reporters at his daily news conference in response to External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar’s statement; “We look to both as partners, because we do have in many cases shared values. We do have in many cases shared interests. And the relationship we have with India stands on its own. The relationship we have with Pakistan stands on its own.”
US government and contractor engineering, technical and logistics services for follow-on support of Pakistan’s F-16 fleet aircraft sustainment programme includes modifications and support of aircraft and engine hardware and software as well as repair and return of the jets and engine spares, classified and unclassified software and software support among others. The Pentagon statement also said that the proposed sale will continue the sustainment of the country’s F-16 fleet, which “greatly improves Pakistan’s ability to support counterterrorism operations through its robust air-to-ground capability”.
Reasons for US F-16 support:
Among the major speculated reasons for the Biden Administration’s reversal of Trump’s policy on Pakistan, one revolves around the killing of Ayman al-Zawahiri in Kabul. Questions ;who provided the intelligence for the drone strike that killed the al-Qaeda chief in a posh house that belonged to Interior Minister Sirajuddin Haqqani.
What is the history of F-16 programme, and why does it carry so much baggage?
by Suhasini Haider
To begin with, F-16 Falcons have always been seen as a barometer of the US-Pakistan relationship:
1. In 1981, as US-Pakistan cooperation against Soviets in Afghanistan got underway- the US sold 40 F-16 jets to Pakistan. These were used to protect mujahideen training camps and shoot down Soviet jets and transporters
2. In 1990, after the Soviets left Afghanistan, ties spiralled- and after the US Pressler amendment on nuclear proliferation concerns, the US held back a Pakistani order for 28 F-16 jets- even though Pakistan had paid for $658 million in advance. Eventually the US refunded the money.
3. From 2005-2015, after US-Pakistan cooperation restarted after 9/11 and the “war on terrorism”, the US resumed its F-16 sales to Pakistan – delivering 23 F-16 As and Bs from the previous order,
selling 19 advanced F-16s and upgrading the previous ones. In all today, Pakistan has about 85 F-16s of various variants. In 2016 the Obama administration approved the sale of 8 more, but the US Congress turned down a plan to susidize them, and Pakistan dropped the deal.
4. Then in 2018, US President Trump, tired of Pakistan’s unkept promises on fighting terrorism and on Afghanistan cancelled all further defence sales and support funding to Pakistan- the period began a low point in US-Pakistan ties, especially with the Imran Khan government, which US President Biden refused to meet or engage with.
5. The decision to provide $450 million worth of F-16 support and equipment marks an uptick in US-Pakistan ties again- Mr. Blinken has met with and spoken over the phone to Mr. Bhutto a number of times since May, and President Biden met with PM Shehbaz Sharif at a reception he hosted in New York last week.
What is the reason for Mr. Jaishankar’s angry words, and why is New Delhi concerned about the $450 million package?
1. This marks the first US military sale to Pakistan since the time US acknowledged Pakistan had been double dealing and was an untrustworthy partner on Afghanistan. The larger question, is the US perception of that changing in any way?
2. This is also the first such package since Pakistan’s grey listing on terror financing, which it hopes to exit this year. The concern in India is this could weaken the war against terrorism as well, if Pakistan feels emboldened to step up support to anti-India terror groups
3. Balakot: During the 2019 Balakot skirmish, when an Indian plane was shot down, India had shown fragments of a missile as proof that Pakistan had used US F-16s in the dogfight, which are only meant for counter-terrorism purposes. The concern in Delhi is Mr. Blinken is whitewashing the incident, and the US, which has never confirmed the Indian claim is basically turning a blind eye to Pakistan’s misuse of the F-16s by providing more support.
4. Dealing with two fronts: Particularly as India deals with aggression from China and focuses its resources there, any arming of Pakistan by the US could alter the regional military balance. The US deal also casts a shadow over the US’s plans to sell India F-21 fighter jets, which are seen as a rebranded version of the F-16s. New Delhi will watch a visit in the next few weeks by Pakistan Army Chief General Bajwa to Washington very closely, as a result.
India-US ties are set on such a close-knit trajectory that it is unlikely that the F-16 support deal to Pakistan alone will prove to be more than just a fly in the ointment, a minor irritant in ties. However, it is the larger ramifications of a possible detente in Washington-Islamabad ties, that soars and plunges by turns, which has in the past meant a greater security threat for India that are the bigger worry, and it is necessary that the US recognise this...especially after its handover to the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Pakistan Displays India’s MiG-21 Bison’s Tail Shot Down By PAF F-16 Fighter Jet At Its Defense Expo — Reports
November 17, 2022
The tail section of a MiG-21 of the Indian Air Force is on display at IDEAS-22 that was shot down on February 27, 2019, during Operation Swift Retort, by a Pakistani F-16. New Delhi and Islamabad made different statements about the event’s occurrence at the time.
Meanwhile, the J-17C’s informative photos, one of which also shows the cockpit, are being presented at the event. A video module of the aircraft is also showcased at PAF Pavilion during IDEAS 2022.
Pakistan’s JF-17C, also known as Block 3, is the latest version of the J-17 aircraft. The Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) of China and the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) collaborated to develop the medium-sized multi-role JF-17 ‘Thunder’ fighter aircraft for the Pakistan Air Force.
The service has received more than 100 Thunder jets since 2007.
The JF-17 C model is thought to have taken to the skies for the first time in December 2019. The PL-10E, which China describes as its most advanced air-to-air missile, was also spotted being carried by the JF-17 Block 3 in 2021.
The JF-17C has notable upgraded capabilities, such as Missile Approach Warning Systems (MAWS), Wide Angle Smart HUD, more Chin Hardpoints, and an integrated EW suite.
Another photograph that has gained popularity on the internet is thought to be the finest image of a PAF JF-17C – dubbed Block 3 – so far.
The DEPO organizes IDEAS every two years. Since its beginning in 2000, IDEAS has established itself as a worldwide staging ground for defense manufacturers, business owners, R&D professionals, finance experts, and top-level officials.
However, in terms of space, reservations, exhibitors, and delegates from domestic and international countries, this year’s event has reportedly eclipsed all records.
The defense expo was inaugurated by Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Bilawal Bhutto-Zardari at the city’s expo center in Karachi. IDEAS 2022 officially started on November 15 and will last through November 18.
In his remarks at the occasion, FM Bhutto-Zardari discussed the current coalition government’s difficulties while noting that it succeeded despite the economic downturn. About 300 exhibitors are showing off their latest products from 32 nations.
This exhibition is attended by about 500 national and international delegates, including high-level delegations from friendly nations.
Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif tweeted that the nation’s defense industry is meeting the demands of the technological era, and he emphasized that IDEAS had grown into a significant platform in the global defense market.
He stated that this year’s event’s ‘Arms for Peace’ theme represented Pakistan’s commitment to peace and stability. Sharif added that IDEAS had developed into a platform that showcased Pakistan’s expanding impact in the global defense market.
“Good to see that our defense sector is catering to demands of the tech era,” he added.
Meanwhile, the Pakistan Air Force is presenting its aerospace, avionics, cyberspace, and other related technologies at its pavilion. The National Aerospace Science and Technology Park (NASTP) is the PAF pavilion’s biggest attraction.
It is a Pakistan Air Force project to promote industry-academia linkage to provide an ecosystem of critical elements required to nurture design, research, development, and innovation in the aviation, space, and cyber sectors.
Speaking at the event, the Air Chief stated that the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) is dedicated to creating advanced technologies in the nation to deliver the most cutting-edge, efficient, and impenetrable aerial defense.
A jet built by China and Pakistan may soon be the most widely operated combat aircraft in the world
Pakistan considers the Block III JF-17 a 4.5-generation jet, and its air force plans to acquire at least 50 of them, the first of which arrived in January. The jets have already been seen carrying one of China's most advanced air-to-air missiles.
In early November, three JF-17 fighters of the Pakistani Air Force conducted aerial demonstrations at the Bahrain International Air Show.
At the same time, China was showcasing the JF-17 at the annual China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition in Zuhai, China.
The events were the latest attempts by China and Pakistan to market their jointly developed fourth-generation fighter jet to international customers.
The JF-17 is only in service with three countries — Pakistan, Myanmar, and Nigeria — which operated a total of 145 as of October 2021, according to Aviation Week.
At the time, Aviation Week data showed that total was set to rise to 185 JF-17s by mid-decade — growth that would make it the most widely operated Chinese combat jet in service overseas by the end of 2023.
Developed by China's Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation and the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, the JF-17 first flew in 2003. The single-seat, single-engine jet is known in Pakistan as the JF-17 Thunder and as the FC-1 Xiaolong in China.
With a service ceiling of 50,000 feet and a top speed of about 1,200 mph, the JF-17 can perform several missions, including aerial intercept and ground attack. It can carry roughly 7,000 pounds of ordnance on seven hardpoints and is armed with a single twin-barrel 23 mm autocannon.
The first few JF-17s were made entirely in China, but Pakistan now does most of the production. At present, 58% of the aircraft is made in Pakistan and 42% in China.
Despite its joint development, only Pakistan chose to introduce it into service, officially doing so in 2007. The jet is meant to replace Pakistan's aging fleet of Nanchang A-5, Chengdu F-7, and Mirage III and V attack and fighter jets.
With at least 125 in service, the JF-17 is the backbone of the PAF. They have reportedly been used to conduct airstrikes against militants in northwestern Pakistan and, according to one report, to down an Iranian-made drone in southwestern Pakistan in 2017.
Current and retired Pakistani air force officials also said a JF-17 shot down an Indian MiG-21 during an air-to-air skirmish in February 2019. (India said its jet was downed by a Pakistani F-16.)
The JF-17 has been upgraded several times since its introduction. The most recent version, the Block III, first flew in late 2019 and features several considerable improvements, including an additional hardpoint, a quad-redundant digital fly-by-wire system, and an active electronically scanned array radar.
Pakistan currently operates the most JF-17s. Myanmar, the first international customer, operates six and Nigeria has three.
Ranging from $15 million to $25 million each, the JF-17 is considerably cheaper than virtually every other fourth-generation jet on the market. Add-ons that increase its lethality, like targeting pods, makes it attractive to countries with low defense budgets that want multirole combat jets.
"Its not cutting edge, but it is a reliable performer," Timothy Heath, a senior international and defense researcher at the Rand Corporation think tank, told Insider.
A jet built by China and Pakistan may soon be the most widely operated combat aircraft in the world
Pakistan currently operates the most JF-17s. Myanmar, the first international customer, operates six and Nigeria has three.
Ranging from $15 million to $25 million each, the JF-17 is considerably cheaper than virtually every other fourth-generation jet on the market. Add-ons that increase its lethality, like targeting pods, makes it attractive to countries with low defense budgets that want multirole combat jets.
"Its not cutting edge, but it is a reliable performer," Timothy Heath, a senior international and defense researcher at the Rand Corporation think tank, told Insider.
"This is not an aircraft that is designed to compete head-to-head with the F-22, so it doesn't need the most sophisticated engines and parts," Heath said. "It's a cheap multirole budget aircraft that is suitable and probably most appealing to developing countries that are looking for a basic aircraft to either bomb their own people, like insurgents, or to carry out basic defense against similar-type countries."
Several countries have expressed interest in the JF-17. Iraq has reportedly agreed to buy at least 12, and Egypt has said it's interested in acquiring JF-17s as part of expanded defense cooperation with Pakistan. Azerbaijan has said for years that it wants JF-17s, and both Bolivia and Argentina are considering the jet.
Argentina has also sought to expand its local fighter production. Should it receive a license to build JF-17s domestically, it could make the jet more appealing to its neighbors.
Expanding JF-17 sales could help China increase its share of the market for "value arms" — weapons that are less sophisticated but still effective — among middle- and lower-income countries, which have long relied on Russia for jets, armored vehicles, and heavy artillery.
But selling more JF-17s may not translate into greater dependence on Chinese military hardware. Many countries still covet higher-end Western-built aircraft and are generally wary of becoming reliant on a single supplier, which is why many operate a mix of US, European, Russian, and Chinese aircraft.
"That's a pretty common strategy in the developing world," Heath said. "Most countries want autonomy, so they tend to want to have diverse suppliers, even though that does complicate their ability to operate all these foreign systems."
Turkey has unveiled its indigenously developed AESA radar that will be integrated into the F-16 fighter jets, among other manned and unmanned aircraft in the Turkish Air Force.
The spokesperson for President Tayyip Erdogan recently announced that the process of the United States authorizing the sale of F-16 fighter jets to NATO member Turkey is progressing and could be completed in upcoming months.
However, Turkey seems to have taken upon itself the responsibility to upgrade its F-16 fleet with domestically built radars.
The president of Defense Industries, Ismail Demir, unveiled the new Aselsan AESA radar on November 10 and stated that the Turkish Air Force’s (TuAF) Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon combat aircraft, the Akinci unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), as well as the upcoming Turkish Fighter Experimental (TF-X)/National Combat Aircraft, will be retrofitted with the system.
“It is a radar project equivalent to the most advanced radars in the world at the moment,” Demir said at the event. While the F-16s have been in the Turkish fleet for decades, the delivery of Akinci UAV twin-engined UAV is just getting started. The TF-X/MMU is Turkey’s next-generation combat aircraft currently under development.
In March this year, a local Turkish portal informed that the F-16 active electronically scanned array [AESA] radar prototype developed by Aseslan was expected to be delivered by the end of this year. The report could not be corroborated at the time.
According to some sources, the development and integration of the AESA radar on the F-16 are one of the many upgrades in the modernization program undertaken by Turkey.
The single-seat C and twin-seat D variants of the F-16 are the cornerstones of the TuAF’s front-line combat aviation force. The domestic industry has conducted much of the upgrades on these fighters.
The need to upgrade the F-16 fighters becomes all the more important due to the growing might of the Hellenic Air Force with its acquisition of advanced fighter jets. Turkey remains locked in tensions with its Aegean Sea rival Greece, with the possibility of a spillover never being ruled out.
The RBE2 radar allows high levels of situational awareness with early detection and tracking of multiple targets, thus denying an aerial advantage to the enemy.
Speaking on a CNN Türk show, military editor and analyst Özay Şendir admitted that Greece is gaining a significant advantage with its new fighters.
Besides operating the advanced 4+ gen Rafales, Greece could also acquire the F-35 fifth-generation stealth fighter jets. It is only evident that Ankara is looking to add more teeth to its existing fighter fleet.
In June this year, the US Air Force and Northrop Grumman announced the conclusion of a significant modernization project that installed powerful new AN/APG-83 active electronically scanned array radars on 72 Air National Guard Block 30 F-16C Viper fighter jets.
At the time, it was informed these AESA radars, known as Scalable Agile Beam Radars or SABRs, were being ordered for hundreds more Air Force F-16s and other Vipers around the globe.
Announcing the breakthrough, Northrop Grumman’s Mark Rossi said, “It’s the closest thing an F-16 can get to F-35 performance within the limitations of the jet.”
Any AESA would be a significant improvement for Air Force F-16C/Ds and other Vipers around the world.
In general, AESA radars provide substantial advantages regarding target acquisition speed, the range at which threats and potential threats can be detected, and the precision and fidelity of the ensuing tracks, especially for smaller objects. They are significantly more reliable, resulting in more “up time” and better jamming resistance.
AESA radars are produced indigenously only by a handful of countries, and now, Turkey has joined the elite club. With the US sale still uncertain, Turkey seems alive to its challenges and is consistently taking upgrades to face the ensuing Greek threat.
Pakistan Holds Keel-Laying And Cutting-Steel Ceremonies For The Hangor-Class Submarines
The indigenous submarine development project in Pakistan has reached another milestone. The keel laying of the first HANGOR-class submarine (5th overall) and the steel cutting of the second submarine (6th overall) were carried out at Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KS&EW) on December 24, 2022.
The defense agreement between Pakistan and China included the development of 08 x HANGOR-class Submarines including four submarines under construction at Wuchang Shipbuilding Industry Group (WSIG) in China and the remaining four being built at KS&EW under the Transfer of Technology (ToT) agreement. The construction work of the first submarine to be made at KS&EW Pakistan commenced on Dec 21 and now the Keel Laying is being laid which is a major milestone in the history of any naval vessel being constructed. Concurrently, construction work on the subsequent submarine has started with its Steel Cutting at the same shipyard.
HANGOR-class Submarine is capable to undertake a variety of missions as per operational dictates. The submarine possesses advanced stealth features and is fitted with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors to operate under a multi-threat environment and can engage targets at stand-off ranges.
The Pakistan Navy does not offer any details about the Hangor-class submarines’ subsystems or specific weapon systems. The Stirling AIP system is used in China Shipbuilding and Offshore International Company’s (CSOC) S26 design, on which many experts assume the Hangor is based, but Pakistani officials have not publicly revealed the propulsion system of Hangor-class sub
Naval News comments on Hangor-class project:
The Hangor-class submarines are an export variant of the PLAN’s Type 039A/041 Yuan-class submarines. Pakistan accepted the purchase of eight submarines from China in April 2015. According to the agreement, four of the submarines will be built in Pakistan’s KSEW at the same time as the other four would be produced in China.
According to the Pakistani defense blog Quwa, Hangor-class submarines will be 76 meters long and have a displacement of 2800 tons, making them slightly shorter but heavier than the original S26 design.
Currently, PN operates three Agosta 90B air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarines and two Agosta 70 diesel-electric submarines. Three Agosta 90B subs have been undergoing a mid-life upgrade under a contract signed in 2016 with the Turkish STM Company as the prime contractor. STM delivered the first upgraded submarine, PNS Hamza, in 2020. The scope of modernization is the replacement of the Fire Control System, Sonar Suite, Electronic Warfare System, Radar, and Periscope System (Navigation and Assault).
The eight Hangor Class submarines will significantly strengthen the Pakistan Navy. Pakistan is likely to improve its A2/AD capabilities in the region after the project is completed. Though no official confirmation has been made on the weapon systems, it is clear that Pakistan would obtain deep strike capability if the Hangor-class submarines were outfitted with Babur-3 SLCMs.
Pakistan’s PL-15 Missile Equipped JF-17 Block 3 is a Serious Game Changer - How India Can Respond to Regain Superiority
Despite considerable investments in modernisation, the balance of power in the air with neighbouring Pakistan may soon deteriorate as the Pakistani Air Force pursues a far cheaper modernisation program for its own fighter fleet centred around two main programs - the JF-17 and Project AZM. The most advanced variants of the JF-17 the JF-17B and JF-17 Block 2 currently have capabilities comparable to lower end Indian fighters. These jets are overall slightly superior to the Mirage 2000, but face a considerable disadvantage if facing the MiG-29 or Rafale - let alone the Su-30MKI which would retain an overwhelming advantage across the spectrum. These JF-17 variants nevertheless represent a considerable upgrade for the Pakistani Air Force from reliance on near obsolete J-7 and Mirage III fighters, and currently form the elite of the fleet alongside American F-16C Fighting Falcons. The JF-17 is the only Pakistani fighter other than the F-16 equipped with active radar guided air to air missiles - namely the PL-12 with a 100km range.
While the JF-17 Block 2 represents is far from a qualitative peer to the majority of the Indian fleet, the upcoming JF-17 Block 3 variant unveiled in December 2019 appears set to be a game changer for Pakistani aerial warfare capabilities. The fighter integrates some limited stealth features, a more powerful engine, a larger AESA radar, the first ever infra red search and track system on a Pakistani fighter, new electronic warfare systems and PL-15 long range air to air missiles. With an estimated range of 200-300km, the PL-15 will outrange all of India’s existing air to air missiles built for use against fighters - from the 80km range MICA used by Rafale and Mirage 2000 jets to the 110km range R-77 used by the MiG-21, MiG-29 and Su-30MKI. With Pakistan potentially fielding over 100 of these new fighters, including both single and twin seat variants, the JF-17 Block 3 could be a serious game changer.
A Threshold Alliance: The China-Pakistan Military Relationship
Wednesday, March 22, 2023 / BY: Sameer P. Lalwani, Ph.D.
Geopolitical shifts in South Asia over the past decade, driven by sharper US-China competition, a precipitous decline in China-India relations, and the 2021 withdrawal of US forces from Afghanistan, have pushed the Chinese and Pakistani militaries closer together. The countries’ armies and navies are increasingly sharing equipment, engaging in more sophisticated joint exercises, and interacting more closely through staff and officer exchanges. Yet, as this report concludes, a full China-Pakistan alliance is not inevitable, as Chinese missteps and other sources of friction could slow its consummation.
Despite China’s eschewal of formal alliances, the China-Pakistan military partnership has deepened significantly over the past decade, approaching a threshold alliance. The trajectory toward a military alliance is not, however, inevitable.
China is Pakistan’s most important defense partner since the end of the Cold War. Beijing has become the leading supplier of Pakistan’s conventional weapons and strategic platforms and the dominant supplier of Pakistan’s higher-end offensive strike capabilities.
China’s military diplomacy with Pakistan quantitatively and qualitatively rivals its military partnership with Russia. China and Pakistan have accelerated the tempo of joint military exercises, which are growing in complexity and interoperability. Increasingly compatible arms supply chains and networked communications systems could allow the countries to aggregate their defense capabilities.
The prospects for China projecting military power over the Indian Ocean from Pakistan’s Western coast are growing. Chinese basing has meaningful support within Pakistan’s strategic circles. The material and political obstacles to upgrading naval access into wartime contingency basing appear to be surmountable and diminishing over time.
Pakistan remains China’s priority in its neighbourhood diplomacy, top Chinese General tells Pak Army chief
Gen Zhang said that China and Pakistan are all-weather strategic cooperative partners and iron-clad friends, China military online, the official media of the Chinese defence ministry, reported
China always puts Pakistan as a priority in its neighbourhood diplomacy, a top Chinese General told Pakistan Army chief General Asim Munir, assuring him that their all-weather friendship will continue notwithstanding the perilous economic and political crisis faced by Islamabad and Beijing’s increasing concern over the security of its personnel working there.
General Zhang Youxia, vice chairman of China’s Central Military Commission (CMC) - the high command of the Chinese military headed by President Xi Jinping - held talks with Gen Munir here on Wednesday and discussed matters of mutual security interests and military cooperation. Gen Munir is on a four-day visit to China.
Gen Zhang said that China and Pakistan are all-weather strategic cooperative partners and iron-clad friends, China military online, the official media of the Chinese defence ministry, reported.
The long-lasting mutual trust and friendship between the two countries, as solid as rocks, are important factors for regional and even world peace, stability and prosperity, Gen Zhang said.
He stressed that no matter how the international situation changes, China always puts Pakistan as a priority in its neighbourhood diplomacy and firmly supports Pakistan in safeguarding its sovereignty, territorial integrity, development interests and national dignity, the report said.
The Chinese military is willing to work with the Pakistani military to further deepen and expand practical cooperation, continuously push the mil-to-mil relationship to a higher level, and jointly safeguard the common interests of the two countries, as well as the regional peace and stability, General Zhang added.
He said China is willing to build a closer China-Pakistan community with a shared future in the new era, a reference to the period headed by President Xi since he came to power in 2012
Gen Munir, on his maiden visit to China amid the serious economic and political crisis back home, discussed the “regional security situation” with his PLA counterpart General Li Qiaoming.
“Matters of mutual security interests and military cooperation were discussed. Both military commanders reiterated the need for maintaining peace and stability in the region and enhancing military-to-military cooperation,” said a press release issued by the Pakistan Army’s media wing - the Inter-Services Public Relations - in Islamabad.
Gen Munir will hold further meetings with military leaders in China to enhance the long-standing relations between the two militaries, the release said.
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