Thursday, June 18, 2015

Navy Modernization to Boost Pakistan Shipbuilding Industry

Pakistan is launching domestic construction of warships, submarines and missile boats as part of its ambitious naval modernization program in collaboration with China, according to media reports.

Karachi Shipyard 

Chinese media reports have described a building program involving six of eight S-20 AIP-equipped variants of the Type-039A/Type-041 submarine under negotiation; four "Improved F-22P" frigates equipped with enhanced sensors and weaponry (possibly including the HQ-17 surface-to-air missile developed from the Russian Tor 1/SA-N-9); and six Type-022 Houbei stealth catamaran missile boats, to be built by Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW), according to DefenseNews.

Pakistan is expanding and modernizing its underwater fleet with 8 additional AIP-equipped submarines jointly built with China.  Mansoor Ahmed of Quaid-e-Azam University told Defense News that AIP-equipped conventional submarines "provide reliable second strike platforms, [and] an assured capability resides with [nuclear-powered attack and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines], which are technically very complex and challenging to construct and operate compared to SSKs, and also very capital intensive."

Expansion of KSEW in Karachi includes a new foundry, fabrication facilities to cover all aspects of ship construction, berthing facilities, and two graving docks of 26,000 and 18,000 dead weight tons, spread over 71 acres. A 7,881-ton ship lift transfer system will be completed next year. KSEW will expand to occupy facilities vacated by the Navy as it transfers from Karachi to Ormara. The Pakistan Navy Dockyard, which is adjacent to KSEW, already has facilities upgraded by the French during construction of Agosta-90B submarines.

The Pakistan Navy modernization efforts further expands existing China-Pakistan military manufacturing collaboration at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) which has resulted in design and manufacturing of JF-17 fighter jets for Pakistan Air Force.

JF-17 Fighter Jet
In addition to designing and building military hardware together, Pakistan and China are also increasingly collaborating on manufacturing consumer appliances and products. The Pakistan-China economic corridor project includes setting up of several special economic zones for this purpose. A good example of this cooperation is Haier-Ruba special economic zone in Lahore.  Haier-Ruba joint venture in Pakistan has announced plans to start manufacturing laptops and smartphones in Lahore this year, according to the JV chairman Shah Faisal Afridi. The Haier-Ruba group is one of the largest manufacturers of polyester yarn and home appliances in the country.

The growth of both military and civilian manufacturing industries is helping to develop Pakistan's human capital and creating job opportunities for engineers, technicians and other workers.

Pakistan has taken a page from China's industrialization playbook which shows that the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) led the nation's industrial growth, first with military hardware and then expanding into consumer and industrial product manufacturing.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan to Deploy AIP Subs For 2nd Strike

Pakistani Military Pushing Industrialization

IDEAS 2014: Pakistan's Arms Bazar

Pakistan-China Industrial Corridor to Boost FDI, Manufacturing and Exports

Haier Pakistan to Expand to Consumer Electronics

India's Israel Envy: What If Modi Attacks Pakistan?

Pakistan's Human Capital

119 comments:

Arsalan said...

currently we have two dry docks at the KSEW that need to be increased to AT LEAST four so that it enables us to at least be able to work on two new construction and one dock for maintenance while the fourth one spared as back up/emergency or in case there is increased need so a third project can be started there. If we want to MODERNIZE our navy building one ship at a time than God help us!

S. Afridi said...

success will be linked to two much bigger problems not being addressed, inland navigable waterways & domestic vessel ownership

Unknown said...

The development of Gwadar as a ship repair port is extremely important,whether that happens is another question since it would cut into business of Nawaz Sharifs freinds the Dubai Sheiks.

Riaz Haq said...

Minister for Finance Ishaq Dar said on Thursday the shipbuilding industry has a huge potential due to long deep-sea shores of the country.

Chairing a meeting to discuss a proposal for building new shipyards along Pakistan’s coasts, he said in line with the true potential and ideal location, the shipbuilding industry could contribute to national economic development and poverty alleviation.

He said in the last eight months the industrial sector had performed well and it was the vision of the PML-N government to make Pakistan a country that could prosper and develop as per its potential.

He said it was the responsibility of the government to attract investment in key industrial projects like shipyards as major triggers for further industrial growth.

He assured full support of the Ministry of Finance to the Ministry of Defence Production for the projects, which could help generate economic activity and attract foreign expertise and investments.

He stressed the need of training and utilising the human resource, which would contribute to employment opportunities and increased per capita income.

Chairman Ship Building Association Vice Admiral (R) Iftikhar Ahmad Rao gave a presentation on the global shipyard industry and emphasised that nations which realised the importance of their seas benefitted and became great powers.

He said the maritime sector was a prime source of growth, employment and social cohesion in developing countries. According to him, the world GDP grew at an average of 3.6% per annum whereas sea trade grew 4.3% per annum in the last 50 years.

In other words, world’s GDP grew eight times whereas sea trade grew 13 times in the last half century.

He said China started shipbuilding in the 1990s and today it was the global leader with a 41% share, followed by South Korea and Japan with 33% and 20% share respectively.

There are over 1,000 shipyards in China and even India has over 100 shipyards. In comparison, Pakistan has only one shipyard, the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works with two small dry docks.

He underlined the deep-sea shores, abundance of labour force and strategic location as Pakistan’s advantages in comparison to other regional countries.

http://tribune.com.pk/story/685318/proposal-to-build-new-shipyards-under-study/

Riaz Haq said...

Today's #India-#Pakistan Armed Tensions - Will New U.S. Military and Nuclear Aid to #Modi Inflame Them? http://onforb.es/1BsnpQD

The Obama Administration cooperates with India in large measure from hope for collaboration with India to contain China’s military buildup and aggressive moves. Punit Saurabh just published a persuasive report, India and U.S. Grow Closer Against a Backdrop of An Expansionist China. President Obama has gone twice to India, and forged a strong tie with Modi. Those ties expand at the level of the Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, and further down at the level of the procurement undersecretary, Frank Kendall.

But that does not mean Pakistan will look on the India-U.S. cooperation as benign. On the contrary, something of an opposing set of alliances is shaping up. A little-mentioned aspect of this has been what Saurabh calls “China’s overt and covert support to the Pakistani defense buildup, aimed at India through supply of submarines, JF-17 fighters, and strategic inroads in sensitive parts of Kashmir. In other words, China is helping Pakistani on sea, air, and land, just as the U.S. helps India.


So, what is the U.S. providing for the Indian military that may add to these tensions? The single most interesting item: the Pentagon has publicly set up a collaboration group to help India build its next aircraft carrier, implementing it this month. India has kept open the option that this could be a nuclear-propelled aircraft carrier.

India is said to be particularly interested in the Pentagon’s method of launching planes, from these carriers Specifically, the next generation “Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System” (EMALS) will be used on the new Ford-class U.S. carriers. India wants that and may get it. And, it wants to build the aircraft carrier itself, at least in part. In light of the U.S. sharing advanced technology, the other part might get built in the Newport News Shipbuilding yard. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Huntington Ingalls, already a major beneficiary of defense appropriations, and very well connected — the kind of step that tilts advanced U.S. arms making and selling toward India.

As for nuclear, India seeks, and is getting, cooperation on building nuclear reactors for civilian energy generation. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Westinghouse and General Electric.

Of course, the United States has strong ties with Pakistan, too. In fact, today there is some extra good will, as the United States fights the Afghan Taliban and Pakistan has taken up arms vigorously against the Pakistani Taliban. The U.S. tries its best not to seem to be tilting toward India in the subcontinent powers’ tense rivalry.

Still, the cooperation agreements between Obama and Modi pledged to come together “to disrupt entities such as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed . . .and the Haqqani Network.” Of course, those entities work with Pakistan’s powerful intelligence service, ISI. Lashkar-e-Tayyiba was behind the Mumbai terror attack. The Haqqani Network is one of our major enemies in Afghanistan. A joint list like that by Obama and Modi aligns them against Pakistani support for violent Islamic terror groups.

None of this is to say that the United States can stop working with India against China. That must go ahead. But it has the potential to antagonize Pakistan. And that agitates the potentially scariest confrontation in the world.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/charlestiefer/2015/06/19/todays-india-pakistan-armed-tensions-will-new-u-s-military-and-nuclear-aid-to-modi-inflame-them/

Riaz Haq said...

#China, #Pakistan to jointly export upgraded jet fighter #JF17 #DubaiAirshow http://www.ibnlive.com/news/world/china-pakistan-to-jointly-export-upgraded-jet-fighter-1162704.html … via @ibnlive

Beijing: China and Pakistan will jointly export an upgraded version of the JF-17 multi-role fighter jet co-produced by the two countries since 1998. Officials from Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) command said on Monday at the ongoing Dubai Airshow that an upgraded version of the jointly developed JF-17 fighter jet is expected to be exported to more customers.
Briefing reporters at Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai, Liu Yu, Vice President of China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation, said the next generation of the JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft will satisfy the growing market demand from third parties "as the future JF-17 aircraft is a comprehensive elevation of the aircraft."

The future JF-17 will have more advanced capabilities, such as air-to-air refuelling, data link and electronic warfare, and will be integrated with more new guided weapons, state-run Xinhua quoted Liu as saying in Dubai. A dual-seated version of the JF-17 fighter/trainer is also under development, added Liu.
China, which maintained close strategic relations with Pakistan military for long has recently reached USD five billion deal to provide eight submarines to its all-weather ally. PAF Vice Marshal Arshad Malik said the Pakistani army expects the new version JF-17 jet to get into service by the end of 2016.

The JF-17 fighter is co-produced by AVIC and PAF since 1998 based on the principle of "joint investment, joint development, and sharing risks and returns." At present, JF-17 fighter is already procured by a third party customer, and several potential customers are conducting or plan to conduct the evaluation of the JF-17 fighter, Xinhua report said without giving details. The 14th Dubai International Airshow officially kicked off in Dubai yesterday and will run through Thursday.`

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's tool of war: #PAF's rolling thunder #JF17 Fighter Jet http://www.dawn.com/news/1226734

Pakistan Air Force’s thunder
JF-17 is a single-engine multi-role fighter,capable of performing interception roles, ground attack and aerial reconnaissance. The fighter was inducted as a replacement for the ageing fleet A-5C, F-7P, Mirage 3 and Mirage 5 aircraft that were due to be replaced.

The initial Block 1 JF-17s were received in 2007, with production of the upgraded Block 2 JF-17s started in 2013. The upgraded models have upgraded avionics, air-to-air refuelling capability, data link, enhanced electronic warfare capability and enhanced load carrying ability.

The JF-17 is powered by a Russian RD-93 afterburning turbofan, which has a top speed for Mach 1.6. The engine is a derivative of the engine that powers the MIG-29 Fulcrum. With the recent improvement in Pakistan-Russia relations, it might be possible to source the engines directly from Russia, rather than through China. In November it was reported that PAF will stick with using the RD-93, and not opt for a Chinese-made engine.

It was also reported recently that PAF is interested in joint engine development with Russia. The air force for years has wanted to expand its technical capabilities in engine development, as they have lacked the capability in this highly-technical field.

Splash one bandit
The JF-17 can be equipped with air-to-air and air-to-ground ordinance, and has a 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon mounted under the port side air intake.

The aircraft can carry 8,000lbs of ordinance on seven external hardpoints, which is an adequate amount of ordinance for any mission profile. The JF-17 enhances the much needed capability of the air force in beyond visual range (BVR) engagements.

JF-17 mounts both short-range infra-red air to air missiles along with longer ranged radar-guided BVR missiles, an essential capability for a frontline interceptor. Missiles used on the aircraft come from a variety of different nations.

Apart from a capable air-to-air mix, the aircraft can be fitted with laser-guided, satellite-guided and dumb iron bombs. The precision-guided weapons are paired with a targeting pod, mounted on the centreline hardpoint. JF-17's are also capable of carrying anti-runway munitions, specifically the Durandal, which crater a runway, denying its use to enemy aircraft.

The JF-17 Thunder, when equipped for an anti-maritime mission profile, can be equipped with the C-802 anti-ship missile (ASM) and the hypersonic CM-400AKG, often referred to as a ‘carrier-killer’ ASM. It hits the target at Mach 4 or above and its kinetic impact alone is enough to destroy any high-value target.

For Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) missions, the Thunder can be equipped with anti-radiation missiles for neutralising the enemy's air defence radars, allowing the PAF to operate in a less restrictive airspace.

Overall, the varying ordinance carried by the JF-17 makes it a capable aircraft for multiple mission profiles.

The JF-17 fighter incorporates a fly-by-wire system, through which the aircraft’s pitch axis is controlled, with leading edge slats/flaps and trailing edge flaps automatically adjusted during maneuvering to increase turning performance. The performance of the jet reportedly is similar to the F-16.

Incorporating a defensive aids system (DAS), sensors such as radar warning receivers (RWR) and missile approach warning (MAW) enable the pilot to have a clear picture of the threats in an operational area. The electronic warfare (EW) suite of the aircraft is mounted in the tail of the JF-17.

It is reported that the pilots can be equipped helmet mounted sights, which gives the pilots a distinct advantage in visual-range air combat, as they can simply look at and guide the missile onto their intended target.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistani Naval Modernization Appears Stalled

Pakistan's naval modernization program appears stalled, with no discernible progress being made on efforts to modernize and expand the surface and sub-surface fleet. This comes amid moves ensure the security of the deepwater port of Gwadar, and fears of mass obsolescence vis-a-vis arch rival India.

Gwadar is the start of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to link western China to the Middle East and Africa through Pakistan. It will carry commercial goods and energy resources, slashing the time to ship goods to China via the Malacca Straits and South China Sea.

For Pakistan, ensuring maritime security has been of increased concern. Earlier this month, a newly raised battalion of Marines began protecting Gwadar. Author, analyst, and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad Brian Cloughley says this was probably through extra enlistments due to the Marines "already being stretched in commitments."

Ensuring Gwadar's defense has been the theme of recent exercises. A domestic series of drills, Seapark, was held in November and December.

A series of recent bilateral exercises with China's Navy have also been held, the third of which concluded on Tuesday off the Pakistani coast.

It aimed to protect sea lines of communication and the CPEC by improving coordination and interoperability at operational and tactical levels. Chinese ships consisted of two Type-054A frigates (Liuzhou and Sanya) and a replenishment ship (Qinghaihu).

Pakistan participated with warships, helicopters, patrol and fighter aircraft, plus special forces. Air defense, boarding, communication, and joint maneuver drills were carried out.

However, the need to ensure seaward defense of Gwadar has exposed the apparent lack of progress in the Navy's modernization program. The frontline fleet currently consists of three Agosta-90B/Khalid and two Agosta-70 submarines, plus four F-22P/Zulfiquar, one Oliver Hazard Perry, and five ex-British Type-21/Amazon class frigates.

Pakistan has negotiated the purchase of eight AIP-equipped submarines from China, finalizing the deal in October. This was reportedly followed by a domestic frigate and fast attack boat-building program with Chinese assistance.

This latter program was also to include upgrades to the current F-22P class frigates, Pakistan's most modern and capable surface ships even though they are only marginally better than the remaining frigates in being able to protect themselves from missile attack.

Cloughley believes time is running out.

"It seems that the emphasis for the moment is on developing the submarine arm of the Navy, but it is essential for Pakistan's security that it acquire more surface ships, and that a decision on number and type be made this year."

Nothing has as of yet been signed however and despite request for clarification by Defense News there has been no official word on any progress or the programs' status.

This pales in comparison to India, which is fast modernizing and expanding its naval power.

http://www.defensenews.com/story/defense/international/asia-pacific/2016/01/15/pakistani-naval-modernization-appears-stalled/78825702/

Riaz Haq said...


This pales in comparison to India, which is fast modernizing and expanding its naval power.

Sam Bateman, an adviser for the Maritime Security Programme at S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore, said, "Pakistan has already fallen far behind India in terms of maintaining a level of conventional deterrent/operational effectiveness, and is at risk of falling even further behind."

Bateman, who previously served in Australia's Navy outlines a course of action similar to the stalled modernization program.

"In broad terms, the [Pakistan Navy] has three requirements: frigates, submarines and fast attack craft," he said.

"Looking at its current force structure, my priority for force development would be submarines," he said. "The existing submarine fleet is far short of being an adequate or credible deterrent force. The deterrent value of submarines, as well as their utility for covert surveillance and intelligence collection operations, points to the importance of the [Pakistan Navy] building a credible force."

Therefore Pakistan's "top priority" must be to finalize the submarine deal with China.

Though much emphasis by analysts has been on the state of Pakistan's frigate force Bateman believes the next priority should lie with fast attack craft.

"In a conflict situation, these would be the major surface assets of the [Pakistan Navy]."

Pakistan is currently building further examples of the Azmat class stealthy fast attack craft, but has is believed to be considering something more potent.

News of Pakistan's interest in the Chinese Type-022 'Houbei' was first reported in June. Speaking at the time, Tom Waldwyn of the International Institute for Strategic Studies expressed surprise.

"It would be surprising if Pakistan, or indeed any country, signed a deal to purchase new Type-022s as China stopped production of these vessels several years ago. So any purchase of Type-022s would almost certainly be secondhand vessels," he said.

Adding, "These types of vessels are more suited to littoral environments where they can attack opposing ships at high speed and fire off a barrage of anti-ship missiles. If Pakistan were to acquire these ships that is likely to be how they would be employed."

The state of the frigates has attracted most attention however.

"The current frigate force is just adequate for the [Pakistan Navy's] peacetime requirements, notably sovereignty protection and participation in international coalition and peacekeeping missions, such as the counter-piracy task forces in the Gulf region", said Bateman.

Ideally, he believes two to three further Perry class frigates would help matters "to build up its frigate force to about eight vessels, if the updated F-22P vessels can't be acquired quickly."

However, entrenched hostility toward Pakistan in the US Congress essentially rules this out, and Cloughley believes Pakistan has no real alternatives.

"China is the obvious supplier, as it is unlikely that the US Congress would approve transfer of any surplus vessels, and in any event the US and European countries are concentrating on India as regards provision of military material."

As for the Type-21 class frigates they are essentially obsolete and Bateman says they "should be scrapped."

Modernization of Pakistan's airpower however could help mitigate some of the Navy's shortcomings, especially with the JF-17 Thunder now entering service.

"The JF-17 can carry anti-ship missiles, and it is probable that when the present aircraft of 8 Squadron at Masroor are retired, then they will be replaced by a maritime strike version of the JF-17", said Cloughley.

The JF-17 already equips No. 2 Squadron also based at Masroor, and can carry a brace of C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade anti-ship missiles.

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi Shipyard cuts steel on first of 6 MPVs of 600 tons each for #Pakistan #Navy. #China | IHS Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/59973/ksew-cuts-steel-on-pakistan-s-first-mpv-as-new-details-emerge#.VyoBf5NDKoM.twitter …

Key Points
KSEW has begun building the first of six MPVs for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency
The vessels will replace the Barkat-class patrol boats that have been in service since the late 1980s
Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) has held a steel-cutting ceremony for the first of six maritime patrol vessels (MPVs) on order for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA).

New details on Pakistan's capability requirements for the vessels have also emerged.

The steel-cutting ceremony was held on 3 May and was attended by senior officials from the Pakistan Navy, KSEW, and China Shipbuilding Trading Company (CSTC).

The MPVs, each displacing 600 tonnes at full load, are being constructed under a transfer-of-technology arrangement signed between KSEW and CSTC in June 2015. KSEW will construct two vessels in Pakistan while the remaining four will be built by CSTC in China.

No further details on the vessels were provided by KSEW in its media release for the ceremony; the company also declined an interview request from IHS Jane's on 4 May, citing confidentiality issues.

However, a tender document on the MPV programme, published by the Pakistani government's planning commission, revealed a requirement for a platform that can attain a maximum speed of 30 kt and a cruising speed of between 12-16 kt. The vessel should also have a standard range of 4,500 n miles at cruising speed, and have an endurance of 21 days at sea without replenishment.

Armament to be fitted onboard includes either a 37 mm or a 30 mm gun as a primary weapon, in addition to mountings for two 12.7 mm machine guns.

An artist's illustration of the MPV, shown at the ceremony, suggests that the PMSA has opted for an automatic stabilised naval gun system as the platform's main weapon.

The illustration also suggests that the platform can accommodate a single helicopter on its flight deck on top of two rigid-hull inflatable boats at the stern section.

Riaz Haq said...

#French #India #submarine #ScorpeneLeak Lets Vital Stats Are Out In Open: 10 Facts http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/more-scorpene-leaks-tonight-says-australian-newspaper-10-facts-1450394 … via @ndtv

The sonar system, including the frequencies used by its key components, the Flank Array, the Sonar Intercept Receiver, the Distributed Array and the Active Array have been compromised. All these systems work together to allow the submarine to detect enemy warships and submarines and attack them using torpedoes.

The latest tranche of data appears to contradict the Ministry of Defence statement earlier today that there was no immediate security risk from the leak of secret documents detailing the capabilities of the Scorpene.

The Australian newspaper, which reported on the leak two days ago, posted new details this evening on its website but with sensitive info redacted.

So though the documents prove that the classified information had been compromised, it is not in the public domain.
The documents posted earlier have been examined and do not pose any security compromise as the vital parameters have been blacked out," the defence ministry said in a statement earlier. However, it is The Australian which has redacted sensitive data. It is possible that these documents are also available to others.

Six Scorpenes designed by French shipmaker DCNS are being built in Mumbai. The first is expected to join service before the end of this year.

On Tuesday night, the Australian said it had 22,000 pages of details that exposed the combat capability of the submarines, being built at a cost of $3.5 billion.

The documents were stolen from DCNS and not leaked, an unnamed French government source said to news agency Reuters, adding that the information published so far shows only operational aspects of the submarines.

The source said the documents appeared to have been stolen in 2011 by a former French employee that had been fired while providing training in India on the use of the submarines.

India and France have opened investigations with Delhi asking for a detailed report.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan prepares to launch third Azmat-class missile boat at #Karachi Shipyard | IHS Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/63808/pakistan-prepares-to-launch-third-azmat-class-patrol-vessel#.V9qwZHCA198.twitter …

State-owned Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Limited (KSEW) will launch an Azmat-class missile-capable patrol craft for the Pakistan Navy on 17 September.

The platform, which was laid down in August 2015, will be the country's third Azmat-class boat. First-of-class PNS Azmat (1013) was commissioned in June 2012, while second ship PNS Deshat (1014) was inducted in June 2014.

Contracts to acquire a third and fourth vessel were signed in June 2013 and June 2014 respectively. Construction of these platforms is being undertaken in collaboration with China's shipbuilding industry under an arrangement aimed at transferring technology to KSEW.

The Azmat class is based on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN's) Houjian (Type 037/2)-class missile boat design. The 63 m vessel has a top speed of 30 kt, and a range of 1,000 n miles at 18 kt, according to IHS Jane's Fighting Ships.

The platform's offensive capabilities are provided by eight (two quad) launchers that are capable of deploying the C-802A surface-to-surface missile, a twin 37 mm gun mounting in the forward section, and a Type 630 30 mm close-in weapon system (CIWS) for defence against aerial threats.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Unveils VLF Submarine Communications Facility for #Nuclear Armed Subs Under Naval Strategic Forces Command http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-unveils-vlf-submarine-communications-facility …

Pakistan on Tuesday unveiled a very low frequency (VLF) communication facility that will enable it to communicate with deployed submarines.

Mansoor Ahmed, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center and expert on Pakistan’s nuclear program and delivery systems, said the facility is vital for command and control of submarines carrying a nuclear deterrent patrol, and the announcement essentially confirms Pakistan has established a preliminary, sea-based arm of its nuclear deterrent.

"The Naval Strategic Force Command inaugurated in 2012 is now closer to being the custodian of the country's second-strike capability," he said.

According to an official news release by the military’s Inter Services Public Relations media branch, the VLF facility is at a new base, PNS Hameed, near Pakistan’s main port of Karachi, and is the first of its
kind in the country.

“The secure military communication link in the VLF spectrum will add new dimensions by enhancing the flexibility and reach of submarine operations," the news release said.

-----

Ahmed said Pakistan likely will deploy a nuclear-armed, sub-launched variant of Babur “during the next decade.”

The Babur is similar to the United States' BGM-109 Tomahawk and has long been speculated to be modified for launch by Pakistan’s three French-designed Agosta 90B submarines, thereby offering the shortest route to a second-strike capability.

A dedicated nuclear role places an additional burden on the submarines, however, with the two Agosta 70 subs near obsolete.

Author, analyst and former Australian defense attaché to Islamabad, Brian Cloughley, said Pakistan’s submarines are the “only means that Pakistan will have to seriously counter the Indian Navy. No matter
how professional the surface fleet might be — and it's very impressive — it's tiny and would be the target of concentrated Indian strikes.”

Therefore, a continuous at-sea deterrent capability may only be realized once the eight Chinese-designed, AIP-equipped submarines on order begin to commission from 2022 onward.

Riaz Haq said...

#Chinese naval ships in #Pakistan's #Gwadar port challenge #India's regional policy. #Russia #Iran http://scroll.in/article/822619/chinese-naval-ships-in-pakistans-gwadar-port-call-for-a-rethink-of-indias-regional-policy … via @scroll_in

The transformation of Gwadar port on the Pakistan coast as a base for Chinese Navy ships was long expected, but when media reports actually appeared on Friday to that effect, it was startling news. The reports quoted Pakistani officials saying that China proposes to deploy its naval ships in coordination with the Pakistan Navy to safeguard Gwadar port, which is the gateway to the $46-billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

India would have had some intelligence tip-off, which probably explains the mysterious episode on November 14 of an Indian submarine lurking in the vicinity of Pakistani territorial waters. It was brusquely shooed away by the Pakistani Navy. Of course, the corridor was operationalised a fortnight ago with Chinese ships docking at Gwadar to carry the first containers brought by a Chinese trade convoy from Xinjiang for despatch to the world market.

Viewed from many perspectives, the month of November becomes a defining moment in the geopolitics of our region. But the strangest bit of news would be that earlier this month, Gwadar also received Russia’s Federal Security Services chief Alexander Bogdanov. It was a hush-hush inspection tour aimed at assessing the efficacy of Russian ships using the port during their long voyages, to assert Moscow’s return to the global stage.

Equally, this is the first visit by a Russian spy chief to Pakistan in over two decades and it took place just as America elected a new president, Donald Trump. Maybe the timing is coincidental, but more likely, it is not. The Russian diplomacy invariably moves in lockstep. Bogdanov’s visit was scheduled just a few weeks before the planned trilateral strategic dialogue between Russia, China and Pakistan, ostensibly regarding the Afghan situation, in Moscow next month. Bogdanov reportedly sought a formal Russian-Pakistani collaborative tie-up over the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Moscow wouldn’t have made such a move without coordinating with China first. At a meeting in Moscow with his Chinese counterpart, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu was quoted as saying that China-Russia military cooperation is “at an all-time high and it will contribute to peace and stability on the Eurasian continent and beyond”.

Meanwhile, Chinese regional diplomacy, too, is moving in tandem. The Chinese Defence Minister Chang Wangquan (who is also vice-chairman of China’s Military Commission, which is headed by President Xi Jinping) paid a three-day visit to Iran last week. Chang’s visit held considerable geopolitical significance for the region and he described his meetings as signifying a turning point in the China-Iran strategic partnership. It is useful to recall that during Xi’s visit to Iran in January, the two countries had signed a 25-year strategic cooperation agreement that included a call for much closer defence and intelligence ties.

Riaz Haq said...

#American engineers find #India's home-made first aircraft carrier is a dud. Need another 10 years to make it work http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2016/11/30/u-s-effort-to-help-india-build-up-navy-hits-snag/?mod=e2fb When top American naval engineers recently inspected India’s first locally made aircraft carrier they expected to find a near battle-ready ship set to help counter China’s growing sway in the Indian Ocean.

Instead, they discovered the carrier wouldn’t be operational for up to a decade and other shortcomings: no small missile system to defend itself, a limited ability to launch sorties and no defined strategy for how to use the ship in combat. The findings alarmed U.S. officials hoping to enlist India as a bulwark against China, people close to the meeting said.

“China’s navy will be the biggest in the world soon, and they’re definitely eyeing the Indian Ocean with ports planned in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh,” said retired Admiral Arun Prakash, the former commander of India’s navy. “The Indian navy is concerned about this.”

The February carrier inspection, in the port of Kochi, formed part of U.S. plans to share aircraft carrier technology with India. Indian naval officials followed up with a tour of an American shipbuilding yard in Virginia and strategy briefings at the Pentagon in September, the people close to the meetings said.

The U.S. and India are drawing closer politically and militarily. The two have participated in joint naval exercises with Japan. The U.S. has agreed to sell New Delhi everything from attack helicopters to artillery. Washington has approved proposals by Lockheed Martin and Boeing Co. to make advanced jet fighters in India. And in August, the two countries signed a military logistics-sharing accord.

Riaz Haq said...

Missile development, CPEC security termed major successes

http://www.dawn.com/news/1305699/missile-development-cpec-security-termed-major-successes

The military has enumerated successful tests of various missiles by the army and navy, arrangements for the security of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and targeted strikes by the air force on militant hideouts in support of operation Zarb-i-Azb among its accomplishments during 2016.

According to a message released on social media by the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) director general on New Year’s Eve on Saturday, an enhanced version of the Babur cruise missile and the indigenously produced air-launched Ra’ad missile were successfully tested during the year.

The navy test-launched the shore-based anti-ship missile Zarb and fired a surface-to-surface anti-ship missile in the North Arabian Sea from the Sword Class Frigate PNS Aslat.

Arrangements for the actualisation and security of the CPEC, consisting of an 870km road network and raising of a Special Security Division and Task Force 88 for its maritime security were carried out.

According to the ISPR, the navy proved its vigilance and operational preparedness by detecting and blocking an Indian submarine from entering Pakistani waters south of the country’s coast.

Also during the year, the groundbreaking of an air power centre of excellence was carried out to enhance PAF’s capacity to meet future challenges and undertake counterterrorism operations.

The Pakistan Air Force’s C-130 won the best aircraft trophy at the Royal International Tattoo Show in the United Kingdom.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Builds New Missile Boat to Protect Key Trade Routes #CPEC #Gwadar http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-builds-new-missile-boat-to-protect-key-trade-routes …

Pakistan has commenced construction of a new type of missile boat as part of efforts to modernize its navy to ensure security for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a trade route linking western China to the Arabian Sea via Pakistan’s deep water port of Gwadar.

Pakistan hopes the CPEC will revive its economy, whereas China’s trade and energy resources will be bypassing the Malacca Strait.

First steel for the boat was cut Dec. 29. Images from the ceremony revealed it to be a development of the Azmat-class missile boat designed for Pakistan by China. Three Azmat boats have been built, one in China and two in Pakistan by state-owned Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW).

A statement by the military’s Inter Service Public Relations media arm revealed that the boat, which is considered the first indigenously designed missile boat, was developed by Maritime Technologies Complex and would have the “latest weapons and sensors.”

Though released images from the ceremony leave some questions unanswered about the new vessels' exact features, notable differences from the base model include new missiles, a redesigned forward superstructure and a possible replacement of the twin 25mm cannon.

The navy declined to provide further details regarding the changes.

Defense News first learned of the new missile boat during IDEAS 2016, Pakistan’s biennial defense exhibition held in November, when spokesmen for the shipyard KSEW and the sea service separately revealed the existence of the program.

Though unwilling to go into detail, they said the new design would feature new weaponry, sensors and materials. Future plans include an indigenous combat management system, anti-ship missiles and possibly air-defense missiles, the lack of which is presently a notable weakness.

The Azmat missile boats are armed with eight C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade anti-ship missiles, but the new design is clearly armed with six larger missiles. Speculation is that the weapons are the C-602, an export development of China’s YJ-62, which is in Pakistani service as a coastal defense missile named "Zarb."

The subsonic C-602 has a reported range of 280 kilometers and carries a 300-kilogram warhead. It packs a bigger punch and has longer reach than the C-802A.

However, last year, a Ministry of Defence Production report revealed a ship-board launcher for a land-attack cruise missile was under development.

Pakistan’s only surface-launched, land-attack missile is the indigenous Babur. Thus far there have been no reports of an anti-ship variant, but fitting the C-602 seeker to the missile would certainly expedite development.

News of the new missile boat comes amid Chinese reluctance to establish a permanent presence in the area, forcing Pakistan to forge ahead with efforts to improve its maritime security, albeit with Chinese help.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Test-Fires #Submarine-Launched #Missile for "2nd strike" to complete #nuke triad - ABC News - http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/pakistan-test-fired-submarine-launched-missile-44650839 … via @ABC

Pakistan's military says it has successfully test-fired a submarine-launched cruise missile for the first time, giving it a "credible second strike capability."

A statement Monday said the missile was fired from the Indian Ocean and hit its target. It said the Babur Cruise-3 missile has a range of 450 kilometers (280 miles) and can fly low to evade radar and air defenses.

It added that the missile "is capable of delivering various types of payloads and will provide Pakistan with a Credible Second Strike Capability, augmenting deterrence." It appeared to be referring to a strategy in which the ability to strike back after a nuclear attack deters adversaries from launching one.

Pakistan became a nuclear power in 1998, developing the capability to match that of neighbor and archrival India.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan: Military Test-Fires First Submarine-Launched Cruise Missile
https://www.stratfor.com/situation-report/pakistan-military-test-fires-first-submarine-launched-cruise-missile


creating a plausible sea-based second-strike threat requires a submarine fleet that can fire missiles. As of now Pakistan has only five of these vessels, three of which could be considered fairly modern. Nevertheless, Islamabad plans to dramatically expand its submarine fleet: In 2015, it struck a deal with Beijing to buy eight submarines similar to the Yuan-class model. Pakistan is also in the process of moving its main submarine base to Ormara from Karachi, which is more vulnerable to attack than the new location because of its proximity to the Indian border.

But Pakistan's reliance on diesel-electric submarines, rather than dedicated nuclear ballistic missile counterparts, comes with significant risks. For example, Pakistani submarines carrying nuclear weapons could come under attack from Indian anti-submarine forces that are unable to distinguish the vessels based on their mission. This could lead Pakistani commanders, who may think the attack is part of an Indian effort to neutralize Islamabad's sea-based nuclear force, to fire their nuclear missiles during what might otherwise be a conventional conflict.

This links directly to a second danger: the security of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. Because submarines' nuclear-tipped cruise missiles must be ready to launch before they leave port, an enormous amount of responsibility and power is placed on the shoulders of the officers piloting the vessels. Untrustworthy commanders or breakdowns in the chain of command could considerably raise the risk of the unsanctioned use of nuclear weapons.

When all is said and done, Pakistan's decision to rely on nuclear weapons as a means of warding off attack from a more powerful India has increased the chance of nuclear warfare breaking out in South Asia. Though Islamabad's quest for a sea-based nuclear deterrent is hardly surprising, it is a conspicuous example of an alarming pattern of posturing between two nuclear powers that have a long and volatile history of hostility toward each other.

Riaz Haq said...

SharpEye #radar for #Pakistan #submarines - News - Shephard https://www.shephardmedia.com/news/digital-battlespace/pakistans-agosta-90b-gets-sharpeye-radar-systems/#.WK6AzEDudmU.twitter …

Kelvin Hughes will supply the I-band SharpEye Doppler submarine radar system as part of a mid-life upgrade programme for the Pakistan Navy's Agosta 90B class submarines. The company announced the contract on 21 February.

Kelvin Hughes will work with lead contractor STM on the programme, with the first system set for delivery in 2018.

Traditionally, submarines only tend to use radar for navigation when entering or leaving port, because high-power RF transmissions can compromise their ability to remain undetected when used in more open waters. However, with its low power, pulse Doppler transmission technology, SharpEye can provide a reduced probability of intercept which significantly lowers the risk of the submarine being detected but without compromising the target detection performance of the radar.

The SharpEye transceiver can be located within the pressure hull, making use of the existing bulkhead infrastructure, antenna rotational drive and waveguide connections.

The radar uses Doppler processing to detect targets at long range, including small, low radar cross section targets in adverse weather conditions. A series of electronic filters enables the radar to distinguish between targets of interest and unwanted sea and rain clutter.

Barry Jones, regional sales manager for Kelvin Hughes, said: 'We are delighted that the Pakistan Navy, a respected and long-standing customer of Kelvin Hughes, has chosen to take advantage of the performance and reliability benefits that our innovative SharpEye radar technology can now bring to submarine platforms. We're looking forward to working with our project partner STM to jointly deliver SharpEye capability to the Navy and [Agosta 90B] class submarines.'

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Navy successfully tests land-based, anti-ship #missile
https://www.dawn.com/news/1320864

Pakistan Navy on Thursday conducted a successful test of a land-based, anti-ship missile, APP reported.

A press release from the Navy said that the trial was conducted from the coastal region and the missile secured a hit on a target placed at sea.

The missile is equipped with advanced technology and avionics, which enable engagement of targets at sea with a high degree of accuracy.

The event was witnessed by Vice Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Khan Hasham Bin Saddique and senior officers of Pakistan Navy.

Admiral Saddique commended the successful accomplishment of the objectives of the trial and lauded the hard work and efforts of all those who were involved, specifically appreciating the crew of the missile unit.

Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah in his message said that the weapon system has added a new dimension to the operational reach of Pakistan Navy, allowing it to bolster seaward defences by giving the Navy the capability to launch long-range, anti-ship missiles from land.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan conducts anti-ship missile test
By: Usman Ansari, March 16, 2017
http://www.defensenews.com/articles/pakistan-conducts-anti-ship-missile-test

Pakistan successfully test launched a land-based anti-ship missile on Thursday, but the did not reveal its identity, possibly indicating it is a new development of its Babur land-attack cruise missile.

The military’s media branch, ISPR, said the “land-based anti-ship missile” featured “advanced technology and avionics, which enable engagement of targets at sea with high accuracy.”

The trial, witnessed by Vice Chief of Naval Staff Adm. Khan Hasham Bin Saddique and other senior officers, was undertaken in the coastal region. A warning to shipping regarding missile tests was issued for March 16-17.

Siddique congratulated the technical team, saying the test would help improve Pakistan’s defenses and operational reach of the Navy by enabling the launch of long-range, anti-ship missiles from land.

No performance details or even the name of the missile were provided, however.

Though an image released by the government’s Press Information Department appeared to show a Babur missile, its resolution was insufficient to accurately determine the missile’s identity.

In April last year, a shore-based anti-ship missile dubbed Zarb was test fired. It was speculated by analysts to be the Chinese C-602/YJ-62.

However, a naval industry official told Defense News at Pakistan’s biennial defense exhibition IDEAS 2016 in November that Pakistan was working on indigenous anti-ship missiles. This followed an earlier revelation buried in a Ministry of Defence Production report of development of a shipboard anti-ship missile launcher.

In December, steel was cut for the first indigenous Azmat Block II missile boat, which in can be determined from the images released at the time will carry a larger anti-ship missile than the C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade that arms the Block I boats.

No confirmation of this missile’s identity has been forthcoming since then, but it sparked speculation that Pakistan’s indigenous anti-ship missile efforts were perhaps more advanced than realized.

The Babur offers the quickest route to an indigenous anti-ship missile, with a range exceeding the limitations of the Missile Technology Control Regime in the same vein as the United States' UGM/RGM-109B (TAS-M) Tomahawk.

It has already provided the basis of further developments. The updated Babur II was tested in December. The sub-launched Babur III, was successfully tested in January, enabling Pakistan to establish a second-strike capability.

Though the C-602 reportedly cruises at a height of 30 meters, test-area altitude for today’s test was restricted to 1,500 meters — more akin to the higher cruise altitude of the Babur.

A Navy spokesman was asked to comment on the missile’s identity, but there was no reply by press time.

Riaz Haq said...

#Turkey, #Pakistan sign Turkish warship, Pakistani training plane deals. http://reut.rs/2qSPaBm via @Reuters

Turkey and Pakistan have signed a memorandum of understanding for the sale of four Turkish made corvette warships and 52 Pakistan-made training planes for Ankara's armed forces, Turkey's defense industry undersecretariat said on Wednesday.

Karachi Shipyard (KS&EW) will buy four corvettes made under Turkey's MILGEM warship program, aimed at designing and building locally a fleet of multipurpose corvettes and frigates that will replace older ships.

The Turkish defense undersecretariat said the final deal was expected to be signed on June 30. The statement did not provide any financial details.

Turkey will buy 52 Super Mushshak training planes from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex - Kamra, to replace the T-41 and SF-260 planes currently in use, a statement by Ankara's defense undersecretariat said.

This would be the first time a NATO country has used Super Mushshak planes, the statement added.

Two warships built under the MILGEM project so far, named TCG Heybeliada and TCG Buyukada, were delivered to the Turkish navy in 2011 and 2013. Construction is ongoing for TCG Burgazada and TCG Kinaliada, which are expected to start active duty in 2018 and 2020, respectively.

Riaz Haq said...

#UK hands over 7 Sea King MK-45 #helicopters to #Pakistan Navy for rescue, transport, anti-ship, anti-submarine war

http://quwa.org/2017/05/25/pakistan-takes-delivery-refurbished-sea-king-helicopters-uk/

The Pakistan Navy has taken delivery of seven refurbished Westland Sea King helicopters from the U.K on Thursday, May 25.

In an official press release by the Pakistani High Commission in London, the formal handing over ceremony was attended by Pakistan’s High Commissioner to the UK Syed Ibne Abbas, the U.K. Ministry of Defence’s representative Christopher Bob Richardson and Pakistan Navy officials.

Pakistan bought the helicopters in 2016 and contracted the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) firm Vector Aerospace to refurbish and prepare the aircraft for delivery in 2017.

Notes & Comments:

These will join the Pakistan Navy’s six Sea King Mk. 45 helicopters, which are shore-based assets used for multiple roles, among them search-and-rescue, troop transport, anti-submarine warfare and anti-ship warfare. The specific model of these additions is not known, nor is it clear if this recent batch will supplant the Pakistan Navy’s existing Sea King fleet.

Riaz Haq said...

Chinese Warships Visit Pakistan
Three Chinese warships arrived in the port city of Karachi on June 10 for a four-day goodwill and training visit.

http://thediplomat.com/2017/06/chinese-warships-visit-pakistan/

The People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has dispatched three surface warships on a four-day goodwill and training visit to the Pakistani port of Karachi, Chinese state-owned media reported on June 11.

The ships arrived in the port city on June 10 and were welcomed by Chief of Naval Staff of the Pakistan Navy Admiral Mohammad Zakaullah. The small PLAN fleet is commanded by Rear Admiral Shen Hao, the deputy commander of the PLAN’s East Sea Fleet.

The Pakistan Navy and PLAN will conduct a so-called passage exercise to enhance interoperability between the two navies, according to Pakistani military officials. The PLAN fleet consists of three ships, the Type 052C Luyang II –class guided missile destroyer Changchun, the Type 054A Jiangkai II-class guided missile frigate Jingzhou, and the Type 903 Quiandaohu-class replenishment ship Chaohu.

The Luyang II-class, equipped with a four array AESA multi-function phased array radar system and armed with up to 48 vertically launched HQ-9 naval air defense missiles, was the first PLAN class of warships capable of long-range fleet air defense. The class is succeeded by the Type 052D Luyang III-class–dubbed the “Chinese Aegis.” As I explained elsewhere (See: “China Launches Yet Another ‘Carrier Killer’ Destroyer”):

A Type 052D Luyang III-class destroyer is equipped with 64 vertical launch cells, each capable of carrying one to four missiles. The ship carries one of the PLAN’s deadliest anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM), the vertically-launched YJ-18 ASCM. Next to its YJ-18 arsenal, Type 052D guided-missile destroyers are also equipped with modern HQ-9 surface-to-air-missiles.

The Type 054A Jiangkai II-class guided missile frigate Jingzhou is the 21st ship of the class currently in service with the PLAN and was commissioned in January 2016. Type 054A Jiangkai II-class frigates are multirole warships and have been deployed overseas on multiple occasions including anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden. Around 25 Type 054A Jiangkai II-class frigates are currently in service with the PLAN. At least five more ships of the class are currently under construction. In December 2016, I elaborated on the Type 054A class’ capabilities:

The stealth frigate is armed with HQ-16 medium range air defense missiles and boosts a 32-cell vertical launching system (VLS) in the forward section, capable of firing anti-ship and air defense missiles as well as anti-submarine torpedoes. It also features a Russian-made AK-630 fully automatic naval close in weapon system and a Chinese variant of the AK-176 76 millimeter naval gun.

Some frigates of the class are also known to have been equipped with variable depth sonar and towed array sonar systems. In addition, the ship is equipped with a Type 382 phased-array radar system and Type 344 and Type 345 multifunctional fire control radar systems, capable of over the horizon targeting.

Type 054A frigates also feature a hangar capable of accommodation Kamov K-27 and Harbin Z-9 helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). (…) The ship has a standard range of about 3,800 nautical miles—7,037 kilometers–at a speed of 18 knots, and a maximum un-refueled radius is 12,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles.

The small PLAN fleet departed Shanghai in April. The three ships are expected to visit 20 countries around the world in the coming months. “This voyage is an innovative way to promote harmonious ideals, peace and friendship,” said Admiral Miao Hua, political commissar of the PLAN, in April, according to China Daily. “It is also a good platform to deepen military-military dialogue and cooperation, and showcase our Navy’s positive image.”

Riaz Haq said...

The Risks of Pakistan's Sea-Based Nuclear Weapons
The Babur-3 opens a dangerous era for Pakistan’s nuclear forces.


By Ankit Panda
October 13, 2017

https://thediplomat.com/2017/10/the-risks-of-pakistans-sea-based-nuclear-weapons/

Nine days into 2017, Pakistan carried out the first-ever flight test of the Babur-3, it’s new nuclear-capable submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM). A variant of the Babur-3 ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM), this SLCM will see Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent head to sea—probably initially aboard its Agosta 90B and Agosta 70 submarines, but eventually, perhaps even on board new Type 041 Yuan-class submarines Pakistan is expected to procure from China.

In a new article in the Fall 2017 issue of the Washington Quarterly, Christopher Clary and I examine some of the novel security challenges Pakistan may experience with its sea-based deterrent. It is already well known that Pakistan has outpaced it’s primary rival, India, in terms of its nuclear stockpile growth.

On land, low-yield systems, like the Nasr, have also raised concerns of a lower nuclear-use threshold in South Asia. The move to sea can have some positive effects on overall strategic stability; indeed, the perceived survivability of a sea-based deterrent can abate so-called “use-it-or-lose-it” pressures for Pakistan’s land-based forces. But the story doesn’t stop there.

Sea-based weapons can aggravate crisis stability concerns in the India-Pakistan dyad and present unique command-and-control challenges for Pakistan, which may be required to place these weapons at a higher level of readiness during peacetime. Finally, Pakistan’s internal security environment will remain a concern with a submarine-based deterrent. The threat of theft and sabotage may be greater in the case of Pakistan’s sea-based weapons than it is for its land-based forces. In aggregate, we argue that the sea-based deterrent may, on balance, prove detrimental to Pakistan’s security.

Pakistan, like other nuclear states, employs a range of physical and procedural safeguards to ensure that its nuclear weapons are only used in a crisis and a with a valid order from the country’s National Command Authority (NCA). The introduction of a nuclear-capable SLCM aboard its Agosta submarines would necessitate the erosion of some of these safeguards.

For instance, some physical safeguards that Pakistan is known to use for its land-based weapons — including partially dissembled storage, separation of triggers and pits, and de-mated storage — would be impractical at sea. Meanwhile, the experience of other nuclear states, like the United Kingdom, with sea-based deterrents suggests that sea-based nuclear weapons generally see fewer use impediments. Pakistan has long asserted that its nuclear command-and-control is highly centralized, but it remains doubtful that this would remain true for its small nuclear-capable submarine force in wartime or a crisis. The temptation to pre-delegate use authorization may be too great.

---
Similarly, Indian forces, unable to discriminate whether a detected Pakistani submarine in a crisis was fielding nuclear or conventional capabilities, would have to presume nuclear capability should the Babur-3 see deployment. All of this in turn not only would make Pakistan’s submarine force a prime early-crisis target for Indian forces, but also aggravate use-or-lose pressures for land-based forces.

Ultimately, even if India resisted attacking Pakistani submarines to avoid unintended escalatory pressures, it would at least see value in targeting the Very Low Frequency (VLF) radar facility established at Karachi in November 2016 that would allow Pakistan’s NCA to communicate with its at-sea deterrent in a crisis. This would require some confidence in New Delhi that Pakistan had not pre-delegated use authorization and that Islamabad’s sea-based weapons would still require the transmission of a use-authorization code from the NCA.

Riaz Haq said...

Now CEO of Swiftships selling Corvettes to Pakistan Navy

In an interview with Mönch, Swiftships CEO Shehraze Shah stated that the Pakistan Navy placed an order for two 75m corvettes from the Louisana-based shipbuilding company. Shah also stated that the Pakistan Navy (PN) is a customer of the Swiftships’ 11m Special Operation Craft Riverine (SOC-R), which the PN has deployed for counterinsurgency (COIN) and drug-interdiction missions.

In its August 2017 issue, Marine News was told that Pakistan ordered two 75 Swift Corvettes with an option for two more in 2020. “Swiftships has partnered with Lockheed Martin to offer these 1,500-to 2,000-ton ships to the client,” said Shah, adding that the corvettes will be equipped with Lockheed Martin’s Combat Management System. Pakistan is expected to use these ships in its Combined Task Force 150/151 deployments.

Notes & Comments:

The 75m Swift Corvette is a multi-purpose platform for addressing both conventional and asymmetrical security threats. According to Swiftships, the Swift Corvette can also deploy rigid-hulled inflatable boats (RHIB) for special operation forces (SOF) missions and VBSS (visit, board, search and seizure) operations. At a speed of 15 knots, the Swift Corvette has a range of 4,000 nm and endurance of 25 days. It has a top speed of 30 knots. The corvette can operate in sea conditions of up to Sea State 6. If built with steel, the Swift Corvette would reportedly have a displacement of 1,640 tons, while an aluminium superstructure would enable for a displacement of under 1,000 tons and speed of over 30 knots.

In June, the Pakistan Navy signed an order for two offshore patrol vessels (OPV) from Damen Shipyards. The previous Chief of Naval Staff Admiral (retired) Muhammad Zakaullah stated that one of the OPVs will be built at Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW). The intended role for the Damen OPVs is “anti surface [and] anti air operations, maritime security operations, day [and] night helicopter operations, combat search and rescue, and surveillance and intelligence gathering operations.” Based on the technical specifications provided by the PN, it appears that the Damen OPV is a variant of the OPV 1800.

Based on Swiftships’ description of the Swift Corvette, it appears that the PN is acquiring the corvette to augment the Damen OPVs in the aforementioned roles. In fact, the Swift Corvette is configurable with a 76mm main gun, two 30mm guns, anti-ship missiles (AShM), Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) for very short-range air defence (VSHORAD) coverage, decoy launchers and two Mk93 50 calibre mounts with Mk16 tripods. It also has an aft deck and hangar sufficient for a utility helicopter. It can also deploy ScanEagle unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which are also in service with the PN.

It appears that the Pakistan Navy intends for a tiered surface fleet.

http://quwa.org/2017/10/31/pakistan-orders-two-corvettes-us-based-swiftships/

Today Shehraze Shah is a veteran of the federal contract space in IT, telecommunications, logistics, and more, as President and CEO of ICS, the Vienna-based, certified 8(a) Small Disadvantaged Business. However, it didn’t start off this way. He and his twin brother, Khurram, who co-owns ICS today, were born in Pakistan in 1978, and later moved to the States with their parents and two older sisters in 1994. “In retrospect, it has been quite a journey. We have come far, but we’re still growing,” Shehraze explains. “ICS wasn't just our idea; rather, it was my family, mentors and friends that supported the idea, and eventually contributed to where we are today.”
http://bernhardtwealth.com/Profiles/ShahShehraze.pdf

Riaz Haq said...

Kelvin Hughes to supply SharpEye #Submarine #radar systems to #Pakistan #Navy

http://www.naval-technology.com/news/kelvin-hughes-supply-sharpeye-radar-system-pakistan-navy/

The Pakistan Navy has placed a follow-on order to Kelvin Hughes for the delivery of a second SharpEye Doppler submarine radar system.

Kelvin Hughes is set to supply its second set of radar systems for the navy’s newest Agosta 90B-class, or Khalid-class, diesel electric attack submarine under the latest deal.

The new radars will be installed on-board the Pakistan Navy submarines as part of its mid-life upgrade programme, which is currently being carried out at the Karachi Pakistan Naval Shipyard.

The original contract was awarded to Kelvin Hughes in February this year and saw the company deliver the I-Band SharpEye Doppler submarine radar system for the navy’s first Agosta 90B-class vessel.

Kelvin Hughes is expected to work in collaboration with the modernisation programme’s main contractor, Turkish defence company STM, in support of the initiative.

Kelvin Hughes regional sales manager Barry Jones said: “We have a long standing relationship with the Pakistan Navy and STM and I am very pleased to be working with STM to supply the state-of-the-art SharpEye radar system to the Khalid-class submarines.”

The SharpEye radar solution for the first ship is slated to be supplied to the navy next year, while the newly ordered system for the second vessel is scheduled for delivery in 2019.

SharpEye I-Band (X-Band) radar transceivers feature a downmast transceiver system installed in an enclosure located within the pressure hull.

This configuration provides submarines with a high-performance solid state radar with similar capabilities to SharpEye radars deployed on naval surface ships, both in-service as a retrofit and for installation on-board new classes.

The downmast submarine radar solution makes use of the existing bulkhead infrastructure in the pressure hull, thereby eliminating the need to replace the antenna mast system by utilising the existing external antenna, rotational drive and waveguide connections.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s KSEW launches 600-tonne patrol vessel for PMSA

http://www.janes.com/article/76206/pakistan-s-ksew-launches-600-tonne-patrol-vessel-for-pmsa

Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited (KSEW) has launched a 600-tonne maritime patrol vessel (MPV) on order for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA), according to a statement by the state-owned shipyard.

The 68.5 m-long multi-mission ship, which was launched on 5 December in Karachi in a ceremony attended by Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, is being built with technical collaboration from the China Shipbuilding Trading Company (CSTC).

The platform, which has a maximum beam of 8.7 m, a reported top speed of 27 kt, and a standard range of 2,600 n miles (4,815 km) at 15 kt, is currently scheduled for delivery in April 2018 and is expected to be deployed in maritime security operations as well as search-and-rescue missions in Pakistan’s exclusive economic zone, said KSEW.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Tests An Indigenously Developed Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Pakistan introduces the Harbah, a cruise missile with anti-ship and land-attack roles.

https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/pakistan-tests-an-indigenously-developed-anti-ship-cruise-missile/


By Ankit Panda
January 08, 2018

Last week, the Pakistani Navy carried out the first-ever test launch of its Harbah anti-ship and land-attack cruise missile (LACM/ASCM). The test was carried out in the North Arabian Sea on January 3, according to a press release from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR).

“The successful live weapon firing has once again demonstrated the credible fire power of Pakistan Navy and the impeccable level of indigenization in high tech weaponry achieved by Pakistan’s defence industry,” ISPR noted in a statement. “The missile accurately hit its target signifying the impressive capabilities of Harbah Naval Weapon System.”

The Harbah is thought to be derived from Pakistan’s Babur family of cruise missiles. Pakistan has tested multiple Babur variants, beginning with the ground-launched Babur-I to the submarine-launched Babur-III, which was first tested last January. Though ISPR made no comment on the missile’s payload capabilities, its origin in the Babur family would suggest that it could be converted for both conventional and nuclear payload delivery.

According to Pakistani media reports, Pakistan’s Ministry of Defense Production had planned to develop a missile system for the PNS Himmat by October 2018. According to the Ministry’s 2014-2015 yearbook, the Directorate General of Munitions Production (DGMP) had been tasked with “the indigenous (sic) developing of ship-borne system with Land Attack Missile [LACM] and Anti ship Missile” by that date.

The missile was launched from an Azmat-class fast attack craft, PNS Himmat. PNS Himmat was commissioned into the Pakistan Navy last summer after extensive sea trials. Along with PNS Himmat, PNS Azmat and PNS Deshat are likely to also operate the Harbah ASCM once the system is declared operational.

Pakistan’s test-firing of the Harbah came shortly after U.S. President Donald Trump threatened to end U.S. military aid to the country in a tweet. While U.S. aid does not go toward Pakistan’s indigenous strategic weapons research and development, the ISPR statement noted that Pakistan’s chief of naval staff, Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, said that Pakistan needed to “reduce reliance on foreign countries” and “emphasized the need to capitalize on indigenous defense capabilities.”


Riaz Haq said...

India's Lone Arihant-class SSBN Has Been out of Service for Months
The Indian Navy has a serious submarine operations problem.

https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/indias-lone-arihant-class-ssbn-has-been-out-of-service-for-months/

We need to talk about the Indian Navy’s handling of its submarines. A report published this week in The Hindu reveals an astonishing fact: India’s sole operational indigenous nuclear-propulsion ballistic missile submarine (SSBN), INS Arihant, has suffered major damage and has been out of commission for more than nine months, during which time it has not left port. (Arihant is the lead ship of the Arihant-class of Indian SSBNs; the Indian Navy recently began outfitting the second ship of the class, INS Arighat.)

The cause of the damage, according to one source who spoke to The Hindu, was that “water rushed in because a hatch on the rear side was left open by mistake.” Human error, it seems, has done massive damage to the third leg of India’s burgeoning nuclear triad, leaving the Arihant, the result of a top secret $2.9 billion project, dead in the water for now.

For those readers who follow Indian defense affairs, the Arihant‘s fate might not seem all that surprising. The Indian Navy has not demonstrated a particularly good record in recent years in managing its conventional and nuclear-powered submarine forces.


On one hand, there are the human tragedies, like the August 2013 sinking of INS Sindhurakshak after the Kilo-class submarine suffered a major explosion while berthed in Mumbai. Eighteen sailors died in the incident, which was caused by human error, a navy investigation later found.

Less dramatic, but nearly as serious, incidents have occurred since then. In February 2014, INS Sindhuratna, an Indian Kilo-class submarine, saw a fire break out on board, leading to the death of two sailors by suffocation. While that incident was not found to have been caused by human error, it was likely due to poor maintenance and upkeep of the vessel. (India’s then-chief of naval staff, Admiral D.K. Joshi, resigned following the Sindhurakshak and Sindhuratna incidents, taking responsibility for both accidents.)

Meanwhile, more recently, India’s leased nuclear attack submarine (SSN) INS Chakra, a Russian Akula II-class, saw its sonar domes damaged late last year. Taken together with the incidents involving the two Kilo-class vessels and the Arihant now, it’s hard not to come to the conclusion that the Indian Navy’s submarine operations and maintenance could be greatly improved. Even aside from submarines, since 2010, the Indian Navy has seen a series of accidents and malfunctions across its surface warfare fleet as well.

As an aside, The Hindu‘s reporting on the Arihant‘s circumstances includes an astonishing tidbit that’s darkly illustrative of a troubling divide between the country’s political leadership and the armed forces insofar as nuclear assets are concerned. Consider this:

The absence of Arihant from operations came to the political leadership’s attention during the India-China military stand-off at Doklam. Whenever such a stand-off takes place, countries carry out precautionary advance deployment of submarine assets.

Setting aside the fascinating detail that the Doklam standoff with China in 2017 rose to the level that it merited higher SSBN readiness, it’s disturbing that India’s political leaders would learn about one leg of the country’s nuclear triad being out of commission only after they requested a precautionary advance deployment.

Riaz Haq said...

Turkey to Upgrade Pakistan Navy Attack Sub
A Turkish defense contractor will upgrade the second of three Agosta 90B submarines in service with the Pakistan Navy.


By Franz-Stefan Gady
March 06, 2018

https://thediplomat.com/2018/03/turkey-to-upgrade-pakistan-navy-attack-sub/

Turkish state-owned defense contractor Savunma Teknolojileri Mühendislik ve Ticaret A.Ş. (STM) has won a contract for the mid-life upgrade of the second of three Agosta 90B-class (aka Khalid-class) diesel-electric attack submarines equipped with air-independent propulsion systems, currently in service with the Pakistan Navy.

The contract was signed in Pakistan by senior representatives of the Pakistan Ministry of Defense Production and STM last month, according to a company statement. Pakistan selected STM over French shipbuilder Direction des Constructions Navales Services (DCNS), the original designer and producer of the Agosta 90B-class, in a competitive bidding process in June 2016.

“At the conclusion of the bidding process, STM’s offer was found to be commercially and technically superior, and the company was consequently selected as the prime contractor by Pakistan’s Ministry of Defense Production,” the company statement reads. The original June 2016 contract only covered the retrofitting of the first Agosta 90B sub, the PNS Khalid, slated for delivery in 2020.


The second Agosta 90B boat, like the first-of-class PNS Khalid, will be upgraded at the Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW) in Karachi. “The modernization works will include the replacement of the submarine’s entire sonar suite, periscope systems, command and control system, radar and electronic support systems. HAVELSAN- [Turkey’s state-controlled military software company] and ASELSAN [Turkish defense contractor]-made systems will also be exported as part of the project,” according to STM.

Among other things, the upgrade includes the installation of a SharpEye low probability-of-intercept (LPI) radar system aboard the PNS Saad. Additionally, “[u]nder the project, STM will make modifications on the pressure hull, the most critical structure in a submarine, by carrying out system-to-system and platform-to-system integrations for various systems, to be provided by local and foreign companies.”

The PNS Saad is expected to be returned to service within 12 months following the delivery of the PNS Khalid. The upgrade of all three subs–should a third contract between the Ministry of Defense Production and STM be signed—will likely be finished by the end of 2022.

The three Agosta 90B attack submarines were inducted into service with the Pakistan Navy between 1999 and 2008. The first-of-class PNS Khalid was built by DCNS in France, while the second boat of the class, PNS Saad, was assembled by KSEW from submarine modules delivery by DCNS. The third attack submarine, PNS Hamza, was built locally in Karachi.

Next to French-built Exocet anti-ship missiles, the upgraded Agosta 90B boats will purportedly also be armed with the nuclear-capable Babur-3 submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM), currently under development.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan launches naval exercise as it aims to counter India, protect economy
By: Usman Ansari

https://www.defensenews.com/training-sim/2018/02/27/pakistan-launches-naval-exercise-as-it-aims-to-counter-india-protect-economy/

Regarding what more could be done to improve capabilities in this respect, whether simply acquiring more patrol assets or also leveraging technology such as unmanned aerial and surface vehicles, Cloughley believes the Navy is “certainly concentrating on inshore patrol vessels.” However, he wondered about further planned developments for the Pakistan Coast Guards.

He believes unmanned technology is important, but does not think the government would “publicize intentions.”

Commercial satellite imagery has revealed China’s Wing Loong medium-altitude, long-endurance UAV undergoing testing in Pakistan, but nothing further is yet known except capabilities in marketing literature.

Pakistan from an Indian viewpoint

Conventionally vis-a-vis India, Pakistan’s Navy is in desperate need of modernization and expansion.

Kamal Alam, visiting fellow and Pakistan analyst at the British think tank Royal United Services Institute, said that during past conflicts the Navy played a “very minimal role against India,” historically being the “weakest of the three services.”

“However, over the last five years this is changing as China ramps up its support with the largest defense deal in their history in the shape of submarines” and as the Navy transitions from a “defensive force into an offensive one.”

Nevertheless, air support “is key to any naval operations against India,” he added.

Warships aside, India boasts numerous anti-ship missile-equipped aircraft including Harpoon-equipped Jaguars and supersonic Brahmos-equipped Su-30MKI Flankers that have enormous range. Pakistan’s Navy has limited defenses against Brahmos.


Improvements have been made as C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade-armed JF-17 Thunder jets have augmented the dated Exocet-equipped Mirages that will soon retire.

Nevertheless, author and analyst Kaiser Tufail, who commanded an anti-shipping strike Mirage squadron during his Air Force career, says more needs to be done.

The JF-17 “must have the supersonic CM-400AKG missile for the medium-term retrofit plans, possibly integrated with the Block III,” Tufail said.

“The days of subsonic anti-ship missiles are numbered. Even a mix of the C-802 and CM-400AKG can force a significant change in adversary operational employment of its naval resources,” he added.

The JF-17 is, however, comparably short-legged, necessitating “a long-range twin-engine fighter for maritime air superiority, escort of maritime patrol aircraft, air cover to surface, high-value vessels bringing in vital supplies, etc.,” he noted; hence, Exercise Ribat’s testing of “joint operability at greater ranges and a wider scope than in the past.”

Riaz Haq said...

Govt approves setting up new shipyard at Gwadar

https://nation.com.pk/22-Mar-2018/govt-approves-setting-up-new-shipyard-at-gwadar

The government has approved a plan to set up a new shipyard at Gwadar with the capacity to build very large and ultra large crude carriers, sources told The Nation.

Sources in the Defence Ministry said the plan approved by the federal cabinet would be implemented within three to five years. The plan also includes dry docking facilities for repairing and maintenance of commercial ships including oil and gas tankers.

Pakistan Navy especially the incumbent Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi from the very outset has been strongly supporting plans to set up Gwadar shipyard.

Pakistan Navy was of the view that since technical know-how and basic industrial infrastructure to support research and development (R&D) is available in the country, it was about time to integrate and optimise these facilities to further strengthen the process of self reliance.

The government believes that the shipbuilding industry will provide a good avenue for generating employment and supporting economic growth in the country.

As per the initial framework unveiled in 2008, Gwadar shipyard would initially offer ship repair and maintenance services at two dry docks with the capacity to handle 600,000 DWT (deadweight tonnage).

It would eventually lead to shipbuilding with capacity of constructing up to VLCC and ULCC.

At present, the state-owned Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) is the lone facility available in Pakistan for shipbuilding, maintenance and repair work.

But this facility is largely catering to the needs of Pakistan Navy whose responsibilities have increased to meet the defence needs of the country in the wake of multi-billion-dollar China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) that connects the deep sea Gwadar port with China.

The government is also upgrading the facilities at the KSEW by enhancing its capacity by installing Syncrolift ship-lift-and-transfer system.

Nevertheless, this facility would remain dedicated to meet the future needs of Pakistan Navy.

Experts believe Gwadar shipyard would become a very viable commercial venture because of the lack of adequate shipbuilding facilities in the region.

Iran, which operates the largest commercial shipping fleet, has also developed basic know how, yet it will take a long time to become a viable shipbuilding nation.

None of the Gulf Arab countries have a proper shipbuilding facility except offering limited dry docking facilities including Arab Shipbuilding and Repair Yard (ASRY) in Bahrain and in the UAE.

Since these are very limited facility for repair and maintenance, most of the commercial ships move to Singapore for this service.

Analysts are of the view that Gwadar shipyard because of its close proximity to the Persian Gulf through which nearly 38 per cent of the world’s precious goods largely oil and gas are carried, could attract many commercial vessels looking for maintenance and repair works.

Riaz Haq said...

This Makes War in Syria Look Small: If India and Pakistan Fight Millions Will Die in a Nuclear Fire

http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/makes-war-syria-look-small-if-india-pakistan-fight-millions-25321

The sea component of Pakistan’s nuclear force consists of the Babur class of cruise missiles. The latest version, Babur-2, looks like most modern cruise missiles, with a bullet-like shape, a cluster of four tiny tail wings and two stubby main wings, all powered by a turbofan or turbojet engine. The cruise missile has a range of 434 miles. Instead of GPS guidance, which could be disabled regionally by the U.S. government, Babur-2 uses older Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC) navigation technology. Babur-2 is deployed on both land and at sea on ships, where they would be more difficult to neutralize. A submarine-launched version, Babur-3, was tested in January and would be the most survivable of all Pakistani nuclear delivery systems.

Sandwiched between Iran, China, India and Afghanistan, Pakistan lives in a complicated neighborhood with a variety of security issues. One of the nine known states known to have nuclear weapons, Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal and doctrine are continually evolving to match perceived threats. A nuclear power for decades, Pakistan is now attempting to construct a nuclear triad of its own, making its nuclear arsenal resilient and capable of devastating retaliatory strikes.

Pakistan’s nuclear program goes back to the 1950s, during the early days of its rivalry with India. President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto famously said in 1965, “If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass or leaves, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own.”

The program became a higher priority after the country’s 1971 defeat at the hands of India, which caused East Pakistan to break away and become Bangladesh. Experts believe the humiliating loss of territory, much more than reports that India was pursuing nuclear weapons, accelerated the Pakistani nuclear program. India tested its first bomb, codenamed “Smiling Buddha,” in May 1974, putting the subcontinent on the road to nuclearization.

Pakistan began the process of accumulating the necessary fuel for nuclear weapons, enriched uranium and plutonium. The country was particularly helped by one A. Q. Khan, a metallurgist working in the West who returned to his home country in 1975 with centrifuge designs and business contacts necessary to begin the enrichment process. Pakistan’s program was assisted by European countries and a clandestine equipment-acquisition program designed to do an end run on nonproliferation efforts. Outside countries eventually dropped out as the true purpose of the program became clear, but the clandestine effort continued.

(This first appeared last March.)

Exactly when Pakistan had completed its first nuclear device is murky. Former president Benazir Bhutto, Zulfikar Bhutto’s daughter, claimed that her father told her the first device was ready by 1977. A member of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission said design of the bomb was completed in 1978 and the bomb was “cold tested”—stopping short of an actual explosion—in 1983.

Benazir Bhutto later claimed that Pakistan’s bombs were stored disassembled until 1998, when India tested six bombs in a span of three days. Nearly three weeks later, Pakistan conducted a similar rapid-fire testing schedule, setting off five bombs in a single day and a sixth bomb three days later. The first device, estimated at twenty-five to thirty kilotons, may have been a boosted uranium device. The second was estimated at twelve kilotons, and the next three as sub-kiloton devices.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan on Wednesday (in June 2017) became a full signatory of the Washington Accord that facilitates mobility of engineering graduates and professionals at the international level.

Pakistan became the full signatory of Washington Accord on June 21, reported Dunya News.


As a result of the new agreement, the engineers from Pakistan would no further have to take exams for getting new jobs and admission abroad.

In the first stage, graduates from UET Lahore, UET Taxila, GIK and NUST would benefit from the new agreement.

Pakistan was granted provisional membership of the Washington Accord in the year 2010.

The Washington Accord, signed in 1989, is an international agreement among bodies responsible for accrediting engineering degree programmes.

It recognises the substantial equivalency of programs accredited by those bodies and recommends that graduates of programs accredited by any of the signatory bodies be recognised by the other bodies as having met the academic requirements for the entry to the practice of engineering.

At present, the Washington Accord member countries include Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Pakistan, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.



https://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/pakistan-becomes-full-signatory-of-washington-accord-117062201418_1.html

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan inks naval shipbuilding, technology transfer deal with Turkey

https://www.defensenews.com/naval/2018/07/05/pakistan-inks-naval-shipbuilding-technology-transfer-deal-with-turkey/


Pakistan has signed a contract for the construction of four Milgem/Ada-class corvettes with the Turkish state-controlled shipyard M/s ASFAT A.S. The deal, inked July 5, is part of Pakistan’s efforts to replace aged warships featuring systems nearing the end of manufacturer support, boost its conventional deterrent vis-a-vis India, and better safeguard its maritime economy and trade links.

According to a Navy news release, the contract includes “complete transfer of technology and the transfer of intellectual proprietary rights for the design of these ships to Pakistan.”

Four ships will be built ― the first two in Turkey at Istanbul Naval Shipyard, and the third and fourth in Pakistan by state-owned shipyard KSEW ― as part of the technology transfer package.

Indigenous construction of the second pair is intended to help Pakistan’s shipbuilding industry grow and increase its contribution to the nation’s economy.

Though the Ada design features considerable Turkish-developed systems and weaponry, much is still sourced from third parties including the U.S., with whom Pakistan’s relations are presently firmly at their nadir.

Under the present climate, it’s almost certain the U.S. won’t provide clearance for the onward supply of equipment (or direct purchase via Washington); this includes the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, the Ada corvette’s primary air defense system.

When asked by Defense News about this situation, the Navy did not explain how it has managed to circumvent this, whether it still hopes to acquire the system, whether the service has replaced it with an alternative (possibly Chinese such as the FL-3000N/HQ-10), or whether the service will simply recycle the Phalanx CIWS from its ex-British frigates (possibly along with Harpoon anti-ship missiles if they still have shelf life remaining) until a better solution becomes available.

Author, analyst and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad Brian Cloughley says the Pakistan Navy “will avoid all U.S. equipment, if possible, on the grounds that they can have no guarantee of supply of spares, ammunition, etc. The attitude of [U.S. President Donald] Trump and Congress is such that it would be most unwise to waste time even applying for U.S. systems.

“The Chinese route seems to be the most practicable, with indigenous systems if possible.”

The use of indigenous technology appears to be firmly on the cards, as the news release says the fourth corvette “will be designed jointly by Pakistan’s Maritime Technologies Complex (MTC) and will be the first indigenously designed and constructed frigate.”

Use of the term “frigate” may imply extensive redesign is planned, possibly enlargement that adds more capable systems and weaponry, similar to Turkey further developing the Ada design into the Istanbul-class frigate.

When asked, the Navy did not clarify if this was the case, but Cloughley says it could be possible, or merely a “misnomer.”

However, an “indigenously developed missile system” will be fitted to the corvettes, (probably a reference to Pakistan’s Harba anti-ship missile), and certainly to the fourth corvette if not the others, in which case Cloughley believes Pakistan will then have “time to look around for a new SAM [surface-to-air missile].”

Riaz Haq said...

PAKISTAN AIR FORCE INAUGURATES NEW AIR BASE – PAF BHOLARI

https://quwa.org/2017/12/25/pakistan-air-force-inaugurates-new-air-base-paf-bholari/

On December 25, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) formally inaugurated its newly built main operating base (MOB), PAF Bholari.

In his inauguration speech, the PAF’s Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal (ACM) Sohail Aman stated that the new base would enable the PAF to support the Pakistan Army “more efficiently.” The CAS added that PAF Bholari will also “augment and supplement” the Pakistan Navy’s operations.

Located in Thatta District in Sindh, northeast of Karachi, construction of PAF Bholari began in December 2015. At that time, the current CAS of the PAF had implied that PAF Bholari’s focus would be on the “conventional threat” – i.e. the PAF’s traditional focus on India.

Notes & Comments:

The PAF’s Southern Air Command (SAC) hosts a comprehensive suite of assets for air defence, strike and maritime operations. In recent years, SAC has seen the introduction of a JF-17 Thunder multi-role fighter squadron (i.e. No. 2 Squadron at Masroor Air Base in Karachi) and the ZDK03-based Karakoram Eagle airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft. PAF Shahbaz in Jacobabad, Sindh also hosts the No. 5 Squadron’s F-16C/D Block-52+ squadron. The PAF’s MBDA Excoet anti-ship missile (AShM)-configured Mirage 5PA continue to operate from Masroor along with the No. 2’s C-802 AShM-armed JF-17.

In line with the CAS’ statements from PAF Bholari’s inauguration, the new MOB is located within reach of the Pakistan Army’s expected combat theatres in southeast Sindh. Likewise, PAF Bholari is within 150 km of Karachi and Pakistan’s littoral waters. Currently, Pakistan has a number of options for how to set-up Bholari, which can include assigning current and forthcoming JF-17 squadrons, the ZDK03 and/or Erieye AEW&C and – considering maritime operations are a factor – in-flight refueling tankers. During the inaugurating ceremony of the MOB the PAF held a flypast with four F-16s from the No. 19 Squadron, which operates the F-16A/B Block-15ADFs (Air Defence Fighter) acquired from Jordan. It is currently unclear if these will permanently operate from Bholari.

--------------------

India building new frontline airbase near border with Pakistan

http://www.janes.com/article/81678/india-building-new-frontline-airbase-near-border-with-pakistan

The Indian Air Force (IAF) has begun constructing a ‘forward’ airbase in the western Indian state of Gujarat to counter a similar facility located across the border in Pakistan’s Sindh Province.

Official sources told Jane’s that India’s Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi had “quietly” approved the construction of the base at Deesa in March for an estimated INR40 billion (USD581 million).

The move followed the inauguration in December 2017 of the Pakistan Air Force’s (PAF’s) main operating base (MOB) at Bholari, which is located some 420 km northwest of Deesa and about 145 km northeast of the Pakistani port city of Karachi.

Riaz Haq said...

PAKISTAN NAVY RECEIVES ITS FIRST ATR-72 MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT

https://quwa.org/2018/07/15/pakistan-navy-receives-its-first-atr-72-maritime-patrol-aircraft/


The Pakistan Navy received its first of two ATR-72 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) in the “second quarter” of 2018, announced Aerodata AG, one of the subcontractors involved in the program.

“This delivery represents a major milestone for Rheinland Air Service as prime contractor and Aerodata as the key project partner,” said Aerodata AG in an official news release dated for 02 July 2018.

Pakistan contracted Rheinland Air Service (RAS), an aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) firm based on Germany, in 2015 to convert two refurbished ATR-72s into MPAs. As per Aerodata AG, the work began in January 2016, following the release of export permits by the German government.

Aerodata AG was contracted to supply its AeroMission mission management system, which will function in concert with the Leonardo Seaspray 7300E active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar, Elettronica electronic support measures (ESM) suite, FLIR Systems Star SAFIRE III electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) turret and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability through lightweight ASW torpedo compatibility.

In addition, the ATR-72 MPAs were also configured with a self-protection suite providing defensibility to infrared, radar and laser-guided munitions. It also has passive electronic intelligence (ELINT) capabilities.

In June 2017, Aerodata’s President and CEO, Hans J. Stahl, outlined that Pakistan will deploy its new MPAs for “maritime surveillance, anti-submarine warfare and also search-and-rescue” operations.

In August 2016, the Pakistan Navy had received its third ATR-72, but it is unclear at this time if this unit is slated to receive the MPA upgrade. However, in 2015 the Pakistan Navy had reportedly requested $294 million US for the ATR-72 MPA program, potentially indicating that additional aircraft are intended.

If sought to replace its aging Fokker F-27s, the ATR-72 MPA offers a substantially improved capability-set, not least from the fact that it has ASW capabilities and an AESA surface-surveillance, search and targeting radar. Interestingly, Pakistan’s ATR-72 MPA appears to share many of the same subsystems as Leonardo’s ATR-72MP offering, i.e. Seaspray 7300E, Star SAFIRE EO/IR and Elettronica ESM. However, Pakistan opted for the AeroMission mission management system instead of Leonardo’s ATOS.

According to Aerodata, the AeroMission enables each human machine interface (HMI) console in the ATR-72 MPA to control all of the aircraft’s sensors. In addition, the AeroMission can compile feeds from each sensor to build a complete situational awareness picture for the crew and off-board assets (via network-enabled connectivity, e.g. tactical data-links). AeroMission includes a sensor fusion algorithm.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan, #Egypt naval forces conduct joint drills in #Mediterranean Sea. “The drills meant to exchange expertise in order to promote maritime security and stability in the region” #Navy #Military https://tribune.com.pk/story/1802490/1-pakistan-egypt-naval-forces-conduct-joint-drills-mediterranean-sea/

CAIRO: Egyptian and Pakistani naval forces conducted on Thursday drills in the Mediterranean Sea, official news agency MENA reported.

“The drills meant to exchange expertise in order to promote maritime security and stability in the region,” Egyptian armed forces said in a statement.

The giant Pakistani military ship SAIF PNS along with the Egyptian naval ships conducted exercises including inspection of ships and exchange of helicopter takeoff and landing, it added.
Egypt has also started joint military exercise with the Unites States known as “the Bright Star” on Saturday at a military base in Egypt’s seaside province of Alexandria.

Pakistan, India participate together in military exercise

Scheduled to be held from September 8 to September 20, the military manoeuvres include land, naval and air forces from Egypt, the United States, Britain, France, Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Jordan, in addition to other 16 states that participate as observers.

Earlier in April this year, the Pakistan Navy held its maiden bilateral exercise Turgutries meaning ‘Drawn sword of Islam’ with Turkish naval forces in North Arabian Sea.

The exercise covered a wide range of maritime operations encompassing anti-surface, anti-air and anti-submarine warfare as well as maneuvering and communication exercises.

Riaz Haq said...

State-of-the-art #Pakistan #Navy #survey ship unveiled in #China. The ship carries the most advanced equipment for marine #research which adds to the capabilities of the Pakistan Navy.
https://tribune.com.pk/story/1864641/1-state-art-pakistan-navy-survey-ship-unveiled-china/

A state-of-the-art 3,000 tonne survey ship prepared by Pakistan Navy was unveiled in China’s Yang Zong where it was put afloat in River Yangtze.

It is the most advanced survey ship made by Pakistan Navy which will enhance the scope of marine research in the country.

The vessel was made with the joint cooperation of Pakistan and China.
The survey ship will also provide services related to operations of water search and locating positions.

Pakistan, Russian navies hold joint drills in Arabian Sea

Addressing the ceremony, Chief Naval Overseas Commodore Asaf Humayun, who was the special guest for the ceremony, said the new survey ship even in uncommon conditions has the additional capability of carrying out operations.

He also said that the ship also carries the most advanced survey equipment which adds to the abilities of the Pakistan Navy to carry out a geographical survey.
The special guest commended the Best Way group and Dogen Shipyard and those people associated with the project for completing the important milestone of launching the project on time.

Riaz Haq said...

India's Aircraft Carriers: A Giant Waste of Time?
Can they really be used in a war against Pakistan?

by Robert Beckhusen

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/indias-aircraft-carriers-giant-waste-time-39672

Most likely, India would attempt to enforce a blockade of Pakistan and use its carriers to strike land-based targets. But Pakistan has several means to attack Indian carriers — with near-undetectable submarines and anti-ship missiles — which must also operate relatively far from India itself in the western and northern Arabian Sea. China does not have a similar disadvantage, as the PLAN would likely keep its carriers close and within the “first island chain” including Taiwan, closer to shore where supporting aircraft and ground-based missile launchers can help out.

Thus, Indian carriers would be relatively vulnerable and only one of them will have aircraft capable of launching with standard ordnance and fuel. And that is after Vishal sets sail in the next decade.

To directly threaten Pakistan, the small-deck carriers will have to maneuver nearer to shore — and thereby closer to “anti-access / area denial” weapons which could sink them. And even with a third carrier, the threat of land-based Pakistani aircraft will force the Indian Navy to dedicate a large proportion of its own air wings to defense — perhaps half of its available fighters, according to 2017 paper by Ben Wan Beng Ho for the Naval War College Review.

“Therefore, it is doubtful that any attack force launched from an Indian carrier would pack a significant punch,” Ho writes. “With aircraft available for strike duties barely numbering into the double digits, the Indian carrier simply cannot deliver a substantial ‘pulse’ of combat power against its adversary.”

Essentially, this makes Indian carriers’ self-defeating, with the flattops existing primarily to defend themselves from attack rather than taking the fight to their enemy. Carriers are also expensive symbols of national prestige, and it is unlikely the Indian Navy will want to risk losing one, two or all three. Under the circumstances, India’s investment in carriers makes more sense symbolically, and primarily as a way of keeping shipyards busy and shipyard workers employed.

However, this is not to entirely rule out a carrier-centric naval strategy. Ho notes that Indian carriers could be useful when operating far out at sea and in the western Arabian Sea, effectively as escort ships for commercial shipping and to harass Pakistani trade. Nevertheless, this strategy comes with a similar set of problems.

“In any attempt to impose sea control in the northern Arabian Sea and to interdict Pakistani seaborne commerce by enforcing a blockade of major Pakistani maritime nodes, Indian carrier forces would have to devote a portion of their already meager airpower to attacking Pakistani vessels, thereby exacerbating the conundrum alluded to earlier,” Ho added. “What is more, Pakistani ships are likely to operate relatively close to their nation’s coast, to be protected by Islamabad’s considerable access-denial barrier.”

Another possibility is India massing its carriers in the later stages of a war after the Army and Air Force pummel and degrade the Pakistani military.

But this raises the question as to whether India strictly needs carriers at all if it cannot use them during the decisive periods of a conflict — as opposed to, say, less-expensive warships, and more of them, equipped with long-range missiles.

Riaz Haq said...

Are #Aircraft #Carriers Still Relevant? In the 1971 Indo-#Pakistan War, #India’s carrier, the Vikrant, was sent to the permissive Bay of #Bengal and not to the more contested northern Arabian Sea. @Diplomat_APAC #EastPakistan #Bangladesh #IndianNavy http://thediplomat.com/2018/11/are-aircraft-carriers-still-relevant/

By Ben Ho Wan Beng

At this juncture, let us revisit the Pacific War. During this conflict, William Halsey of the U.S. Navy was the archetypal aggressive and offensive-minded carrier admiral. His polar opposite, Raymond Spruance, was restrained and more adverse to risk. Hence, the big question is: In a future conflict involving carriers, would the leadership be in the mold of Spruance, the “Quiet Warrior”? Or would a “Bull” Halsey hold sway? The risk of losing a capital asset could play on the minds of the leadership, and it might take an existential threat to the homeland for carriers to be sent into a nonpermissive environment. Hence, it is likely that leaders, whether military or political, would deploy the vessel in a manner more akin to Spruance than Halsey.

It is worth noting that there has not been a direct clash-of-arms between great powers since World War II. Moreover, there has not been a major campaign at sea for over 30 years since the Falklands War. With very few reference points, any future conventional maritime campaign is likely to be cautious, with the side having the more valuable assets taking more probing actions.

Deterrence favors the A2/AD-centric nation in such circumstances.

Though carriers have not been in a high-end fight since 1944, there is evidence of them being deployed more cautiously in combat during the Cold War. In the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War, India’s carrier, the Vikrant, was sent to the permissive Bay of Bengal and not to the more contested northern Arabian Sea. Similarly, during the 1982 Falklands campaign, the Royal Navy kept its two carriers farther from the area of operations than usual for fear of reprisals from Argentine airpower. It also bears notice that these two episodes occurred before the coming of age of precision-guided munitions and what the Russians termed as the reconnaissance-strike complex.

Moreover, in this current age where the “battle of the narratives” predominates, the enemy need not sink the carrier to secure a major political victory; this could be attained by merely hitting it (which may or may not cause significant damage). That said, even limited damage to the carrier force could be spun into a political victory for the adversary. Think China or Russia and their far-reaching information warfare (IW) edifices. To illustrate, the adversary’s IW machinery could amplify on social and other mediums a hit on a destroyer escorting the flat-top. The invincibility of the much-vaulted carrier task group could then be downplayed

Riaz Haq said...

#China building export version of one of its advanced #warships and will deliver it to #Pakistan as part of a major #arms deal. The ship has a fully loaded displacement of about 4,000 metric tons and is equipped with advanced radars and missiles. #Navy http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201901/02/WS5c2c0e5aa310d91214051fba.html

China recently started construction of an export version of one of its advanced warships and will deliver it to Pakistan as part of a major arms deal, according to China State Shipbuilding Corp, a large State-owned defense contractor.

It said the ship is a version of the Chinese Navy's most advanced guided missile frigate, without specifying its type.

In late December it said the ship is under construction at its Hudong-Zhonghua shipyard in Shanghai, noting it will be equipped with modern detection and weapon systems and will be capable of anti-ship, anti-submarine and air-defense operations.

According to the Pakistani Navy, the ship's class is Type 054AP, which means it is based on the Type 054A of the People's Liberation Army Navy. It previously said four such ships had been ordered.

Once constructed, the warship will be one of the largest and technologically advanced platforms of Pakistan's Navy and strengthen the country's capability to respond to future challenges, maintain peace and stability and the balance of power in the Indian Ocean region. It will also support the Pakistani Navy's initiative of securing sea lanes for international shipping by patrolling distant waters, it said in a statement on its twitter account.

Type 054A is the best frigate in service with the PLA Navy. Military sources said the ship has a fully loaded displacement of about 4,000 metric tons and is equipped with advanced radars and missiles. About 30 Type 054As are in service with the PLA Navy, observers said.

Cao Weidong, a senior researcher at the PLA's Naval Military Studies Research Institute, said that in the past, the Pakistani Navy would ask its Chinese contractors to use Western radars or weapons on ships constructed by Chinese shipbuilders because it believed Western naval technologies were better than Chinese ones.

"But it seems that all weapons and radars on the new ship will be Chinese products, which reflects our progress in the industry and the Pakistani Navy's confidence in our technology and capability," he said.

Cao said there are many nations selling frigates in the market, so Pakistan must have made thorough comparisons in terms of combat capability and costs.

"I believe the reason they chose our type is that ours is one of the few that can carry out all of the air-defense, anti-ship and anti-submarine tasks," he said, expecting the service of the Chinese frigate to substantially boost Pakistan's defense capability.

An insider in China's shipbuilding sector with knowledge of the Type 054AP program told China Daily on condition of anonymity that the ship is the largest and most powerful combat vessel China has ever exported.

"Based on pictures circulating on the internet, the ship will have vertical launch cells that can fire Chinese HQ-16 air-defense missiles and other kinds of missiles. Vertical launch cells will bring flexibility to the user in terms of weapons portfolio, thus giving it a stronger fighting capability," he said, adding that the Type 054AP is the best frigate Pakistan can access in the international market.

"The service of Type 054APs will double the combat power of the Pakistani Navy's surface fleet," he said.

Riaz Haq said...

Game-Changing #Chinese #Missile Aboard #Pakistan Frigates Could Dent #IndianNavy's #BrahMos Advantage. Chinese-made CM-302, which Pakistan will get, matches both the supersonic speed and the range of the #Indian Navy's BrahMos anti-ship cruise missiles. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/game-changing-chinese-missile-to-pakistan-could-dent-navys-brahmos-advantage-1975148

An export variant of the YJ-12 missile, the CM-302, is likely to be the primary weapon on board four new Chinese frigates being built for the Pakistan Navy at the Hudong-Zhonghua shipyard in Shanghai.

The CM-302 matches both the supersonic speed and the range of the Indian Navy's BrahMos anti-ship cruise missiles, which have been deployed on several front-line frigates and destroyers of the Navy.

Senior defence officials monitoring the sale of new generation Chinese Type 054 frigates to Pakistan have told NDTV that the ships are likely to come armed with the CM-302, which they identify as a "new threat which represents a new capability."

But these officers also tell NDTV that "there is a long way to go for these missiles to become a credible threat for the Indian Navy" since the Pakistan Navy still lacks long-range sensors which need to target Indian platforms before a CM-302 can actually be fired.

"Possessing accurate targeting data, surveillance capability, and having the ability to penetrate a dense [Indian Navy] electronic counter-measures environment are a part of a complex matrix" that the Pakistan Navy's new frigates would need to overcome before they can attempt a missile launch.


Still, the acquisition of the CM-302 onboard the new Chinese-built frigates that will be inducted from 2021 means a lethal new capability for the Pakistan Navy.

According to globalsecurity.org, a leading online resource of emerging military threats, "the highlight of the YJ-12 is not its range but speed. It can reach 'Double Three' or 'Double Four,' namely a range of 300 kilometres at Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound) or a range of 400 kilometres at Mach 4."

It is unclear if the Barak 8 Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM), deployed on India's newest Kolkata Class destroyers, have the ability to intercept a missile of this class. In response to a query from NDTV, senior Navy officers declined comment on whether the Barak 8 system has been test-fired against any supersonic anti-ship missile, let alone a missile that flies faster than Mach 2.

In an article in warontherocks.com, Robert Haddick, an independent contractor at the US Specials Operations Command, has said "the YJ-12 is the most dangerous anti-ship missile China has produced."

According to Mr Haddick, "the arrival of the YJ-12 is one more indication of how the US Navy is falling further behind in the missile competition against China, exposing flaws in operating concepts that US and allied commanders and policymakers have relied on for years."

News of the possible Pakistani acquisition of the YJ-12/CM-302 broke on twitter late last month when the China State Shipbuilding Corporation organised the steel-cutting ceremony for the second of the four Type 054A/P frigates that Pakistan is receiving. A digital image (shown below) emerged which showcased a CM-302 missile mounted on a launcher on a Pakistan Type 054 frigate. It is unclear if this detailed digital image was sourced from an official release or was the work of a Naval analyst.

Riaz Haq said...

45 nations, including the #UnitedStates, #Britain, #China, #Russia and #Japan, attend 5-day #naval exercise #AMAN19 in #Pakistan https://fxn.ws/2SgQlsM #FoxNews

More than 40 countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, China, Turkey, Japan, Russia, UK and US will take part in the 6th exercise of the naval series held every two years.

“Aman 2019 exercise with the resolve of ‘Unity for Peace’ aims at boosting the joint operational capabilities of the participating countries’ naval forces for peace and stability in the region,” according to a Pakistan Navy (PN) spokesperson. The international naval exercise is also a “manifestation of Pakistan’s commitment in promoting peace and stability in the region through harmony and collaboration.”

The idea behind exercise Aman (Urdu word for ‘peace’), which started in 2007, is to identify areas of common interest for participating countries and a shared understanding of maritime security operations, counter terrorism operations as well as humanitarian assistance and disaster response.

The exercise, to be followed by an international maritime conference, aims to safeguard and promote regional peace, display united resolve against maritime terrorism and crimes as well as enhancing readiness and interoperability between allies.

Riaz Haq said...

#Aman19: #Pakistan #Navy’s expanding influence. The 46-nation naval exercise further cemented PN’s role as a leading and professional naval force not only in the #ArabiaSea region but also in the larger area of the #IndianOcean.
https://tribune.com.pk/story/1908895/1-aman-19-pakistan-navys-expanding-influence/

KARACHI: PNS Aslat and Saif fire a volley from their main guns towards a target buoy 4,500 yards away as helicopters buzz overhead and warships maneuver in the Arabian Sea during the culminating phase of Aman-19, the largest multinational exercise ever hosted by the Pakistan Navy (PN).

With participation from 46 navies, the exercise further cemented PN’s role as a leading and professional naval force not only in the Arabia Sea region but also in the larger area of the Indian Ocean.
With geopolitics undergoing a major realignment phase, the navy has become a major tool to project force, create goodwill throughout the region and increase Pakistan’s influence in the region.

“Now, we match India in terms of presence. If the Indian Navy has been to an area in the Indian Ocean, the Pakistan Navy is present there too,” said a senior PN officer.

The focus on further bolstering the combat capability of the PN is evident with the recent agreement to purchase eight submarines and four 054AP class warships from China.

On the final day of Aman-19, warships of the PN and foreign participating navies, including the Royal Navy, US Navy and the Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), came together to showcase the level of coordination achieved over days of drills at sea.

The drills kicked off by PN ships launching rocket depth charges at a simulated submarine target.

Pakistan-made PNS Moawin – the largest ship in the fleet – took centre stage during the second drill as it refueled ships while underway. PNS Aslat and PNS Saif took a position on either side of the fleet tanker the drill started. Underway refueling and replenishment is considered to be one of the most dangerous activities carried out at sea and extreme care was taken by PN personnel during the drill.

Gunnery demonstrations were also carried out by PN, Turkish Navy and (Chinese) PLAN (Navy) warships, and round after round from their main guns were thrown downrange towards target buoys with precision and speed.

As the drills ended, all participating ships presented a fleet review to the chief guest. Flying Pakistani colours – as a sign of respect – and their national flags, foreign and PN ships sailed past the chief guest during the phase.


Turkish frigate TCG Gokceada, PLAN’s Kunlun Shan and Luoma Hu, United Kingdom’s HMS Dragon, Royal Australia Navy’s Ballarat, American Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Decatur, Sri Lanka’s off-shore patrol vessel SLNS Sayurala, Royal Malaysian Navy’s support ship KD Mahawangsa and KD Kasturi, Italian Navy’s Carlo Margottini, Royal Navy of Oman’s Al Rahmani PNS Aslat, Saif, Shamsheer, Khyber, Azmat, Alamgir and Pakistan Maritime Security (PMSA) ships Kashmir, Zhob, Himmat and Basol were part of the fleet review.

Riaz Haq said...

Great Game Moves to Sea: Tripolar Competition in #IndianOcean. The dynamics of intensifying competition — #military, #economic, #diplomatic — in #SouthAsia, mainly between #China, #India, #Pakistan, and #UnitedStates. #CPEC #pakistannavy @WarOnTheRocks https://warontherocks.com/2019/04/the-great-game-moves-to-sea-tripolar-competition-in-the-indian-ocean-region/

Each state’s approach to the increasingly crowded Indian Ocean environs is informed by history, economic interests, and simple geography. Three significant divergences in the three countries’ frameworks are their perspectives on the Middle East, Pakistan’s regional role, and the balance between military and non-military foreign policy tools. Friction resulting from any of these divergences – what I call geo-strategic seams – could undermine the success of any one of these national strategies for the Indian Ocean arena. Ultimately, China’s more integrated strategy may give it an edge over America’s more disjointed approach and India’s more inward focus.

----------------

India, sitting in the middle of the Indian Ocean, defines the region as extending from the African littoral to Southeast Asia. In 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi put forward “Security and Growth for All in the Region,” or SAGAR, as an early, high-level articulation of the Indian vision. In 2017, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj specifically defined the region as extending from the Gulf of Aden in the west, through Chabahar Port in southwest Iran, and over to Burma and Thailand in the east. Notably, India does not view Pakistan as a part of this regional cooperation strategy, instead seeing it as an enemy. Similarly, India tries to isolate its long history of land border disputes with China from its wider policy towards the Indian Ocean, even though countering Beijing is one of New Delhi’s goals.

India’s focus on the Indian Ocean area is relatively new, dating back only to the 1990s. For most of the period since it gained independence in 1947, India has been preoccupied with land border threats posed by Pakistan and China, and has apparently lacked the ambition and capacity to exert influence beyond its immediate neighbors.

-----------------

Unlike with India’s strategy for the Indo-Pacific, however, Pakistan is a central element of China’s approach, linking the maritime and continental components of the Belt and Road Initiative. India, and to a lesser degree the United States, views Pakistan as a declining power that should be internationally isolated for its support of terrorism. In contrast, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is one of the most important elements of the Belt and Road since it provides a direct land bridge from China to the Arabian Sea and allows trade access to support economic development in China’s restive west. Illustrating its priorities, China has promised some $60 billion to develop this corridor and has already made substantial investments in Pakistan focusing on energy and transport infrastructure, including the port of Gwadar in western Pakistan. While some doubt the viability of many of these projects, this investment clearly reflects Beijing’s view that Pakistan is essential to its regional strategy.

Riaz Haq said...

#PakistanNavy flexes land attack capabilities in #Arabian #Sea. #Pakistan is known to be pursuing #air-, #ship-, and #submarine-launched variants of the Babur #cruise missile to complement its line-up of longer-ranged #ballistic #missiles. | Jane's 360. https://www.janes.com/article/88035/pakistan-navy-flexes-land-attack-capabilities-in-arabian-sea#.XMEpjKJzfZA.twitter

Key Points
The Pakistan Navy has conducted another test-firing of an indigenously developed cruise missile
The weapon is being tested amid heightened tensions with India over the long-standing Kashmir dispute
The Pakistan Navy has conducted another test-firing of what appears to be a shipborne variant of an indigenously developed cruise missile.

The weapon was fired from its latest Azmat-class patrol craft, PNS Himmat (1027), in the North Arabian Sea, the Pakistan Armed Forces' official media communications group known as the inter-services public relations (ISPR) office revealed on 23 April.

In January 2018, Himmat conducted a similar test-firing of the weapon. On both occasions, the ISPR office stopped short of disclosing the type of missile used in the firings, only noting that it has anti-ship and land-attack capabilities, and that the weapon has been developed in-country.

The test announced in April 2019 was also described as one that has "accurately hit its target on land", but no further details were given on this, including the type of target deployed, and its distance from Himmat at the time of firing.

Images of the launch released by the ISPR office suggest a weapon length of between 6 m and 7 m, when taken in relation to Himmat 's overall beam. Based on its visible markings, it is probable that the missile is the 'Harbah', which is shipborne variant of Pakistan's indigenously developed Hatf 7 (Babur) short-range cruise missile.

Pakistan is known to be pursuing air-, ship-, and submarine-launched variants of the Babur cruise missile to complement its line-up of longer-ranged ballistic missiles.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Navy’s Blue Water Ambitions
February 14, 2019

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/pakistan-navys-blue-water-ambitions/

Shahid Raza |

Pakistan Navy is the guardian of Pakistan’s maritime boundaries. An ever-increasing threat of terrorism at sea, piracy and fast-changing geo-security dynamics in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) have encouraged Pakistan Navy to embark on an ambitious modernization plan to commission new warfare assets to develop new capabilities which would enable the Navy to operate in blue waters by 2030. The list of assets being acquired or developed by them includes the following.

1: Type-54A/P Frigate
The advance Type-54A/P is a highly potent naval frigate which is currently the backbone of the Chinese naval fleet. This cutting-edge vessel has a displacement of over 4000 tons. It is equipped with an advanced radar and sensor suite, integrated mast assembly. The main weapon of this frigate is a 32x cell vertical launch system armed with HQ-16 Surface to Air Missiles along with anti-ship cruise missiles and a sophisticated self-protection system. Pakistan is acquiring 4 such vessels from China to replace its obsolete Amazon-class frigates, delivery is expected to start by 2021 and all are expected by 2025. When it joins service, it will be the most powerful warship in Pakistan Navy’s inventory enabling the force to operate in blue waters.

2: Hangor Class Submarine
Pakistan Navy’s submarine force is more than 50 years old. Pakistan was the first operator of submarines in South Asia. Currently Pakistan Navy fields French made Agosta class submarines, some of which – the Agosta 70s are reaching towards the end of their useful life. Therefore, Pakistan Navy has embarked upon a replacement and modernization program to overhaul the Agosta-90B submarines in Turkey to modern standards and acquire 8 new built Hangor class submarines from China, four of which will be built in Pakistan. They are expected to be delivered between 2021-28. Not much is known about these submarines – but they are believed to be highly advanced variant of mainstay Chinese diesel-electric submarines of unspecified class.

Read more: Pakistan’s Vision for Maritime Security

3: Jinnah Class Corvette
Pakistan Navy is acquiring 4 newly built Ada Class Corvettes from Turkey to boost its littoral defence capabilities. These are stealthy warships displacing 2400 tons each and are specifically designed for maintaining area sea denial. Delivery is expected by 2025. It is believed that Pakistan will seek to arm them with its domestically developed Harba anti-ship Cruise Missile system. According to details, two of these ships will be built in Pakistan and when they join service, they will be named the Jinnah Class in the honour of Pakistan’s founding father. In addition to Jinnah Class, the Navy is also planning to put its existing fleet of F-22P Frigates through a Mid Life Upgrade program to extend their life and capabilities.

4: Maritime Air Wing
In order to protect coastal installations and to attack enemy assets at sea, the Navy has started an ambitious program to develop state of the art maritime attack capability. This includes the induction of JF-17 Thunder fighters with anti-ship capabilities into the Minhas squadron based in Karachi. Another squadron with identical capabilities will also be coming up soon. The Navy has recently inducted an ATR aircraft which was specifically upgraded in Germany for maritime strike role. The Navy is also looking for a replacement for its P3C Orion maritime attack aircraft and to induct unmanned aircraft with similar capabilities.

Read more: Worldwide Maritime Awakening: Where does Pakistan Stand?


Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Navy’s Blue Water Ambitions
February 14, 2019

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/pakistan-navys-blue-water-ambitions/

5: Offshore Patrol Vessel
An order has been placed for 2 OPV-1800 vessels from Netherlands based firm, Damen first of which is under construction in Romania, with expected delivery in 2022. The OPV displaces at 1900 tons each and as per the MoDP, the multi-mission OPV “is especially suited for anti-surface & anti-air operations, maritime security operations, day [and] night helicopter operations, combat search and rescue, and surveillance and intelligence gathering operations.”

6: Coastal Defense System
In a bid to boost its coastal defense capabilities, the Pakistan Navy has inducted the Zarb Coastal Defense System which is based on the Chinese C-602 anti-ship cruise missile system. Pakistan Navy is also believed to be interested in acquiring an anti-ship Ballistic Missile system to add more capability to its coastal defenses in the future, specifically to target the aircraft carriers being acquired by the Indian Navy.

7: Second Strike Capability
Ever since the induction of the Naval Strategic Forces Command and the successful tests of the Babur-III Submarine Launched Cruise Missile System, the Navy has been working to develop Pakistan’s second strike capability. It is believed that in addition to the induction of Nuclear armed Babur-III missile, there is keen interest in the indigenous development of a nuclear-armed, nuclear-propelled submarine to consolidate Pakistan’s long term Second Strike options.

Read more: Pakistan’s timely approach towards Maritime Domain

8: Intelligence Assets
Intelligence gathering is an indispensable part of modern warfare, thus Pakistan navy has been actively working to induct intelligence gathering assets including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), a 3000-ton survey ship and by levering Air Borne Early Warning (AWACS) assets of the Pakistan Air Force, as well as ground-based sensors.

9: Logistical Assets
Pakistan Navy requires advance logistical facilities to augment its acquisition of new warships, therefore the Navy recently commissioned a 17000 ton Fleet Tanker which was built in Karachi with help from Turkey to supply fuel, water and ammunition to Pakistan Navy’s combat and auxiliary units. It is also equipped with state-of-the-art medical facilities to support the Pakistan Navy during war and disaster relief missions.

10: Gwadar Base
With an expansion in assets and capabilities, the Navy requires a large new base to accommodate these assets in a safer location, far from the reach of the Indian Navy. Gwadar is where the biggest ever naval base of the country, aptly named ‘Jinnah Naval Base’ is being constructed. This base will also be augmented by support facilities and a new ship manufacturing and servicing facility. This base will be capable of berthing most of Pakistan’s surface warships, submarines, and aircraft in the future.

Riaz Haq said...

Jinnah Naval Base – Navy expands strategic outreach to West Coast, Persian Gulf

https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2016/01/13/jinnah-naval-base-navy-expands-strategic-outreach-to-west-coast-persian-gulf/

The base is situated 350 km west of Karachi and 285 km east of the Gwadar Port, and has been connected with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

“With the development of this base, Pakistan has acquired the capacity to secure naval trade in these waters. Moreover, we have expanded Pakistan naval forces’ outreach towards the west coast into the Strait of Hormuz where all the oil traffic flows in and out,” an officer at the base told Pakistan Today during a recent visit to the base at Ormara which is otherwise restricted for media.

“Karachi would remain our focus for the foreseeable future. However, Jinnah base would reduce reaction time of Pakistan Navy to six to 8 hours in case of any adversity,” the officer said, adding that the base had a berthing facility “for anything from warships to submarines and from heavy ships to warplanes”.

Asked whether or not Gwadar would also act as a naval base for Pakistan, the officer said that Gwadar would act purely as a commercial base.

“Though Pakistan Navy has a small base at Gwadar, its main focus would be security of Gwadar. Jinnah base, on the other hand, would be a purely naval base which would help maritime forces monitor the entire coastal area from Ormara to the Gulf waters,” the officer said.

Rear Admiral (r) Pervez Asghar, an expert on naval defence, told Pakistan Today that Pakistan Navy had developed four bases along the coastal areas of Balochistan including Ormara, Pasni, Jewani and Gwadar which had helped expand its ‘strategic outreach’ towards the west coast.

“In the past, we only had one [naval] base at Karachi and our military installations were vulnerable to any Indian adventure. However, with the development of these new bases towards the west coast, not only do we have alternative options to defend our positions, our reaction time has also decreased significantly in case of any attack,” the retired naval admiral said.

He said that the navy now also had a submarine base at Ormara. “We have developed Pakistan marine corps to thwart enemy designs of amphibious landing around the coastal areas,” he added.

“Pakistan Navy is now well placed to secure all sea lines of communications (SLOCs) emanating from the Persian gulf towards Pakistan. Moreover, the naval infrastructure including Radars and communication gadgets, have now been able to overlap each other – a capability we had severely missed in the past,” he added.

He said that the new bases had also helped secure Gwadar Port as there was no military presence on the port due to its being commercial in nature.

“Now, navy’s special forces are better placed in Ormara to secure Gwadar Port and nearby sea routes. Moreover, Ormara base would also help neutralise the enemy’s narrative that they would be able to block Karachi’s harbour in case of a showdown,” he added.

Asghar said that Pakistan had also developed a jump-off base for Pakistan’s maritime aircraft at Pasni.

He said that Pakistan Navy had recently raised another naval station at Turbat, namely PNS Siddiq for P-3c Orion aircraft.

“These P-3cs are capable of flying over 14 hours nonstop without refueling. They have stealth technology and can fly below the radar and strike India’s Eastern coast. Pakistan Navy has also developed Naval Base Jewani, about 60 km from Iran to help expand its outreach into the Gulf waters,” he added.

Jinnah base would act as an alternative option for Pakistan Navy to Karachi where all the logistic and technical support for berthing navy’s ships and even submarines were available.

“We have developed the required facilities for technical repair of ships and submarines at the base. It is an alternative arrangement to the Karachi base and can easily meet our defence requirements. However, Karachi dockyard would still be the center for major overhaul or repair,” the Jinnah base officer said.

Riaz Haq said...

#Dutch shipbuilder Damen launches first of 2 corvettes for #Pakistan #Navy.
The 2,300-ton multirole corvettes are "state-of-the-art vessels" suited for anti-surface, anti-air, and #maritime #security operations. #pakistannavy #GwadarAttack | Jane's 360 https://www.janes.com/article/88644/damen-launches-first-of-two-corvettes-for-pakistan-navy#.XOVcNqfYAFA.twitter

The first of two corvettes on order for the Pakistan Navy (PN) has been launched at the facilities of Dutch shipbuilder Damen in Galati, Romania.

The service announced on its Facebook page that the 2,300-ton vessel, which had been previously described as an offshore patrol vessel (OPV), entered the water on 17 May in a ceremony held at the shipyard in Romania and attended by PN Vice Admiral Abdul Aleem, among others.

The contract for the two vessels was signed in June 2017, with the first corvette expected to enter service by the end of 2019, and the second one set to be delivered by mid-2020, according to the navy.

Vice Adm Aleem was quoted as saying during the ceremony that these platforms "will act as force multipliers in enhancing [the] navy's capability of safeguarding maritime frontiers and will offer more flexibility in the conduct of [the] Pakistan Navy's initiative of independent Regional Maritime Security Patrols in the Indian Ocean Region".

The multirole corvettes have been previously described by the PN as "state-of-the-art vessels" especially suited for anti-surface, anti-air, and maritime security operations.

Each of them features a helicopter pad to facilitate search-and-rescue missions, as well as surveillance and intelligence-gathering operations. No further details were provided about the systems or weapons set to be fitted onto the class.

Riaz Haq said...

Update: Turkey’s STM wins tender for Pakistani corvettes

https://www.janes.com/article/81568/update-turkey-s-stm-wins-tender-for-pakistani-corvettes

Defence engineering firm Savunma Teknolojileri Mühendislik ve Ticaret (STM) and other Turkish companies have won a tender to provide four Ada (MILGEM)-class corvettes to the Pakistan Navy (PN).

“This will be largest single export [deal] in the history of the Turkish defence industry,” National Defence Minister Nurettin Canikli was quoted by Turkish state news service Anadolu Agency (AA) as saying during an official visit to Montenegro.

No details were provided about the value of the contract, which was signed on 5 July. The main contractor is the Military Plants and Shipyard Management Joint Stock Company (ASFAT AS), which is tied to the Turkish Ministry of National Defense.

Canikli said Ankara and Islamabad have agreed to build two of the warships at Turkey’s Istanbul Shipyard while the remaining two will be constructed in Pakistan’s southern port city of Karachi.

The Karachi-based newspaper The Express Tribune quoted the Pakistani Embassy in Ankara as saying in a statement that the contract includes a transfer of technology as well as a transfer of intellectual proprietary rights for the design of the Pakistani ships.

The announcement was made after Pakistan’s Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited (KSEW) signed a letter of intent (LOI) with STM in May 2017 for the construction of the vessels.

According to Jane's Fighting Ships , the Ada class has a fully-loaded displacement of 2,032 tonnes, a draught of 3.6 m, and a beam of 14.4 m.

Armament on the 99 m-long platforms includes a 76 mm naval gun, four (two twin) 324 mm torpedo tubes, eight (two quadruple) launchers for anti-ship missiles, and one RIM-116 close-in weapon system.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan wants to accelerate new #shipyard project in #Gwadar. It'll be focused on meeting the Pakistan Navy's requirements and #defense export opportunities, alongside pursuing commercial #shipbuilding contracts to strengthen revenue streams | Jane's 360 https://www.janes.com/article/88859/pakistan-wants-to-accelerate-shipyard-project#.XO7AUL_rCdw.twitter

Pakistan's Standing Committee on Defence Production has called for work to be accelerated on the country's long-delayed programme to develop a naval shipyard in Gwadar, a port city on Pakistan's southwestern coast.

A statement by Pakistan's Senate on 27 May said its defence production committee had "laid stress to expedite the completion [of the shipyard]", which was first proposed in 2008.

The Senate added that the construction project should be overseen by the country's Ministry of Defence Production, which should "supervise all work [including] conducting feasibility studies [and] infrastructure to [support] future load and density requirements".

The new shipyard would be focused on meeting the Pakistan Navy?s requirements and defence export opportunities, alongside pursuing commercial shipbuilding contracts to strengthen revenue streams, said the Senate.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan 2nd country after #Indonesia to purchase #Turkey’s anti-torpedo 24 different launcher cells system for Pak Navy. The countermeasure tactics of the system include evasive maneuvering, different deployment patterns and acoustic jammers/decoys.
http://sabahdai.ly/nkusm9

urkish defense giant ASELSAN will meet the Pakistani Naval Forces' countermeasure system needs against torpedo missiles with its domestically developed system, making Pakistan the second country to import it.

The Zargana Anti-Torpedo Countermeasure System for submarines was developed by the defense company for foreign purchasers as a different version of the domestic system. The system Pakistan is set to buy will also be adapted to the country's Agoste 90B class submarines.

With the purchase, Pakistan becomes the second country after Indonesia to use the Zargana, which is the first and only system developed in Turkey and superior than its counterparts worldwide.

The countermeasure tactics of the system include evasive maneuvering, different deployment patterns and acoustic jammers/decoys.

After detecting and classifying the threat, the system determines the most appropriate avoidance tactic against torpedoes targeting submarines while taking into account environmental conditions with real-time data provided by the submarine.

Acoustic jammers deployed by the system prevent the torpedo from detecting the submarine's location, while acoustic decoys imitate the submarine and deceive the torpedo.

The Zargana provides the highest level of defense against torpedoes with its autonomous operation and quick reaction time and can be integrated into operator-controlled inputs or submarine systems that provide real-time data.

The missile and launcher system has up to 24 different launcher cells, single or salvo firing with high reliability and fireproofing properties.

In recent years, Turkey has taken a noticeable leap forward with innovative engineering moves in the defense industry and domestically-developed military equipment and combat vehicles in almost all fields of warfare.

According to the Turkish Exporters Assembly (TİM) data, the export performance of the sector in 2018 increased by 17 percent compared to 2017. The industry broke its own record of $1.7 billion in November and moved the record up to $2.03 billion by the end of the year. The defense and aerospace industry, whose export performance has been hovering between $1.5 billion and $2 billion, exceeded the threshold of $2 billion for the first time.

The U.S. was the top destination for Turkish defense exports, and the sector's sales to the country soared by 41 percent, reaching $64.2 million. The U.S. was followed by Oman with $49.4 million and Germany came in third place with $18.4 million. Defense exports to Germany rose by 25 percent in January.

Turkey has also exported defense products to new destinations, including Guatemala, India, Guiana, Tanzania, Trinidad, and Tobago.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Navy gets 2nd ATR-72 MPA, featuring acoustic processing system, sonobuoy launchers, broadband #satellite #communications system, electronic support measures suite, a self-protection suite, and 2 weapon hard-points, anti-#submarine warfare (ASW) https://www.janes.com/article/89795/pakistan-navy-receives-second-atr-72-mpa#.XTEImV0qwro.twitter

The Pakistan Navy (PN) has received the second of two ATR-72 twin-engine turboprops converted into maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) under a contract signed in 2015.

In a 10 July press release Germany-based company Rheinland Air Service (RAS) said that it handed over the second example of the type, which is now known as the RAS 72 Sea Eagle, during a ceremony held at RAS headquarters in Mönchengladbach shortly after the platform was introduced to the general public at the Paris Air Show 2019, which was held from 17 to 23 June.

The first aircraft, which was handed over by RAS in June 2018, re-entered service with the PN on 12 December 2018 in a ceremony held at naval air station PNS Mehran in Karachi (both ATR-72s had previously been in service with the PN as transports).

The RAS 72 Sea Eagle is equipped with a long-range, active electronically scanned array (AESA) multimode radar, as well as electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensors to deliver aerial, maritime, and ground surveillance, according to RAS.

The platform also features an acoustic processing system, sonobuoy launchers, a broadband satellite communications system, an electronic support measures suite, a self-protection suite, and two weapon hard-points, enabling anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and maritime patrol capabilities. The PN's two RAS 72 Sea Eagles also feature Aerodata's mission management system, called AeroMission, for ASW.

"The variety of state-of-the-art on-board sensors enable operators and decision makers to detect and identify sensitive targets above or below the surface of the ocean, while transmitting all the information captured on-board in real-time to the dedicated command centre," said the company, adding that the RAS 72 Sea Eagle offers operational flexibility as it can be used not only for ASW and maritime patrol missions but also for search-and-rescue and other humanitarian operations.

Riaz Haq said...

Could Pakistan Sink an Indian Aircraft Carrier in a War?
What does the evidence suggest?

by Robert Beckhusen

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/could-pakistan-sink-indian-aircraft-carrier-war-76086

Essentially, this makes Indian carriers’ self-defeating, with the flattops existing primarily to defend themselves from attack rather than taking the fight to their enemy. Carriers are also expensive symbols of national prestige, and it is unlikely the Indian Navy will want to risk losing one, two or all three. Under the circumstances, India’s investment in carriers makes more sense symbolically, and primarily as a way of keeping shipyards busy and shipyard workers employed.

The Indian Navy has put out a proposal for its third aircraft carrier, tentatively titled the Vishal due to enter service in the latter 2020s. The 65,000-ton Vishal will be significantly larger than India’s sole current carrier, the Vikramaditya known formerly as the ex-Soviet Admiral Gorshkov, and the incoming second one, the domestically-built Vikrantwhich is expected to enter service later in 2018.

To see why Vishal is a big deal for the Indian Navy, one needs only to look at her proposed air wing — some 57 fighters, more than Vikramaditya — 24 MiG-29Ks — and Vikrant‘s wing of around 30 MiG-29Ks. While below the 75+ aircraft aboard a U.S. Navy Gerald R. Ford-class supercarrier, Vishal will be a proper full-size carrier and India’s first, as the preceding two are really small-deck carriers and limited in several significant ways.

The Indian Navy is also looking at an electromagnetic launch system for its third carrier, similar to the one aboard the Ford class. India’s first two carriers have STOBAR configurations, in which aircraft launch with the assistance of a ski-jump, which limits the maximum weight a plane can lift into the air. Typically this means that fighters must sacrifice weapons, or fuel thus limiting range, or a combination of both.

Most likely, India would attempt to enforce a blockade of Pakistan and use its carriers to strike land-based targets. But Pakistan has several means to attack Indian carriers — with near-undetectable submarines and anti-ship missiles — which must also operate relatively far from India itself in the western and northern Arabian Sea. China does not have a similar disadvantage, as the PLAN would likely keep its carriers close and within the “first island chain” including Taiwan, closer to shore where supporting aircraft and ground-based missile launchers can help out.

Thus, Indian carriers would be relatively vulnerable and only one of them will have aircraft capable of launching with standard ordnance and fuel. And that is after Vishal sets sail in the next decade.

To directly threaten Pakistan, the small-deck carriers will have to maneuver nearer to shore — and thereby closer to “anti-access / area denial” weapons which could sink them. And even with a third carrier, the threat of land-based Pakistani aircraft will force the Indian Navy to dedicate a large proportion of its own air wings to defense — perhaps half of its available fighters, according to 2017 paper by Ben Wan Beng Ho for the Naval War College Review.

“Therefore, it is doubtful that any attack force launched from an Indian carrier would pack a significant punch,” Ho writes. “With aircraft available for strike duties barely numbering into the double digits, the Indian carrier simply cannot deliver a substantial ‘pulse’ of combat power against its adversary.”

Riaz Haq said...

Based at Karachi, the Pakistan Navy operates a fleet of five diesel-electric submarines and three MG110 mini submarines. [1] Pakistan views its submarine force as necessary to maintain its "credible minimum deterrence" posture. [2]

https://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/pakistan-submarine-capabilities/


Capabilities at a Glance
Total Submarines in Fleet: 8

Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBNs): 0
Nuclear-Powered attack submarines (SSNs): 0
Diesel-electric attack submarines (SSKs): 5
Mini Submarines (SSMs): 3
Air-independent propulsion (AIP) enabled: 3/8

The current fleet primarily consists of two Agosta-70 boats (Hashmat-class) and three modern Agosta-90B (Khalid-class) submarines, all of French design. Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) indigenously constructed Pakistan’s third Agosta-90B submarine PNS Hamza (S139) and commissioned it on 26 September 2008. [10] The PNS Hamza features French company Naval Group’s MESMA (Module d'EnergieSous-Marin Autonome) air-independent propulsion (AIP) system, making it the first conventional submarine built in South Asia to feature AIP propulsion. [11] In 2011, Pakistan retrofit the two earlier Agosta-90B vessels with MESMA during overhauls.
[12]

--------------------------

Turkish firm STM signed a contract yesterday to enhance capabilities of Pakistan Navy’s Agosta 90B Submarines.

https://www.defenseworld.net/news/24433/Turkish_STM_to_Enhance_Capabilities_of_Pakistan_s_Agosta_90B_Submarines#.XfSFndZKh0s
The company will modernize four Pak submarines.

The bid for the submarine modernization tender was won by STM in June 2016 against the submarines' French manufacturers.

The Agosta-class submarine is a class of diesel-electric fast-attack submarine developed and constructed in France to succeed the Daphné submarines.

The Agosta–90B class submarines is an improved version with modern systems, better battery with longer endurance, deeper diving capability, lower acoustic cavitation and better automatic control (reducing crew from 54 to 36). It can be equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion (AIP) system. It is capable of carrying a combined load up to 16 torpedoes, SM39 Exocet anti-ship missile and seaborne nuclear cruise missiles.

The submarines were built through the technology transfer by France to Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

#China, #Pakistan complete 9-day joint #naval exercise in #ArabianSea. Special forces, warships, submarines and warplanes participated in live-fire drills. #India sent aircraft carrier to monitor events amid simmering tensions in region #CPEC https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3046064/china-pakistan-complete-sea-guardians-2020-joint-naval via @scmpnews

Chinese and Pakistani troops completed a nine-day naval exercise in the Arabian Sea on Tuesday, against a backdrop of simmering tensions in the Middle East and South Asia.
The operation – Sea Guardians 2020 – was the sixth joint naval drill between the two countries and took place in the northern reaches of the waterway and along the Pakistani shoreline. It involved special forces, warships, aerial assets and, for the first time, submarines in a series of live-fire exercises.
Tensions have been running high in the region since the killing of Iranian general Qassem Soleimani in a US air strike earlier this month and the increased hostility between India and Pakistan in the disputed region of Kashmir

While the US and India were likely to have been keeping a close eye on the exercises – New Delhi deployed an aircraft carrier to monitor events – experts said the operation was largely routine and not intended to stoke tensions.
“It was planned well in advance, long before things began escalating in the Middle East,” said Du Youkang, director of the Pakistan Study Centre at Fudan University in Shanghai.

James Dorsey, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, agreed, saying the drills should not be seen as a reaction by China to the tensions in the Middle East.
“I don’t think it’s an issue of showing more muscle in the region … you have an ongoing cooperation between Pakistan and China and this is part of it,” he said.

“Others may read it as a signal, but I don’t think it’s the driving incentive. But the cooperation [between China and Pakistan] will be closely followed by India and the United States.”

Nonetheless, Beijing has been expanding its military presence in the Middle East, and last month took part in a four-day exercise with Russian and Iranian forces in the northern part of the Indian Ocean.
Dorsey said that the drills coincided with a shift in the security architecture in the region.
“Over a period of time, we will see changes, moving from a unipolar, US-centric system to a multipolar arrangement,” he said.
“That would most probably include China, as well as Russia, and potentially countries like India. It’s all on the drawing board, but that’s clearly the trend.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan and #China launch joint #naval drills for “augmenting interoperability and strategic cooperation.” Should #India be concerned? https://www.defensenews.com/digital-show-dailies/surface-navy-association/2020/01/08/pakistan-and-china-launch-joint-naval-drills-should-india-be-concerned/#.XiZQIiqBX20.twitter

A nine-day Sino-Pakistani naval exercise commenced in Pakistan’s port of Karachi on Monday with the arrival of a Chinese naval task group from its South Sea Fleet. Sea Guardians 2020 is the sixth in the bilateral series, which, according to the Pakistan Navy, will focus on “augmenting interoperability and strategic cooperation.”

The exercise will include a range of drills to share “professional experiences on contemporary and non-traditional threats at sea” to improve regional security cooperation, plus promote a “safe and sustainable maritime environment.”

While stating the exercise aims to “enhance the capabilities of the two navies to jointly cope with maritime terrorism and crime,” China’s military media branch stressed it had “nothing to do with the regional situation and is not target[ing] at any third party.”

This was likely an attempt to reassure India that the drills were unrelated to the tension between rivals India and Pakistan.

However, India will certainly have noted that Sea Guardians included warlike air defense systems, anti-missile technology, anti-submarine warfare capabilities, and live-fire and joint marine training drills.

Sidharth Kaushal, a research fellow specializing in sea power at the Royal United Services Institute think tank, said “India has generally regarded Chinese exercises and naval activity in the Indian Ocean with apprehension.” Consequently, New Delhi has invested in countering China’s naval presence.

“The Indian Navy’s efforts over the past decade to improve its situational awareness in the region and to upgrade the capabilities of tri-service command in Andaman and Nicobar reflects a growing consensus that the [Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy] will be a challenger in the [Indian Ocean region] in the foreseeable future,” Kaushal said.

Riaz Haq said...

#China Lays Keel for #Pakistan #Navy’s 2nd 4000-Ton Type 054A #Missile Frigate. The stealth frigate is armed with HQ-16 medium range air defense missiles and capable of firing anti-ship and air defense missiles & anti-submarine torpedoes. @Diplomat_APAC https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/china-lays-keel-for-pakistan-navys-second-type-054a-missile-frigate/

China conducted a keel-laying ceremony on March 23 at the Hudong Zhonghua shipyard in Shanghai for the second of four Type 054A/P multi-role frigates destined for service in the Pakistan Navy, the service announced in a recent statement.

The ceremony was reportedly attended by officials from Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard, Pakistan Navy officers and Chinese defense industry representatives.

According to Pakistan Navy spokesperson, Rear Admiral M. Arshid Javed, Type 054A/P frigates “are technologically advanced platforms which will strengthen [Pakistan Navy] combat capability and maintain peace [and] stability in the [Indian Ocean region].”

Last November, China’s Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding also held a steel cutting ceremony for the Pakistan Navy’s third and fourth Type 054A/P multi-role frigate.

The Type 054A/P is an improved export version of the Type 054 frigate that is in service with the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). The Pakistan Navy ordered four new multi-tole frigates from China. A contract for the third and fourth Type 054A/P multirole frigates was signed in June 2018, while a contract for the first and second Type 054A/P frigate was signed in 2017.

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Type 054A/P guided-missile frigates are multipurpose naval platforms. In January 2018, I described the technical characteristics and armament of the 4,000-ton surface combatants:

The stealth frigate is armed with HQ-16 medium range air defense missiles and boosts a 32-cell vertical launching system (VLS) in the forward section, capable of firing anti-ship and air defense missiles as well as anti-submarine torpedoes.

Weapon systems aboard the ship include HQ-16 medium-range air defense missiles, C-803 anti-ship/land-attack cruise missiles and Yu-7 torpedo launchers, Type 97 240-millimeter anti-submarine rocket launchers and Type 726-4 18-tube decoy rocket launchers.

The ships also feature air defense systems allowing each individual warship to engage aerial targets at a distance of up to 40 kilometers. Additionally, I explained:

It also features a Russian-made AK-630 fully automatic naval close in weapon system and a Chinese variant of the AK-176 76-millimeter naval gun.

(…) In addition, the ship is equipped with a Type 382 phased-array radar system and Type 344 and Type 345 multifunctional fire control radar systems, capable of over the horizon targeting.

Type 054A frigates also feature a hangar capable of accommodation Kamov K-27 and Harbin Z-9 helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). (…)

As I noted previously, each Type 054A/P frigate is powered by four SEMT Pielstick engines and can achieve top speeds of 27 knots.

“The ship has a standard range of about 3,800 nautical miles – 7,037 kilometers – at a speed of 18 knots, and a maximum un-refueled radius is 12,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles,” I explained elsewhere.

Riaz Haq said...

Mystery Submarine In Service With #PakistanNavy SEALs (#Navy SSG) that you won’t find in any reference books. It is similar to the #US Navy's SDVs (SEAL delivery vehicles). Pakistani Navy Chariots can be carried by the larger X-Craft. #Pakistan via @forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/hisutton/2020/04/15/mystery-submarine-in-service-with-pakistani-navy-seals/

Some of the best-kept secrets are hidden in plain sight. Sitting on the quayside at PNS Iqbal, a special naval base in Karachi, Pakistan, is a submarine that you won’t find in any reference books, including my own World Submarines Covert Shores Recognition Guide. To my knowledge this will be the first article detailing this submarine, which appears to be in service with Pakistani Navy SEALs.

The submarine is a small special forces type, measuring around 55 feet long by 7 to 8 feet across. That is a fraction of the size of a regular submarine. Its location and size both point to use by the Pakistani Navy's Special Service Group, known as SSG (N). They are equivalent to the U.S. Navy SEALs and use the 'SEAL' terminology. They have a long tradition of training with the American unit.

This category of submarine is called an X-Craft in Pakistani Navy parlance. The term was inherited from the Italian manufacturer Cos.Mo.S (commonly written Cosmos) who sold Pakistan two sets of midget submarines in the past. The Italian firm itself borrowed the term from the Royal Navy midget submarines of World War II. The American equivalent to the X-Craft is the Dry Combat Submersible (DCS) now entering service with the U.S. Navy SEALs.


It may be intended to replace the Pakistani Navy's existing X-Craft. Pakistan operates three MG-110 X-Craft which were built locally between 1993 and 1996. They are getting long in the tooth and are due for replacement. But the Italian firm which designed them, Cos.Mo.S was closed down twenty years ago. Today its designs are continued by respected Italian manufacturer Drass. They offer a series of modern X-Craft that may be ideal for Pakistan.

But this mystery submarine does not appear to be a Drass design. The smallest publicly revealed Drass design is the DG-85, which is slightly larger than the boat seen in Pakistan.

One clue is that the boat first appeared in 2016. This may tie to a statement in the Pakistani Defence Production Division (MoDP) 2015-16 yearbook. It listed the "Indigenous design and construction of 01 Midget Submarine" as a target for 2016-2017.

Since then there have been reports that Turkish firm STM (Savunma Teknolojileri Mühendislik ve Ticaret A.Ş.) was jointly developing a mini-submarine with Pakistan. This could indicate that the mystery craft was not successful and so a new design is being developed. Another possibility is that the Turkish partnership will focus on smaller 'chariots.' These are similar to the U.S. Navy's SDVs (SEAL delivery vehicles). In the Pakistani Navy the Chariots can be carried by the larger X-Craft.

Analysis of commercial satellite imagery shows that the boat rarely (if ever) goes in the water. The only clear image showing it in the water is from 2016. The operational status is therefore unclear. The tent that covers it is often moved, however, suggesting ongoing maintenance. So the sub cannot be written off, but what it's called and what exactly it does remains a mystery.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Navy's #Submarine Fleet is #US Navy #SEALTeam’s Dream. Midget subs perfect for special ops & capable of firing standard 533 millimeter torpedoes in addition to carrying two Special Service Teams. #SSG https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/pakistan%E2%80%99s-submarine-fleet-navy-seal%E2%80%99s-dream-146472

Though small and non-nuclear, Pakistan’s submarine fleet would excel at coastal defense in Pakistan’s littoral waters—and inserting Special Service Teams, Pakistan’s Navy Seals.



Pakistan operates five French-designed Agosta-class submarines. The first of these hulls were initially built for the South African Navy, but were sold to Pakistan in the late 1970s and early 1980s after a United Nations arms embargo prevented their delivery. The Agosta-class is a relatively small diesel-electric submarine design with a crew complement of just 54 sailors and 5 officers.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, France revisited the Agosta-class design and built the “improved” Agosta-class, also known as Agosta 90B-class, in consultation with the Pakistani Navy. A high level of automation within the sub reduced the crew to just 36, despite the larger size and higher complexity of the design.

Stronger hull materials were used during the hull’s construction which increased the Agosta 90B-class’ maximum dive depth. Higher-capacity batteries were also installed, increasing the range of the sub, and acoustic improvements were also incorporated into the propulsion system, reducing the submarine’s acoustic signature.

Standard diesel-electric submarines use periscope-like snorkels to provide air to onboard diesel generators that recharge their batteries. Newer designs, including the Agosta 90B-class, are equipped with air-independent propulsion systems that can provide power without needing air from the surface.

The Agosta 90B-class’ AIP system provides auxiliary power to the sub that can be used for propulsion, onboard electrical systems, or recharging the sub’s batteries—allowing the Agosta 90B-class to be submerged three times longer than the preceding Agosta-class.

Both classes have four standard 533 millimeter torpedo tubes that provide anti-submarine and anti-surface capabilities. Additionally, both the Agosta- and Agosta 90B-class can fire French-developed Exocet anti-ship missiles via their torpedo tubes.

The Exocet has a range of around 70 kilometers, or about 45 miles, giving both classes a more discrete and stand-off anti-ship capability, as the missile is fired from depth in a watertight container that brings the missile to the surface.

In addition, Pakistan has several interesting submarines that are on the smaller side.

Pakistan also operates a small fleet of Italian-designed midget submarines, the Cosmos-class. The Cosmos are also diesel-electric and serve primarily as delivery vehicles for Pakistan’s Special Service Group, their Navy SEAL-equivalent.

Though not primarily intended for attacking surface vessels, the Cosmos-class is capable of firing standard 533 millimeter torpedoes in addition to carrying two Special Service Teams.

Pakistan’s newest submarine is also quite small, and likely intended for the Special Service Group in much the same role as the Cosmos-class..

The submarine, provisionally called the X-class, is about 55 feet long and 7 or 8 feet wide. Though it reportedly does not often leave its dock, satellite imagery shows that repair, maintenance, and construction is ongoing.

There had also been reports that Turkey was partnering with Pakistan to co-develop a midget submarine to replace the Cosmos-class, though if anything came to fruition from that project is unclear.

Though Pakistan’s navy is not particularly large, it may not matter. Pakistan doesn’t have a terribly large coast to defend. If their latest “X-class” sub ever comes to fruition, the Special Service Teams would likely be pleased.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan successfully test-fires anti-ship missiles. #PakistanNavy said in the statement that warships and airplanes fired anti-ship missiles at sea level which hit their targets accurately. #defense http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-04/25/c_139007483.htm

Pakistan successfully conducted a test firing of anti-ship missiles in the North Arabian Sea, said a statement from the Pakistan Navy on Saturday.

The spokesperson of the Pakistan Navy said in the statement that warships and airplanes fired anti-ship missiles at sea level which hit their targets accurately.

Pakistani Chief of the Naval Staff Zafar Mahmood Abbasi witnessed firing of the missiles and expressed satisfaction over operational preparedness of the Pakistan Navy, the spokesperson added.

The Naval chief said the Pakistan Navy is fully capable to give a befitting response to any aggression, adding that the successful test-fire of missiles is proof of the Pakistan Navy's operational preparedness, according to the statement.

In December last year, the Pakistan Navy also test-fired different anti-ship missiles in the North Arabian Sea, which were fired by warships and airplanes at sea level.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s New Midget #Submarine: Emerging Challenge to #India in the Arabian Sea. What will Pakistan’s new indigenous midget submarine bring to its #naval capabilities? #PakistanNavy #SSG #NavySeals
@Diplomat_APAC https://thediplomat.com/2020/04/pakistans-new-midget-submarine-emerging-challenge-to-india-in-the-arabian-sea/

a recent satellite image (Figure 1) confirms that Pakistan might have indigenously developed a new midget submarine as it proposed in the MoDP 2015–2016.

From 2016 on, one can see the submarine partially covered in a tent in. Since 2019, the submarine can be seen in open view, suggesting that the construction is near completion and that sea trials may have commenced.

The new midget submarine, which is compact in size, is leading to speculation regarding its possible role in the Arabian Sea and in combat.

The midget submarine as seen from the satellite images has a length of around 55 feet (16.7 m) and a beam measurement of around 8 feet (2.43 m). The vessel’s displacement is currently unknown.

The prominent vertical rudder, propeller, and the round-shaped nose are visible from the shadow of the midget submarine. The snorkel is not visible in the image. But it is clear from the image that the submarine appears to be larger than the Swimmer Delivery Vehicle (SDV) and slightly smaller than the MG110 midget submarines.

The compact size of the submarine with simple hull constructions suggests that it is easy to operate and maintain. The vessel can likely be transported over land due to its size. The defense expert H. I. Sutton writes in Forbes that the submarine design is new and doesn’t appear to be an imported one.

Given the present level of cooperation between Pakistan and Turkey, one cannot rule out the possibility of a Turkish firm’s involvement in the development of new midget submarines. In an interview in 2019, Murat İkinci, the general manager of STM, confirmed that the “Pakistan Navy and STM are currently discussing new projects, including serious and dedicated works for midget submarines.” However, there are no official sources to confirm that the new midget submarine has been codeveloped with Turkey.

A Role for the Midget Submarine

The Pakistan has been using new midget submarines for many years now. The development of a new midget submarine not only showcases its indigenous capability, but also shows that Pakistan is prepping its underwater warfare capability.

As Pakistan continues to lay emphasis on a sea denial strategy there is a possibility that it may use the midget submarine in an offensive role during any conflict with India in the coming months and years.

The seaward defense of Karachi has been one of the major challenges for the Pakistan Navy since the 1971 war with India. The midget submarine would fill a gap in protecting Karachi Port from sea-based attack. Most importantly, it would replace the current MG110s in service with the SSG (Navy) for operations such as frogmen operations, laying mines, and so on.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s Next-Generation #Warship MILGEM: High-tech & integrated systems. From situational awareness to electronic warfare (EW) to munitions, MILGEM as well as Type 054A/P will both set the standard for the PN’s surface warships. #tech https://quwa.org/2020/05/03/the-jinnah-class-frigate-pakistans-next-generation-warship-2/ via @QuwaGroup

Most of the PN MILGEM’s subsystems will come from Turkey. In fact, Aselsan secured a $191 million US contract in November 2019 to supply subsystems for the PN MILGEM program.

For the PN, the reason for this selection is likely a mix of factors, the foremost being Turkey’s willingness to extend a loan for the program. That loan likely covers Turkish origin products and services, so financing is easier for the PN. Turkey also already integrated those systems, so integration costs are lower as well.

However, these systems are also designed for a NATO end-user (Turkey), so there could be a measure of quality or performance involved as well. In a way, Turkey has become Pakistan’s intermediary for Western and NATO-grade technologies it is unable to acquire (at least affordably) from Europe.

Finally, Turkey showed a willingness to open or modify its subsystems so that the PN can integrate its own weapons, data links, and other systems to those solutions.

Aselsan SMART-S Mk2

The PN MILGEM’s main search and targeting radar will be the SMART-S Mk2. The design belongs to Thales Group (Thales Nederland), but Aselsan manufactures the radar under license.[5] However, in the years since it took on the program, the company succeeded in sourcing many critical radar components domestically. In fact, Thales is sourcing the transmitter/receiver modules (TRM) of these radars from Aselsan.[6]

The Aselsan SMART-S Mk2 is an active phased array radar offering an instrumented range of 250 km. The radar can detect and track up to 500 airborne and surface targets. Based on Thales Nederland’s catalogue, the radar can track missiles at 50 km, and maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) at 200 km.[7]

The radar is marketed with dedicated electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capability, suggesting a measure of defensibility against radar jamming/spoofing.

Aselsan ARES-2NC

The Aselsan ARES-2NC is a variant of the electronic support measures (ESM) suite the PN selected for use from the Agosta 90B submarine (ARES-2N). The ESM suite will allow the MILGEMs to passively monitor as well as categorize and record enemy radar and communication signals. In turn, the MILGEMs will add the signals to a threat library in which electronic attack (EA) assets can use to spoof/jam enemy emitters.[8]

However, the ARES-2NC offers an additional capability: the ability to engage in EA through a directional radar-frequency (RF) jamming system. The ARES-2NC uses digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) for its EA role, covering a frequency range of 7.5-18 GHz. It is also equipped with a radar warning receiver (RWR), so it will alert the crew of enemy radar targeting against the ship…

Riaz Haq said...

Sales to the United States of America continued. Encrypted APCO
radios were also delivered to the Pakistan Armed Forces. The
deliveries under the Technology Transfer Contract signed with the
Pakistan National Radio Telecommunications (NRTC) Company
continued gaining pace. ASELSAN’s communication solutions in
Saudi Arabia has expanded together with other export efforts of
ASELSAN APCO radio solutions.
--------------

The RWR/GPS antenna and SDU procurement contract was
signed with the Hensoldt Company, which won the tender for
the periscope modernization of the AGOSTA90E submarines in
Pakistan Navy’s inventory. The units to be produced for the two
platforms under the contract will be exported to Germany for
the end user, Pakistan
---------------

Naval Communication Systems
Work continued on the design, material
supply, manufacturing and testing activities
for the Integrated Communication Systems
of Underwater Rescue Mother Ship
(MOSHIP), Rescue and Towing Ships
(RATSHIP), Landing Ship Tank (LST),
MİLGEM 3-4, Landing Helicopter Dock
(LHD), Logistic Support Vessel (LSV),
Pakistan Offshore Supply Vessel (POSV),
Testing and Training Ship (TTS) and New
Type Submarine (NTS).

---------
Mass manufacturing activities in the production line, prepared
within the scope of local manufacturing activities through
license transfer, and for which capacity acceptance work was
completed, is continuing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Local manufacturing activities related to the software based
VHF/UHF radio contract in Pakistan are ongoing. Deliveries
were realized pertaining to the supply contracts for the Digital
Intercommunication Systems to be used in the VHF/UHF radio
and tactical vehicles for the Ukrainian Armed Forces. The third
contract was signed for the supply of the products within the
same scope.

--------------
ASELSAN provides the weapon (Stabilized Gun System - STOP)
and communication switching system within the scope of the
Offshore Supply Vessel Project aimed at the needs of the Pakistan
Naval Forces. Installation, commissioning and harbor acceptance
test activities were completed.

https://www.aselsan.com.tr/2017_ASELSAN_Annual_Report_6233.pdf

-----------------


National Radio Telecommunication Corporation the high tech industry engaged in manufacturing of telecommunication equipment in Pakistan. NRTC is the pioneer in Telecommunication Equipment in Pakistan and leader in the field of communication for the last three decades. NRTC is producing high quality ruggedized products to be used in harsh environment such as defense services, Para / Auxiliary security services. Commercial products and versions for use by civil Telecommunications operators and civil organizations / establishments since 1966.

https://www.nrtc.com.pk/

Riaz Haq said...

Given Islamabad’s intimate relationship with China and the economic problems currently gripping the country, acquiring the JH-7 heavy strike fighter can both provide its navy with much needed aerial strike capability as well as free up PAF’s core assets to engage with the IAF for supremacy over the battlefields of Kashmir and Punjab.

https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/is-the-chinese-jh-7-an-answer-to-the-pakistan-air-forces-deep-strike-needs/

The JH-7, while utilizing an old air frame, is a highly effective aircraft for deep strike operations. The jet first flew in 1988 and small numbers were delivered to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force during the 1990s. An improved version of the JH-7 fighter-bomber, also known by the NATO designation Flounder, began to be inducted in large numbers after 2004, after the Chinese aviation industry was able to indigenously manufacture a derivative of the Rolls Royce Spey engine. The Spey engine was designed specifically by the British for development of a low flying naval strike aircraft to counter the Soviet Navy in the Cold War.

Faced with cuts in defense expenditure and decreasing global influence after World War II, Britain could no longer afford to operate a sizable navy to deter the Soviet threat. Instead, the British opted for developing naval strike aircraft, such as the Blackburn Buccaneer, to extract a heavy toll on large Soviet Navy cruisers in a future conflict. The Spey engines were later utilized on the Royal Air Force’s fleet of F-4 Phantoms, giving the aircraft greater range and a shorter takeoff distance.

In addition to their low maintenance and impressive safety record, the Spey engine’s utility lies in the fact that it is designed specifically for sustained low altitude flight below the radar horizon of enemy naval vessels. Despite significant advances in jet engine development since the Cold War, the majority of engines today are designed for mid-to-high altitude flight. Flying at low altitude to avoid radar detection for longer periods thus decreases much of the engines’ range.

The JH-7 also complements the Pakistan Navy’s combat doctrine, which is based on the anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) blueprint. The PN’s three Khalid-class submarines form the linchpin of their A2/AD strategy, with the wartime objective of preventing an attempted blockade of the vital Karachi port by the Indian Navy. Acquisition of the JH -7 by Pakistan would provide Islamabad with lethal capability to considerably limit the maneuvering capacity of the Indian Navy in the proximity of Karachi port.

Also, the JH-7, with its longer combat range, heavy payload capacity, and ability to fly under enemy radar cover provides Islamabad with an offensive capacity targeted at India’s protracted western coastline. Hence, acquisition of the JH-7 by Pakistan serves both defensive and offensive purposes. The improved JH-7A variant currently in service with the PLA Air Force is capable to carry over seven tonnes of armament, including four KD-88/YJ-83 anti-ship missiles.

The capability to carry long range anti-ship missiles, which can be launched more than 100 miles away from their targets, means that the JH-7 is able to utilize an asymmetric “hit and run” strategy before enemy air defenses can effectively engage with it. This doctrine was perhaps most aptly demonstrated by the Argentine Air Force during the 1982 Falklands War, as French Super Etendard strike aircraft armed with Exocet missiles sank two British warships.

One alternative to the JH-7 for Pakistan is its existing arsenal of cruise missiles, but this option has its own pitfalls. First, cruise missiles follow a predictable trajectory and are vulnerable to interception by India’s air defense network and fighter aircraft such as the Sukhoi 30 MKI. Second, the use of cruise missiles, even in an all-out conflict, presents a significant leap in terms of escalation. As such, a cruise missile attack by either New Delhi or Islamabad can lead to an eventual nuclear exchange.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Navy chief talks regional security and tech wish list. Over 90% of its #trade is seaborne; it's a trade conduit to #China and #CentralAsia via #CPEC. Key threats to Pakistan’s security is from India’s #Hindu Nationalist mindset of #Modi. #CAREC https://www.defensenews.com/interviews/2020/06/03/pakistans-naval-chief-talks-regional-security-and-tech-wish-list/#.Xtev-d9TdMc.twitter

The Pakistan Navy, being a firm believer in the freedom of seas, has been contributing significantly in preserving maritime security in the Indian Ocean region. In this regard, the Pakistan Navy was the first regional navy to join Combined Task Force 150 in 2004. Similarly, to counter the increasing acts of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and Horn of Africa, we joined Combined Task Force 151 in 2009. So far, the Pakistan Navy has been the largest contributor to CMF operations, second only to the United States Navy. Pakistan Navy officers have also had the privilege of commanding both these task forces on numerous occasions.

While we continue to be part of CMF, the Pakistan Navy is also a proponent of a region-centric maritime security construct. Alive to the changing geostrategic realities in the region, the Pakistan Navy in 2018 instituted the RMSP to protect our national maritime security interests and fulfill international obligations in the Indian Ocean region. Pakistan Navy ships, with embarked helicopters, are undertaking these patrols along three axes: the Horn of Africa, the North Arabian Sea and the central Indian Ocean. The objectives of the RMSP include contribution toward maintaining good order at sea in our own area of interest and engagement with the regional navies to enhance mutual collaboration and interoperability.

--------------

Progressive “capability development” is an important pillar of my vision for the Pakistan Navy. As warships are the mainstay of any navy, induction of surface platforms is essential to boost the Pakistan Navy’s operational deployability. In this regard, we have contracted for the construction of Type 054AP frigates from China and Milgem-class corvettes from Turkey along with transfer of technology. We are also inducting Dutch-designed offshore patrol vessels constructed in a Romanian shipyard.

In addition, we have contracted for the acquisition of Hangor-class submarines from China, and in the second phase their construction is planned in-country, for which necessary upgrades of Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited is in progress.

We are also focusing on the induction of modern aviation assets, including jet-powered, long-range maritime patrol aircraft, helicopters and UAVs. In addition, we are modernizing our existing fleet of warships and aircraft with upgrades to their weapons and electronic suites.


These inductions have led to expansion in our human resource capital. However, keeping a high “teeth-to-tail” ratio remains a priority. As our Navy expands in line with the recent restructuring, the induction rates have almost doubled. With regard to the budgetary allocations, our Navy, like many other navies, operates in a resource-constrained environment. However, with a clear and long-term plan for its modernization and capacity building, emerging challenges are being addressed through indigenization and cost-effective solutions.

The Pakistan Navy always looks forward to adopting new technologies, especially those which serve as force multipliers. Unmanned surface vehicles have a variety of utilities, such as for harbor defense, mine detection and countermeasure roles. We are presently evaluating this technology and will acquire it as per their suitability and feasibility to our requirements.

Riaz Haq said...

Why #Pakistan Risked Everything To Build #Nuclear Weapons? It became a high priority after #India defeated Pakistan in 1971 to create #Bangladesh. Pakistan now has a nuclear “triad” of delivery systems based on land, in the air and at sea. https://news.yahoo.com/why-pakistan-risked-everything-build-140000382.html?soc_src=hl-viewer&soc_trk=tw via @YahooNews


The sea component of Pakistan’s nuclear force consists of the Babur class of cruise missiles. The latest version, Babur-2, looks like most modern cruise missiles, with a bullet-like shape, a cluster of four tiny tail wings and two stubby main wings, all powered by a turbofan or turbojet engine. The cruise missile has a range of 434 miles. Instead of GPS guidance, which could be disabled regionally by the U.S. government, Babur-2 uses older Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC) navigation technology. Babur-2 is deployed on both land and at sea on ships, where they would be more difficult to neutralize. A submarine-launched version, Babur-3, was tested in January and would be the most survivable of all Pakistani nuclear delivery systems.

-------
Pakistan’s nuclear program goes back to the 1950s, during the early days of its rivalry with India. President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto famously said in 1965, “If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass or leaves, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own.”

The program became a higher priority after the country’s 1971 defeat at the hands of India, which caused East Pakistan to break away and become Bangladesh. Experts believe the humiliating loss of territory, much more than reports that India was pursuing nuclear weapons, accelerated the Pakistani nuclear program. India tested its first bomb, codenamed “Smiling Buddha,” in May 1974, putting the subcontinent on the road to nuclearization.

Pakistan began the process of accumulating the necessary fuel for nuclear weapons, enriched uranium and plutonium. The country was particularly helped by one A. Q. Khan, a metallurgist working in the West who returned to his home country in 1975 with centrifuge designs and business contacts necessary to begin the enrichment process. Pakistan’s program was assisted by European countries and a clandestine equipment-acquisition program designed to do an end run on nonproliferation efforts. Outside countries eventually dropped out as the true purpose of the program became clear, but the clandestine effort continued.

Exactly when Pakistan had completed its first nuclear device is murky. Former president Benazir Bhutto, Zulfikar Bhutto’s daughter, claimed that her father told her the first device was ready by 1977. A member of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission said design of the bomb was completed in 1978 and the bomb was “cold tested”—stopping short of an actual explosion—in 1983.

Benazir Bhutto later claimed that Pakistan’s bombs were stored disassembled until 1998, when India tested six bombs in a span of three days. Nearly three weeks later, Pakistan conducted a similar rapid-fire testing schedule, setting off five bombs in a single day and a sixth bomb three days later. The first device, estimated at twenty-five to thirty kilotons, may have been a boosted uranium device. The second was estimated at twelve kilotons, and the next three as sub-kiloton devices.

The sixth and final device appears to have also been a twelve-kiloton bomb that was detonated at a different testing range; a U.S. Air Force “Constant Phoenix” nuclear-detection aircraft reportedly detected plutonium afterward. Since Pakistan had been working on a uranium bomb and North Korea—which shared or purchased research with Pakistan through the A. Q. Khan network—had been working on a uranium bomb, some outside observers concluded the sixth test was actually a North Korean test, detonated elsewhere to conceal North Korea’s involvement although. There is no consensus on this conclusion.

Riaz Haq said...

The steel-cutting or the groundbreaking ceremony for the second Turkish MILGEM Ada class corvette for the Pakistan navy was held in Karachi on Tuesday.

The ceremony at the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) – Pakistan navy's specialized shipbuilding division – was attended by Pakistan navy officials, representatives of Turkey's state-run defense firm ASFAT, and KSEW Managing Director Rear Admiral Ather Saleem.

In July 2018, the Pakistan navy signed a contract with ASFAT for four MILGEM-class ships. According to the deal, two corvettes will be built in Turkey and two will be built in Pakistan. The deal also involves technology transfer.

The keel-laying or the formal recognition of the start of the construction ceremony of the first MILGEM Ada class corvette was held in Istanbul last week.

MILGEM vessels are 99 meters long with a displacement of 24,00 tons and can move at a speed of 29 nautical miles.

MILGEM anti-submarine combat frigates, which have advance radar-evading technologies, will further enhance the defense capability of the Pakistan navy.

"The MILGEM Class Corvettes will be state-of-the-art surface platform equipped with the modern surface, subsurface and anti-air weapons, sensors and combat management system. These ships will be among the most technologically advanced platforms of the Pakistan Navy and will significantly contribute to maintaining peace, stability, and balance of power in the Indian Ocean region," the navy said in a statement.


https://www.dailysabah.com/business/defense/turkey-begins-construction-of-2nd-milgem-ada-class-corvette-for-pakistan
------------

16x VLS, AESA Radar, Integrated Mast, Genesis Combat Management System. Its almost a Frigate.


https://twitter.com/schaheid/status/1270484652206284800?s=21


A vertical launching system (VLS) is an advanced system for holding and firing missiles on mobile naval platforms, such as surface ships and submarines. Each vertical launch system consists of a number of cells, which can hold one or more missiles ready for firing.

Riaz Haq said...

HIGH-SPEED, SMALL NAVAL VESSEL
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (US Navy)

https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a428141.pdf


The High-Speed, Small Naval Vessels Innovation Cell project was chartered by ONR to define
the near-term (available in 5 years) technology investments required to enable development of
500 to 3,000 mt, high-speed Naval ships needed for realistic mission requirements. Specific
technology investment selections should be based on detailed design studies, which were beyond
the scope of this project. Instead, the objective was to assess whole-ship implications of
technology in a generic fashion. The required mix of technologies depends on three mission
requirements: speed, range and payload. The design space can be thought of as a threedimensional box, as shown in Figure 1-1. Assumed design “burst” speeds varied from 40 to 60
knots. Required transit range at economical speed of 18 to 20 knots was 3,000 to 5,000 n.mi.
Specific payload items are difficult to model, so payload densities were used instead.

Three generic mission categories were developed. Since future payload items were not known,
representative payload weights and volumes for each of the missions were developed for the
appropriate range of ship sizes.

• Combatant – Payload packages of sensors, weapons, and guns totaling 53 mt for a ship
of about 500 mt and 299 mt for a ship of about 3000 mt.
•Air Operations – Payload of unmanned air vehicles and helicopters totaling 85 mt for a
ship of about 500 mt and 128 mt for a ship of about 3000 mt.
• Cargo ship – Payload of material, equipment, and troops totaling 254 mt for a ship of
approximately 1500 mt and 606 mt for a ship of about 3000 mt.

Riaz Haq said...

#India Would Love to Return this Aircraft Carrier It Bought from #Russia. The ship's boilers are a big concern. Keeping INS Vikramaditya supplied with spare parts is a major task. The ship also lacks active air defenses. #IndianNavy #Junk https://news.yahoo.com/india-love-return-aircraft-carrier-193000947.html?soc_src=hl-viewer&soc_trk=tw via @YahooNews

By 2009, the project was deadlocked and word was starting to get around the defense industry. Russian arms exports for 2009 totaled $8 billion, and Sevmash’s delays and extortionary tactics weren’t good for the Russian defense industry as a whole.

In July 2009, Russia’s then-president Dmitri Medvedev made a high-profile visit to the Sevmash shipyard. Indian news reported that the carrier was still half-done, meaning that the yard had done virtually no work on the ship for two years as it held out for more money.

Medvedev publicly scolded Sevmash officials. “You need to complete [Vikramaditya] and hand it over our partners,” the visibly irritated president told Sevmash general director Nikolai Kalistratov.

In 2010, the Indian government agreed to more than double the budget for the carrier to $2.2 billion. This was less than the $2.9 billion Sevmash demanded, and much less than Sevmash’s suggested “market price” of $4 billion.

Suddenly, Sevmash magically started working harder—actually, twice as hard—and finished the other half of the upgrades in only three years. Vikramaditya finally entered sea trials in August 2012 and commissioned into the Indian navy in November 2013.

At the commissioning ceremony, Indian Defense Minister AK Anthony expressed relief that the ordeal was over, telling the press that there was a time “when we thought we would never get her.”

Enduring woes

Now that Vikramaditya is finally in service, India’s problems are over, right? Not by a long shot. Incredibly, India has chosen Sevmash to do out-of-warranty work on the ship for the next 20 years.

Keeping Vikramaditya supplied with spare parts will be a major task in itself. Ten Indian contractors helped to build the carrier, but so did more than 200 other contractors in Russia, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Finland, France, Norway, Poland, Sweden and the U.K. Some countries, particularly Japan, were likely unaware they were exporting parts for a foreign weapons system.

The ship’s boilers, which provide Vikramaditya with power and propulsion, are a long-term concern. All eight boilers are new. But yard workers discovered defects in them. During her trip from Russia to India, the flattop suffered a boiler breakdown, which Sevmash chalked up to poor-quality Chinese firebricks.

China denied ever exporting the firebricks.

Finally, Vikramaditya lacks active air defenses. The ship has chaff and flare systems to lure away anti-ship missiles, but she doesn’t have any close-in weapons systems like the American Phalanx.

India could install local versions of the Russian AK-630 gun system, but missiles will have to wait until the ship is in drydock again—and that could be up to three years from now. In the meantime, Vikramaditya will have to rely on the new Indian air-defense destroyer INS Kolkata for protection from aircraft and missiles.

As for Sevmash? After the Vikramaditya fiasco, the yard is strangely upbeat about building more carriers … and has identified Brazil as a possible buyer. “Sevmash wants to build aircraft carriers,” said Sergey Novoselov, the yard’s deputy general director.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Navy Silent On Mystery #Submarine As New Details Emerge. It acts as transport for SSG-N (Special Service) commandos, perform #Intelligence, #Surveillance and #Reconnaissance. 2 torpedoes are for self-defense and targets of opportunity.via @forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/hisutton/2020/07/16/pakistan-navy-keeps-silent-on-mystery-submarine-but-new-details-emerge/

The Pakistani Navy has not yet officially acknowledged the submarine sitting on the quay outside its special forces headquarters. The submarine was first revealed on Forbes in April. Since then further satellite images have emerged. These provide additional clues about the unidentified boat.

But more significantly, there may have been a social media leak from an official Twitter account.

On July 3, Rear Admiral M Arshid Javed, Director General Public Relations for the Pakistan Navy, shared a video of a passing out parade. In the video new operatives of the Special Services Group Navy (SSG-N) special forces unit are parading and receiving awards. They are marching in the parade square at PNS Iqbal, the SSG-N’s headquarters and training base. For the first three seconds of the video part of the mystery submarine is visible in the background.

It is covered in tarpaulins but to trained eyes the shape is unmistakable. And it exactly matches the satellite image at the head of this article, which was also taken on July 3. The tarpaulin covering the front of the submarine is a light beige color, and the one over the back is a faded red.

The contours of the tarps may reveal some new details about the submarine. For example we can see the shape created by the forward hydroplanes. Technical details like this will be useful to defense analysts trying to better understand her form and capabilities. But the eye catches another feature hidden beneath the tarps. Running along the top of the hull is a casing which appears to be shaped to cover cylindrical tubes. Logically, this will be for torpedo tubes. These features were not confidently identified at the time of my previous article.

Having two torpedo tubes under the forward casing would match the previous generation of Pakistan Navy submarines used by the SSG-N. Three Cosmos class “X-Craft”, more properly called the Cos.Mo.S MG-110, are in service. These have twin torpedo tubes in almost exactly the same place as the new boat.

In fact the dark sails of two of the Cosmos class “X-Craft” are visible inside a long shed behind the parade. These were built locally in the 1990s to an Italian design. The new boat appears to have been influenced by the Cosmos class but is shorter, around 55 feet long.

The new design likely has the same role as the Cosmos class, which is to act as a transport for SSG-N commandos. It could also perform ISR missions, meaning Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. In both these roles the torpedoes wold be for self-defense and targets of opportunity.

The location of the new submarine keeps it away from prying eyes, and so far no photographs have emerged. It is near to where the Pakistani Navy’s regular submarines are moored, and where their newest warship, PNS Yarmook, was inducted on July 13. That too was caught on satellite imagery.

No doubt more details of this new submarine will emerge over time. But currently the Pakistani Navy is keeping the covers on it.

Riaz Haq said...

Satellite Image Shows #Pakistani Submarine With #Chinese Navy. Pak sub is equipped with AIP, modern combat systems & AS-39 Exocet anti-ship #missiles. It's also launch platform for #Pakistan’s indigenous Babur-3 #nuclear-capable cruise missile. via @forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/hisutton/2020/08/12/satellite-image-shows-pakistani-submarine-with-chinese-navy/

The Pakistan Navy recently parked one of its submarines in the middle of Chinese Navy warships visiting Karachi. The strong defense ties between Pakistan and China are well reported. Currently the Pakistani Navy is massively growing its submarine branch with eight Chinese-designed Type-039B Yuan Class boats. Parking the sub there shows that the two navies are sharing knowledge as well as hardware.

The presence of the submarine is evident in commercial satellite imagery. It is hard to spot by the untrained eye so it has taken time to confirm it. And we can now be sure that it was a Pakistani sub and not Chinese. I can positively identify the submarine as an Agosta-90B type submarine, which is only operated by the Pakistan Navy. They are known locally as the Hashmat-class.

The Chinese Navy warships were visiting Karachi for a joint exercise, ‘Sea Guardian-2020’ in January. When I wrote about the exercise in April, showing the Chinese Warships in Karachi, the submarine was just visible in the imagery. But it had not been identified.


Local media reported the exercise but did not mention the submarine. The Nation.pk reported at the time about the types of Pakistan Navy warships and equipment involved in the exercise. Frigates, missile boats, anti-submarine patrol aircraft, helicopters and special forces were mentioned. The submarine was not. Other media, such as the South China Morning Post did that mention submarines would be involve. But they did not provide any specific information.

This was not in the Pakistani Navy’s usual berths, but in a cordoned-off part of the commercial docks. The placement of the Pakistani Navy submarine cannot be viewed as coincidental.

Pakistan operates five of the French-designed Agosta Class submarines. Three of are the improved version with Air independent Power (AIP), which was parked among the Chinese vessels.

What is significant about this class of submarine is that it is the most potent and modern in the Pakistan Navy arsenal. It has French-designed AIP, relatively modern combat systems and AS-39 Exocet anti-ship missiles. It is also reported to be the launch platform for Pakistan’s indigenous Babur-3 nuclear-capable cruise missile.

Parking the submarine in the center of the visiting warships suggests that the Chinese were invited aboard. Typically the host nation would have given the visitors a tour and explained relevant features. In essence, Pakistan is sharing the inner workings of one of its most potent weapons platforms.

The Agostas will be complemented by eight Chinese-designed Type-039B Yuan Class submarines. The first batch of Yuan boats will be delivered to Pakistan in the next few years, and some may be built locally. They may incorporate some Pakistan specific equipment and capabilities, such as the Babur-3 missile.

In the past, the Chinese Navy, formally known as the PLAN, have deployed their submarines to the Indian Ocean. A Chinese Type-091 Han Class nuclear-powered submarine visited Karachi in 2016. It was parked along the same quay where the Pakistani boat is in these images.

Riaz Haq said...

#China-built 1st 4,000 tons 054 A/P Frigate For #Pakistan #Navy Launched. It carries 165 sailors & fitted with
a PJ26 76mm main gun
8 C803 anti-ship missiles
32x VLS cells for HQ-16 surface to air missiles
2x Type 730 30mm CIWS
2x Triple Torpedo launchers https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2020/08/chinese-shipyard-launches-1st-type-054-a-p-frigate-for-pakistan-navy/


Pakistan signed a first contract for the delivery two Type 054 A/P frigates in 2017. An additional contract for two more ships was announced in June 2018. The keel laying for the second vessel took place in March this year. Steel cutting for the final two ships took place in November last year. All four units are set to be built in China and delivered to the customer by 2021.

The Type 054A is a multi-role frigate and is recognized as the backbone of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) fleet of surface combatants with 30 vessels in commission. They have a length of 134 meters, a beam of 16 meters for a displacement of 4,000 tons

According to the Pakistan Navy, the Type-054 A/P ships are state of the art frigates equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti air weapons and sensors. Once constructed, these ships will be the most technologically advanced platforms of Pakistan Navy which will strengthen its capability to meet future challenges and maintain peace, stability & power equilibrium in the Indian Ocean Region.

The Pakistan Navy is currently undertaking an important renewal of its fleet, with the procurement of several modern platforms: In addition to these frigates from China, Pakistan will also commission new corvettes from Turkey and OPV from the Netherlands. It is also modernizing its submarine force.

For the record, the same shipyard located near Shanghai recently built two Type 075 LHDs for the Chinese Navy (PLAN) and a third one is rumored to be on the way. Hudong-Zhonghua is also currently building a Type 071E LPD for Thailand.

Riaz Haq said...

#China Launches Advanced Warship for #Pakistan #Navy. The Navy said in a statement that 4000-ton Type-054A/P frigates are state of the art warships equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti-air weapons and sensors. https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/china-launches-advanced-warship-pakistan-navy


The Pakistan Navy said Sunday that Chinese state-owned Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai held the launching ceremony for the Type-054A/P frigate, with top officials from the service in attendance.

The Navy said in a statement the vessels are state of the art frigates equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti-air weapons and sensors. “These ships will significantly contribute in maintaining peace and security in our area of responsibility,” it added.

The statement did not mention the cost of military vessels, but reported estimates are more than $350 million each.

Once constructed, the ships will be one of the largest and technologically advanced surface platforms of the Pakistan Navy fleet, boosting its capability to respond to future challenges, the service said.

The Chinese builder is expected to deliver all four units to Pakistan by 2021, which Chinese media said could “double the combat power” of the Pakistan Navy fleet.

Pakistani officials said the Type-054A/P frigate is in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) and recognized as its backbone.

China and Pakistan are jointly producing various military-related hardware, including the JF-17 multirole combat aircraft, demonstrating the strong mutual defense ties.

Economic ties

The two allies in recent years have also cemented economic cooperation under Beijing’s global infrastructure Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

The BRI-related China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) has brought nearly $30 billion in Chinese investment over the past six years, building Pakistani roads, ports and power plants.

Critics, however, see the investments as a burden on heavily indebted Pakistan.

U.S. officials have termed CPEC loans as a “debt trap” for Islamabad, though Pakistan and China dismiss the criticism, saying it has stemmed from “a lack of information and misunderstandings” about the collaboration.

Chinese President Xi Jinping is due to visit Islamabad later this year that Pakistani officials say will boost the BRI-linked economic cooperation. Xi was expected to visit Pakistan in May but the trip was canceled because of the coronavirus pandemic.

Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi last week hosted his Pakistani counterpart, Shah Mehmood Qureshi, for a bilateral “strategic dialogue,” where the two sides agreed to push ahead with new mega projects under CPEC. They include a $6.8 billion railway program to improve Pakistan’s main railway line, known as Main Line 1 (ML1), which runs for nearly 1,900 kilometers.

“Both China and Pakistan reaffirmed the vitality of the time-tested and all-weather strategic cooperative partnership between the two countries,” a post-meeting joint statement said.

Riaz Haq said...

Game-Changing Chinese Missile To Pakistan Could Dent Navy's BrahMos Advantage


https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/game-changing-chinese-missile-to-pakistan-could-dent-navys-brahmos-advantage-1975148

An export variant of the YJ-12 missile, the CM-302, is likely to be the primary weapon on board four new Chinese frigates being built for the Pakistan Navy at the Hudong-Zhonghua shipyard in Shanghai.
The CM-302 matches both the supersonic speed and the range of the Indian Navy's BrahMos anti-ship cruise missiles, which have been deployed on several front-line frigates and destroyers of the Navy.

Senior defence officials monitoring the sale of new generation Chinese Type 054 frigates to Pakistan have told NDTV that the ships are likely to come armed with the CM-302, which they identify as a "new threat which represents a new capability."

But these officers also tell NDTV that "there is a long way to go for these missiles to become a credible threat for the Indian Navy" since the Pakistan Navy still lacks long-range sensors which need to target Indian platforms before a CM-302 can actually be fired.

"Possessing accurate targeting data, surveillance capability, and having the ability to penetrate a dense [Indian Navy] electronic counter-measures environment are a part of a complex matrix" that the Pakistan Navy's new frigates would need to overcome before they can attempt a missile launch.

Riaz Haq said...

(Pakistan Navy's) Type-054A and (Indian Navy's) Talwar class displace approximately 4,000 tonnes and have a length of around 130 metres. The Type-054A uses a surface-to-air missile system called the HQ-16, which experts claim is derived from the Russian Shtil missile, on service on the Talwar class frigates. Interestingly, Russia had sold the Shtil missile to China in the late 1990s. The Shtil has a maximum range of about 50km.


https://www.theweek.in/news/world/2019/01/04/advanced-warships-china-pakistan.html


However, the Type-054A has an advantage over the existing Talwar class ships as the former use a vertical launch system (VLS), which is buried in the ship's deck, to store and fire its HQ-16. The Indian Navy's Talwar class frigates use an older 'single-arm' launcher than can fire only one missile at a time, while the VLS allows the launch of multiple missiles simultaneously.

The HQ-16, which relies on 'passive' radar homing to detect targets, is considered inferior to the new Indo-Israeli Barak-8 missile entering service on new Indian Navy frigates and destroyers. Furthermore, India is also buying four upgraded Talwar class frigates from Russia that is expected to have VLS for surface-to-air missiles. The Talwar class ships, which use the supersonic Klub and Brahmos missiles, are regarded to have better anti-ship capabilities than the PLAN Type-054A class, which still use subsonic weapons. It is yet unclear what anti-ship missiles Pakistan will use.

The China Daily report quoted Cao Weidong, an expert, as saying the Pakistan Navy was expected to order Chinese-origin sensors and weapons for its new frigates unlike in the past, when Islamabad would mount Western-origin systems on ships purchased from China.

The Type-054A class ships have been considered by experts to be the 'workhorses' of the rapidly modernising PLAN. Their anti-air and anti-ship capabilities are more limited than the systems present on China's new destroyer classes. The relatively small size of the Type-054AP frigates means there is little scope to mount heavier radars and longer-range anti-aircraft or anti-ship weapons.

In addition, the Pakistan Navy continues its reliance on submarines as the main means to deter India; Islamabad signed a deal to buy eight submarines from China in 2015. These submarines are expected to remain the main threat to Indian ships and could also serve as more survivable platforms to launch land-attack cruise missiles.

In conclusion, while the new Type-054AP frigates will be the most capable ships in the Pakistan Navy, they are not expected to significantly alter the balance of power in the region, given Pakistan's limitations in airborne anti-submarine capabilities. It can be argued that the bigger threat posed by the Type-054AP frigates is the fact that the new ships will draw Pakistan closer to China at a time when there is growing worry about a military dimension to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s #Chinese made 3D long-range anti-stealth radar is capable of detecting #stealth aircraft like F-22 from 500km (310 miles) away with its active phased array antenna. it could also guide surface-to-air missiles to strike incoming aircraft. #PAF

https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/3038954/chinese-ships-and-radar-boost-navies-pakistan-bangladesh-and

China is reported to be boosting its arms links with South Asian nations, with further supply of an advanced anti-stealth radar to Pakistan as well as frigates to Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Jane’s Defence Weekly, a magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, said it had identified Chinese-made JY-27A counter-very-low-observable radar from satellite images of Pakistan’s Mianwali Air Base, captured on August 29.
This 3D long-range radar is capable of detecting stealth aircraft such as the F-22 from 500km (310 miles) away with its active phased array antenna using very high frequency waves. Either installed on land or mobile on vehicles, it is jamming-resistant and could also guide surface-to-air missiles to strike incoming aircraft.
The radar is believed to have arrived at the airbase in northeast Pakistan between June 5 and August 29, and was not fully operational as of September 2, according to Jane’s.

Neither Pakistan nor China made the sale of the JY-27A public, but earlier this month representatives of both sides attended a ceremony at a Shanghai shipyard to mark the steel-cutting of a second batch of Type 054A guided-missile frigates.


They were the third and fourth vessels the Chinese shipbuilder CSSC had built for the Pakistan Navy. Construction on the first two of the Type 054A/P began in December 2018 and they are expected to be delivered in 2021.
Is China’s US$62 billion investment fuelling resentment in Pakistan?
3 Jul 2018

Type 054A frigate has been the main strength frigate in service with China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy since 2007. The Pakistan Navy already has four F22P frigates in service – a Chinese design based on the previous Type 053 and Type 054 – and three of them were built in China.
“Compared with their potential adversary the Indian Navy, the Pakistani navy will be better equipped,” Shi Lao, a Shanghai-based military commentator, said.

Last week’s amateur photos also showed that two newly retired PLA Navy frigates, Type 053H3 Putian and Lianyungang, had been refurbished in Shanghai and painted in the colours and numbers of the Bangladesh Navy. They had been bought by the latter and are expected to be handed over by the end of the year.

China also gifted a retired Type 053H2G ship, Tongling, to the Sri Lanka Navy. It was renamed Parakramabahu and commissioned in Colombo in late August, adding to the Chinese-built warships operating in the Indian Ocean.

Chinese efforts to strengthen military ties in the region have long caused concern in India, whose “string of pearls” theory contends that China is encircling India by developing relationships with its neighbours around the Indian Ocean.
“China’s military cooperation with South Asian nations is nothing new. It has been going on for decades,” said Wang Dehua, a South Asia expert at the Shanghai Municipal Centre for International Studies.
Wang said that what China offered to those countries, including Pakistan, would not pose much threat to India because it could not match the level of armament that India possessed or had access to, such as aircraft carriers and Su-30 fighters.
India’s military ties with countries including Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were also much stronger and more long-standing, he said.
“India sees South Asia as its backyard and is paranoid about China’s presence in the region,” Wang said. “Such a mindset should end.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan’s New Type-039B AIP #Submarines: Armed with #nuclear-tipped Babar cruise #missiles, these subs will form part of Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent. #Karachi https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2020/10/pakistans-new-chinese-aip-submarines-image-shows-karachi-site/

The Pakistan Navy's expansion is gearing up in Karachi. Major enhancements are evident at a shipyard, where a new construction hall and a dry dock greatly increase capacity. Although details are scarce, it seems likely that the local construction of Chinese-designed AIP (Air Independent Power) submarines will take place there.

The eight Type-039B ‘Hangor Class’ submarines will be a major boost to the Pakistan Navy. They will more than double the size of the Pakistan Navy’s submarine fleet.

The new submarines are variant of the Chinese Navy’s Type-039A Yuan Class. Construction will be split between the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) and Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW) in Karachi. KSEW previously participated in local construction of Pakistan’s French designed Agosta class submarines.

The construction site in Karachi may put to rest previous reports that the subs would be built in Ormara. In 2016 it was reported that the local submarine construction would occur at a new Submarine Rebuild Complex (SRC) being built there. No significant construction work is evident at Ormara.

The new construction hall and dry dock are at the southern end of KSEW’s Karachi shipyard site. Footings for the halls was first observed in 2015. The twin-lane halls have slowly taken shape since then. The outer shell appears largely complete. Under their roof there should be enough room to build two submarines in parallel.

Work on the aligned dry dock appears to have started in 2016. It is a Norwegian designed Syncrolift ship-lift type built out over the water. Manufacture of the sections likely took place in China. The dry dock is 126m (415 ft) long and 32m (105 ft) across and has a lifting capacity of 7,881 tons. This is large enough for the new submarines, and would allow frigate sized warships and larger submarines in future.

Based on current information the first of the new submarines, built in China, is expected to be delivered in 2022. Local construction of the last four hulls will last through to 2028. The acquisition from China is part of a trend. Several major Pakistan Navy warship programs have gone to China in recent years. And the Pakistan Navy and Chinese Navy already cooperate closely, included close exercises involving Chinese warships and Pakistan Navy submarines.

The construction halls will be conveniently close to the Pakistan Navy’s main submarine berths. They are also just north of the SSGNs (Special Service Group (Navy)) base at PNS Iqbal. This is where the Pakistan Navy’s X-Craft midget submarine program is based. It seems logical that any local construction of midget submarines will also take place at the new site.

The technology transfer will benefit KSEW. Their Stirling-based AIP (Air Independent Power/Propulsion) technology is different from the French MESMA system installed on Pakistan’s Agosta-90B type boats. Pakistan remains the only country to adopt the MESMA system. Type-039B submarines are a relatively conservative design however.

The Type-039B submarines are likely to combine Chinese systems and weapons with Pakistani systems. Local weapons are expected to include the nuclear-capable Babur cruise missile. Armed with these the boats will form part of Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent. How this deterrence role will be reconciled with typical attack submarine duties remains unclear.

Riaz Haq said...

Keel laying ceremony of #Pakistan Navy’s MILGEM class warship held at #Karachi shipyard. The corvette is being built with #Turkey’s help with expected completion date in 2024 | The Express Tribune

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2269841/keel-laying-ceremony-of-pakistan-navys-milgem-class-warship-held


“Equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and state-of-the-art sensors, the aircraft includes surface-to-air, surface-to-air missiles and a command and control system,” the official statement said. “The inclusion of these ships in the Pakistan Navy will significantly enhance the capabilities of the Pakistan Navy and help maintain peace, security and balance of power in the Indian Ocean region.”

Earlier, Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Managing Director Rear Admiral Athar Saleem in his welcome address highlighted that Karachi Shipyard is fully self-sufficient and the government and Pakistan Navy in the defence shipbuilding industry itself.

“It is on track to meet the goals of dependency,” he stressed and added that the launch of the great project with the brotherly country of Turkey would open new avenues for further cooperation in the field of construction of domestically built warships in Pakistan.

The purpose of building corvettes in Pakistan is to further hone the capabilities of the local shipbuilding industry and Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works, it added.

It maintained that the ship is equipped with stealth technology and is being built according to the standards of modern ships.

“The second MILGEM Class Corvette would be handed over to the Pakistan Navy in the early months of 2024,” the statement said.

The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of ASFAT Esad Akgün in an interview described the keel-laying ceremony as “beautiful”.

“Today, we laid the keel of 3rd Ship of PN MILGEM Project and the block we saw at the slipway is not just a pile of steel, it’s the great step of giant collaboration between the two brother country, through ASFAT and Pakistan Navy,” Akgün added.

He further said that ASFAT is a part of Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Turkey, and vested the competency of being a company, which can dynamically manoeuvre with flexibility together with its highly capable workers.

“In order to serve efficiently, we have established ASFAT Pakistan to be able to integrate all defence capabilities of both nations,” he said, “We will be there at the disposal of Pakistan armed forces to facilitate every aspect of defence cooperation of our nations.”

"In order to increase our capabilities, we are obliged to take advantage of mutual capabilities, to give strength to each other, he said, adding, “This is the purpose of ASFAT, this is my mission.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan To Host Historic #Naval Drills #AMAN2021. It will be the first time #Russia participates in a joint exercise with #NATO members (#US, #UK, #Europe) & #China in 10 years, which is scheduled to take place off #Karachi between February 11-16, 2021. https://eurasiantimes.com/pakistan-to-host-the-historic-naval-drills-between-russian-nato-countries/

Russia said on Thursday it would take part in drills involving more than 30 countries off the coast of Pakistan, in rare joint exercises with Russian and NATO member ships.

The AMAN-2021 anti-piracy drills are set to be held in waters near Karachi in February 2021 and will involve British, U.S., Turkish, Chinese, Japanese and other forces, the Russian defence ministry said in a statement.

The ministry said Russian and NATO vessels last took part in drills together at the NATO-led Bold Monarch exercises in 2011 off the coast of Spain, the TASS news agency reported.

A NATO official said that the 30-member military bloc had no plans currently to take part in exercises with Russia, but that the participation of individual nations was up to them to decide.

"Our practical cooperation remains suspended as a consequence of Russia's illegal and illegitimate annexation of Crimea from Ukraine in 2014," the NATO official said.

Ties between Russia and the West are languishing at post-Cold War lows, strained by everything from the annexation of Crimea to allegations of hacking U.S. elections and Syria.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan Navy commissions new #Dutch -built 2,300-ton PNS Tabuk corvette. Yarmook and Tabuk off-shore patrol vehicles are multipurpose, highly adaptable platforms, which can carry out different operations, including #intelligence, special ops & #combat

https://www.naval-technology.com/news/pakistan-navy-commissions-new-damen-built-pns-tabuk-corvette/

Pakistan Navy has commissioned its new Damen-built corvette, named PNS Tabuk, at Romania’s Port of Constanta.

The vessel is the second of two 2,300t corvettes that Damen constructed under a contract signed by the Pakistan Ministry of Defence in June 2017.

The first vessel, PNS Yarmook, joined the fleet of Pakistan Navy in February.

In September last year, Damen launched the second offshore patrol vessel for the Pakistan Navy at its shipyard in Galati, Romania.

The vessels are multipurpose, highly adaptable platforms, which can carry out different operations in difficult maritime environments.

A helicopter and an unmanned aerial vessel (UAV), along with two rigid-hulled inflatable boats (RHIBs), can be simultaneously launched from the vessels.

Damen Shipyards Galati MD Flemming Sorensen said: “Damen has been involved in many projects in Pakistan since 1986 and we are very proud of this long-lasting and trusting cooperation.

“Such an achievement is only possible with good coordination, skilful workmanship, excellent teamwork, and good cooperation between all parties involved.


“Despite the unprecedented challenges of the pandemic, the Pakistan, Romanian and Dutch project teams have managed, with perseverance, to continue their work to successful completion.”


The company will provide assistance during the service of PNS Tabuk.

Last month, a keel was laid for the Pakistan Navy third MILGEM-class corvette during a ceremony held at Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited (KS&EW).

In 2018, the Pakistan Navy signed a contract with Turkey’s ASFAT to procure four MILGEM-class corvettes from STM.

Riaz Haq said...

#China launches 2nd Type 054A/P frigate for #Pakistan Navy. It's a stealthy surface ship equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti-air weapons, sensors and combat management systems. It has an advanced radar & large number of long range missiles. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202101/1214356.shtml#.YBSuvCi3FqA.twitter

China launched the second Type 054A/P frigate for Pakistan on Friday in Shanghai, as the Pakistan Navy Chief Naval Overseer highlighted at the launch ceremony that induction of the Type 054A/P warships will significantly enhance Pakistan's maritime defense and deterrence capabilities.

The launch of the second Type 054A/P frigate was held at Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai on Friday, reads a statement the Pakistan Navy sent to the Global Times on the same day.

The occasion coincides with the completion of 70 years of Pakistan-China diplomatic relations built upon historic bonds of friendship and mutual trust, the statement said.

The Pakistan Navy has contracted the construction of four Type 054A/P frigates from China since 2017, and the first ship was launched in August 2020, media reported.

All the ships are being delivered as per the planned schedule, the Pakistan Navy statement said.

These will be some of the most technologically advanced platforms of the Pakistan Navy Surface Fleet, equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti-air weapons, sensors and combat management systems, Admiral M Amjad Khan Niazi, Chief of the Naval Staff of the Pakistan Navy, told the Global Times in a recent exclusive interview.

"These ships will boost [the] potency of our fleet and significantly contribute in maintaining peace and security in the region," the Pakistani Admiral said.

Commodore Azfar Humayun, Pakistan Navy Chief Naval Overseer, said at the launch ceremony that he acknowledges the commitment and hard work of China Shipbuilding Trading Company and Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard to keep this important program on track in the difficult times of the ongoing global pandemic, according to the Pakistan Navy statement.

Zhang Junshe, a senior research fellow at the PLA Naval Military Studies Research Institute, told the Global Times in a previous interview that the Type 054A, on which the Type 054A/P is based, is China's most advanced frigate.

Compared with previous Chinese frigates, the new version has better air defense capability, as it is equipped with an improved radar system and a larger amount of missiles with a longer range, Zhang said, noting that the Type 054A frigate also has world-class stealth capability.

The Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard also launched China's third Type 075 amphibious assault ship on Friday.

Riaz Haq said...

Focus on Pakistan Navy by Ejaz Haider by Ejaz Haider

https://www.thefridaytimes.com/focus-on-pakistan-navy/

Pakistan Navy is also the only regional navy since 2004 to be part of US-led Coalition Task Force 150 and 151 under the broader umbrella of Coalition Maritime Campaign Plan. PN has also commanded CTF-150 nine times, a distinction.

But while it is important to list the professional achievements of PN within its resource constraints, it is equally important to point out that Pakistan must review its navy’s role. The famous US naval officer and theoretician, Alfred Mahan wrote in his “The Influence of Sea Power Upon World History”: “The history of sea power is largely, though by no means solely, a narrative of contests between nations, of mutual rivalries, of violence frequently culminating in war.” Mahan also argues, somewhat exaggeratedly, that a country’s military and political strength directly correlates with their sea power. As is well known, Mahan’s thinking greatly influenced the US’ approach to command of the seas.


There’s much literature on the correlation between technology, naval expeditions and power projection and European imperialism. According to Hedrick, “The innovativeness of the West came from two sources. One is a culture that encourages the domination of nature through experimentation, scientific research, and the rewards of capitalism. The other is the competitive nature of the Western world…”. A similar nexus between capitalism, scientific and technological innovations and imperialism is made by Yuval Noah Harari in “Sapiens.”

But imperialism (even of the non-occupation kind) requires projecting power. Until the arrival of the digital world, power was projected through powerful navies. Pax Britannica was underpinned by a small island country’s formidable naval power. Britain displaced the Portuguese and the Dutch as the dominant naval power and the French could not challenge British naval power even when Napoleon was winning battles on land.

Even today a blue-water navy is the ultimate symbol of the reach of a state’s flag. As British naval historian Andrew Lambert says, “Sea power played a large role in the Allied victory, as the sea determined the control of global communications and getting the most advantage out of food, raw materials, manpower, and industrial products.”

In 1914, Britain dominated global communications and resources by sea power. The Allies economically blockaded Germany. They also used unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915 and 1917. Germans called it “Britain’s Oceanic Tyranny”.

It is interesting to note the naval component of China’s military modernisation programme. By all estimates, China has fast-tracked its development of naval power because Beijing understands that without naval power projection, it cannot dominate the South and East China Seas. And it also knows that it will be contending against the US and its allies.

India, Pakistan’s primary threat, is trying to develop blue-water capability. However, if a blue water navy is defined as “a maritime force capable of sustained operation across the deep waters of open oceans,” Indian Navy can only be called a limited-range blue-water navy. A blue-water navy should also allow “a country to project power far from the home country”. And while India has operated an aircraft carrier since 1961, it does not have the full range of capabilities to meet this condition. In response, Pakistan requires, at a minimum, green-water capabilities. In other words, it needs to be able to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region to counter the Indian naval threat.

From a nuclear strategy perspective, the most credible second-strike capability rests on a ship submersible ballistic nuclear (SSBN) platform. That’s where the navy comes back into the picture again. So far, while Pakistan has developed the capability to put nuclear-armed cruise missiles on conventional subs, the country does not have an SSBN platform.

Riaz Haq said...

Focus on Pakistan Navy

https://www.thefridaytimes.com/focus-on-pakistan-navy/

Pakistan Navy is demonstrably the most neglected service. There are reasons for this state of affairs, all of them bad.

One, as the largest and senior-most service, the Pakistan Army has traditionally dominated military-operational thinking and plans.

Two, the Army’s politico-praetorian streak has added another dimension to its heft and further ensured it gets the lion’s share of defence allocations.

Three, air and naval platforms are almost always big ticket items and require monies that are difficult to find in a poor country like Pakistan.

Four, historically, even when Muslim empires dominated large parts of the world, the ruling dynasts — barring some attempts by the Ottomans — neglected naval power. To stress the salience of this point, one only need contrast the naval exploits of Italian city-states, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English with, for instance, the Muslim rulers of India.

What makes this Muslim reticence even more surprising is the fact that Arabs were great seafarers and navigators and traded with the littoral states of the Indian Ocean. For example, Ahmed Ibn-e Majid was an Arab navigator and cartographer whose book, “The Book of the Benefits of the Principles and Foundations of Seamanship,” was used by navigators right up to the 18th Century. The book discussed the difference between coastal and open-sea sailing, the locations of ports from East Africa to Indonesia, accounts of the monsoon and other seasonal winds, typhoons and other topics for professional navigators. [NB: for a detailed account of how difficult seafaring was and the five different seafaring traditions in the ancient world, the first chapter of Daniel Headrick’s Power Over Peoples… is a great primer. I am thankful to Dr Ilhan Niaz for pointing it to me.]


Five, this land-focused approach to warfare has continued in Pakistan. As mentioned above, this is due to the power of the army which (a) remains bound by traditional thinking and (b) has stymied any fresh thinking about war itself, including maritime security and the importance of naval power to a state’s offensive and defensive capabilities.

As I said earlier, these are all bad reasons.

Yet, despite these handicaps, the PN has acted professionally and remains prepared for the defence of territorial waters. To expect any more from it would be like expecting a sedan to win a Formula 1 race. Accordingly, the Pakistan Navy’s performance has to be evaluated within the functions and framework of a brown-, or at most green-water navy.

The PN is holding its 7th AMAN (Peace) exercise off the coast of Karachi in February. AMAN exercises began in March 2007. The exercise, which has harbour and sea phases, has drawn naval contingents from around the world. This year’s new entrant is a Russian naval contingent from its Baltic Fleet.

According to the Russian Navy’s website, Russia plans to send a frigate, a patrol ship, a tugboat, a sea-based helicopter and some other units. This is also the first time since 2011 that Russia will take part in a naval exercise with naval contingents from NATO countries. The last time Russian naval continent participated in naval drills with NATO vessels was in 2011 in a NATO-led exercise codenamed Bold Monarch held off the coast of Spain.

Exercise AMAN focuses on interoperability with other navies in anti-Piracy and counterterrorism operations. The drill allows navies to discuss best practices and establish operational relationships towards the common goal of maritime security.

Pakistan Navy is also the only regional navy since 2004 to be part of US-led Coalition Task Force 150 and 151 under the broader umbrella of Coalition Maritime Campaign Plan. PN has also commanded CTF-150 nine times, a distinction.

Riaz Haq said...

Focus on Pakistan Navy by Ejaz Haider

https://www.thefridaytimes.com/focus-on-pakistan-navy/

Pakistan Navy is also the only regional navy since 2004 to be part of US-led Coalition Task Force 150 and 151 under the broader umbrella of Coalition Maritime Campaign Plan. PN has also commanded CTF-150 nine times, a distinction.

But while it is important to list the professional achievements of PN within its resource constraints, it is equally important to point out that Pakistan must review its navy’s role. The famous US naval officer and theoretician, Alfred Mahan wrote in his “The Influence of Sea Power Upon World History”: “The history of sea power is largely, though by no means solely, a narrative of contests between nations, of mutual rivalries, of violence frequently culminating in war.” Mahan also argues, somewhat exaggeratedly, that a country’s military and political strength directly correlates with their sea power. As is well known, Mahan’s thinking greatly influenced the US’ approach to command of the seas.


There’s much literature on the correlation between technology, naval expeditions and power projection and European imperialism. According to Hedrick, “The innovativeness of the West came from two sources. One is a culture that encourages the domination of nature through experimentation, scientific research, and the rewards of capitalism. The other is the competitive nature of the Western world…”. A similar nexus between capitalism, scientific and technological innovations and imperialism is made by Yuval Noah Harari in “Sapiens.”

But imperialism (even of the non-occupation kind) requires projecting power. Until the arrival of the digital world, power was projected through powerful navies. Pax Britannica was underpinned by a small island country’s formidable naval power. Britain displaced the Portuguese and the Dutch as the dominant naval power and the French could not challenge British naval power even when Napoleon was winning battles on land.

Even today a blue-water navy is the ultimate symbol of the reach of a state’s flag. As British naval historian Andrew Lambert says, “Sea power played a large role in the Allied victory, as the sea determined the control of global communications and getting the most advantage out of food, raw materials, manpower, and industrial products.”

In 1914, Britain dominated global communications and resources by sea power. The Allies economically blockaded Germany. They also used unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915 and 1917. Germans called it “Britain’s Oceanic Tyranny”.

It is interesting to note the naval component of China’s military modernisation programme. By all estimates, China has fast-tracked its development of naval power because Beijing understands that without naval power projection, it cannot dominate the South and East China Seas. And it also knows that it will be contending against the US and its allies.

India, Pakistan’s primary threat, is trying to develop blue-water capability. However, if a blue water navy is defined as “a maritime force capable of sustained operation across the deep waters of open oceans,” Indian Navy can only be called a limited-range blue-water navy. A blue-water navy should also allow “a country to project power far from the home country”. And while India has operated an aircraft carrier since 1961, it does not have the full range of capabilities to meet this condition. In response, Pakistan requires, at a minimum, green-water capabilities. In other words, it needs to be able to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region to counter the Indian naval threat.

From a nuclear strategy perspective, the most credible second-strike capability rests on a ship submersible ballistic nuclear (SSBN) platform. That’s where the navy comes back into the picture again. So far, while Pakistan has developed the capability to put nuclear-armed cruise missiles on conventional subs, the country does not have an SSBN platform.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan to have hypersonic missiles and directed-energy weapons on all new ships by mid-2020s, as revealed by outgoing Navy chief Adm. Zafar Mahmood Abbasi. In #Asia, #China, #India, #Japan, #SouthKorea & #Australia Navies have similar plans. https://www.defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2021/03/15/hypersonic-and-directed-energy-weapons-who-has-them-and-whos-winning-the-race-in-the-asia-pacific/#pakistan

In October, outgoing naval chief Adm. Zafar Mahmood Abbasi revealed plans to equip future warships with directed-energy weapon systems and the P282 hypersonic missile.

“In the hypersonic domain, the ship-based, long-range, anti-ship and land-attack P282 ballistic missile is under development” he said at the time, and the newly established Naval Research and Development Institute was developing “laser-based directed-energy weapons.”

Neither the Ministry of Defence Production nor the Navy responded to Defense News’ requests for information on these programs. Their stage of development or how and when they will be employed is unknown. Nevertheless, Mansoor Ahmed, a senior research fellow at Islamabad’s Center for International Strategic Studies, believes these developments must be reasonably advanced for them to have been revealed at all.

Whether Pakistani warships have sufficient power-generation capacity to operate directed-energy weapons may be inferred from Chinese and Turkish programs. Pakistan has ordered Type 054A/P frigates (similar to those in Chinese service) and Milgem corvettes (similar to Turkey’s Ada class), and is designing the related Jinnah-class frigate (possibly similar to Turkey’s Istanbul class).

Chinese destroyers have had an operational directed-energy capability since at least 2018, but frigates are not similarly equipped. However, an expert on China’s military believes this will change.

“Based on my interviews with Chinese sources, I conclude that China will be pacing most U.S. directed-energy weapon developments, be they solid-state lasers or microwave weapons,” said Richard Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center. “They were marketing a 30-kilowatt, mobile, solid-state laser weapon five years ago, so it is reasonable to expect they will soon have much more powerful land-, sea- and air-deployable laser weapons.”

Similarly, the installation of the Roketsan-made Alka laser weapon on Turkish warships would infer Pakistan receiving a similar setup. Roketsan literature indicates the Alka can be fitted to warships to destroy or disable drones and similar targets. The company says the system can destroy a target with a laser at 500 meters, and destroy a target at 1,000 meters with its electromagnetic weapon.

STM and fellow Turkish contractor Afsat signed an agreement “on engineering solutions for supplying and integrating the main propulsion system” for Pakistan’s corvettes in June 2020. Their propulsion/power-generation system was previously a CODAD (combined diesel and diesel) system before the U.S. cleared the export of gas turbines, allowing a CODAG (combined diesel and gas) system similar to the Ada corvettes to be fitted.

When asked, STM would not say whether this could produce sufficient power to support a directed-energy weapon.

Given the delivery timetable for Pakistan’s new frigates and corvettes, a directed-energy capability may be reality by mid-decade, but Ahmed, the expert at the Center for International Strategic Studies, believes the hypersonic program is more urgent. He said hypersonic technology is part of Pakistan’s “emerging menu of long-range [anti-access, area denial] capabilities that are increasingly going to be needed for maintaining a credible deterrent” against India’s Navy.

This is backed by reports that an Azeri surface-to-air Barak-8 missile system — a weapon also installed on some of India’s destroyers — downed an Armenian Iskander tactical ballistic missile last year, potentially rendering Pakistan’s present subsonic anti-ship missile arsenal vulnerable to interception.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Navy's New Type 054 A/P Frigate Started Sea Trials in #China. These state of the art frigates are equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti air weapons and sensors. They're the backbone of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) fleet https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2021/06/pakistans-new-type-054-a-p-frigate-started-sea-trials-in-china/

The first Type 054 A/P frigate for the Pakistan Navy started sea trials in late May. Local ship spotters images show the frigate leaving the Hudong Zhonghua shipyard (near Shanghai) under her own power...

Pakistan signed an initial contract for the delivery two Type 054 A/P frigates in 2017. An additional contract for two more ships was announced in June 2018. The first-in-class frigate was launched in August 2020 and the second in January 2021. As for the third one, the keel laying took place on May 1st 2021. All four units are built in China and the first two are expected to be delivered to the customer by year end.

According to a Pakistan Navy press release, the Type-054 A/P ships are state of the art frigates equipped with modern surface, subsurface and anti air weapons and sensors. Once constructed, these ships will be the most technologically advanced platforms of Pakistan Navy which will strengthen its capability to meet future challenges and maintain peace, stability & power equilibrium in the Indian Ocean Region.

The Pakistan Navy is currently undertaking an important renewal of its fleet, with the procurement of several modern platforms: In addition to these frigates from China, Pakistan will also commission new corvettes from Turkey and OPV from the Netherlands. It is also modernizing its submarine force.

The Type 054A is a multi-role frigate and is recognized as the backbone of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) fleet of surface combatants with 30 vessels in commission. They have a length of 134 meters, a beam of 16 meters for a displacement of 4,000 tons. They have a crew complement of 165 sailors and are fitted with:

a H/PJ-26 76mm main gun
8 C803 anti-ship missiles
32x VLS cells for HQ-16 surface to air missiles
2x Type 730 30mm CIWS
2x Triple Torpedo launchers
In PLAN service, those frigates feature a Type 382 radar which shares a close resemblance with the Russian MR-710 Fregat radar. Unlike the Pakistan Navy variant – whose first ship-in-class is fitted with a SR2410C radar – the Type 054A in Chinese Navy service do not feature a long range / metric wave radar.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan hires Leonardo, Paramount Group to convert 3 Embraer Lineage 1000 jets into long-range #maritime "Sea Sultan" patrol aircraft for its #Navy. Future contracts will bring total number to 10, replacing the country’s long-serving P-3C Orion fleet. https://www.defensenews.com/industry/2021/07/08/pakistan-hires-leonardo-paramount-group-for-aircraft-conversion-program/#.YOdaYDM44Wk.twitter

Pakistan has hired an Italian defense company to convert three Embraer Lineage 1000 regional jetliners into long-range maritime patrol aircraft for its Navy.

The contract with Leonardo involves the acquisition of two aircraft to join the single Lineage 1000 already in Pakistan, followed by the design, modification, installation and integration of an anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol package. The three planes will then be introduced into service as Sea Sultan patrol aircraft.

Follow-on contracts are expected to bring the total number of Sea Sultans to 10, replacing the country’s long-serving P-3C Orion fleet. Defense News learned in October that the Navy selected the Lineage 1000 to replace the fleet.

Under an additional contract, South Africa’s Paramount Group will handle the pre-conversion maintenance, repair and overhaul of the aircraft.

Pakistan’s Ministry of Defence Production, which handles acquisitions, did not reply to Defense News for comment.

Riaz Haq said...

Delivery of 3 more advanced #US-made sub-hunting aircraft boosts #India's plans to take on #China at sea. #Pakistan #Quad https://news.yahoo.com/delivery-3-more-advanced-us-164643608.html?soc_src=social-sh&soc_trk=tw&tsrc=twtr via @YahooNews

The US delivered two helicopters and a new maritime patrol plane to India earlier this month.

The aircraft are some of the best sub-hunters available and will boost the Indian navy's capabilities.

The deliveries come amid heightened tensions with China in the Indian Ocean region.

India received US-made helicopters and a patrol plane this month, boosting that country's navy and advancing US-India ties as both seek to counter China's growing influence in the Asia-Pacific region.

On July 13, Boeing announced the delivery of another P-8I Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft to India, the 10th since India became the first non-US buyer more than a decade ago.

On July 16, India's navy inducted the first two of 24 MH-60R Seahawk helicopters in a ceremony with US Navy officials in San Diego on July 16.

India's ambassador to the US called the induction an "important milestone" in US-India defense ties.

John Kirby, the Pentagon's chief spokesman, congratulated India on both deliveries this week, saying the aircraft "will substantially enhance maritime security and strengthen cooperation and interoperability between our two navies."

The MH-60R and P-8 both have anti-submarine warfare as a primary mission - Lockheed Martin says the MH-60R is the world's "most capable and mature" helicopter for ASW, and Boeing calls the P-8's ASW capabilities "unmatched" - and their delivery reflects India's concern about Chinese naval activity, particularly submarine activity, in the Indian Ocean.

That Chinese presence, coupled with the increasing age of the Indian navy's own rotary aircraft, "has been a cause of growing concern" for Indian navy leaders, who have urged expedited procurement of new aircraft, said Abhijit Singh, a former Indian naval officer and head the Maritime Policy Initiative at the Observer Research Foundation, a think tank.

"The delivery is a definite boost for the Indian navy. The multi-role helicopter deal is one the most eagerly awaited naval procurement programs in recent years," Singh told Insider.

India's navy believes the MH-60Rs will augment its "crucial" search-and-rescue, anti-submarine warfare, and anti-surface warfare capabilities, Singh added.

Rotary and fixed-wing aircraft are only two new platforms India's navy is seeking to bolster its fleet amid heightened tensions with Beijing, which has the world's largest navy.

India expects to add a second aircraft carrier within the next few years and is pursuing other new surface ships as well as new ballistic-missile and attack submarines. India this week issued a nearly $7 billion tender for its advanced Project 75I subs, though they will still take years to build.

India has also developed or is working on an array of ship- and sub-launched ballistic and anti-ship missiles.

New Delhi is also bolstering its presence around the Indian Ocean, building new bases and other facilities to improve its maritime awareness and capitalize on its advantageous position in strategically important areas. (India's contentious land borders with China and Pakistan are likely to remain its military's focus, however.)

Riaz Haq said...

How will #Pakistan Kill #India’s New Aircraft Carriers? It has several means to attack Indian carriers — with near-undetectable #submarines & anti-ship #missiles — which must also operate relatively far from India itself in #ArabianSea. #SouthAsia https://nationalinterest.org/blog/reboot/how-pakistan-preparing-kill-india%E2%80%99s-new-aircraft-carriers-180538

To directly threaten Pakistan, the small-deck carriers will have to maneuver nearer to shore — and thereby closer to “anti-access / area denial” weapons which could sink them. And even with a third carrier, the threat of land-based Pakistani aircraft will force the Indian Navy to dedicate a large proportion of its own air wings to defense — perhaps half of its available fighters, according to 2017 paper by Ben Wan Beng Ho for the Naval War College Review.

“Therefore, it is doubtful that any attack force launched from an Indian carrier would pack a significant punch,” Ho writes. “With aircraft available for strike duties barely numbering into the double digits, the Indian carrier simply cannot deliver a substantial ‘pulse’ of combat power against its adversary.”
----------

To see why Vishal is a big deal for the Indian Navy, one needs only to look at her proposed air wing — some 57 fighters, more than Vikramaditya — 24 MiG-29Ks — and Vikrant‘s wing of around 30 MiG-29Ks. While below the 75+ aircraft aboard a U.S. Navy Gerald R. Ford-class supercarrier, Vishal will be a proper full-size carrier and India’s first, as the preceding two are really small-deck carriers and limited in several significant ways.

The Indian Navy is also looking at an electromagnetic launch system for its third carrier, similar to the one aboard the Ford class. India’s first two carriers have STOBAR configurations, in which aircraft launch with the assistance of a ski-jump, which limits the maximum weight a plane can lift into the air. Typically this means that fighters must sacrifice weapons, or fuel thus limiting range, or a combination of both.

The Indian Navy is searching for a foreign-sourced twin-engine fighter for the Vishal, with the U.S. F/A-18 and French Rafale in the running, and India has already ordered 36 multi-role Rafales for its air force. This is a blow to advocates of an Indian-made fighter for the carrier such as naval version of the delta-wing HAL Tejas, which is too heavy for carrier work

But regardless of what kind of fighters Vishal uses, the question is whether India really needs a third carrier, which will cost billions of dollars over its lifetime. To be sure, a third and much larger carrier will free up the burden on the Vikramaditya and Vikrant, only one of which is likely to be battle-ready at any given time.

These smaller carriers probably have fewer operational fighters than they do on paper, given that the air wings likely have serviceability rates below 100 percent. Vikramaditya by itself could have significantly less than 24 MiGs capable of flying — and fighting.

Now imagine a scenario in which these carriers go to battle.

Most likely, India would attempt to enforce a blockade of Pakistan and use its carriers to strike land-based targets. But Pakistan has several means to attack Indian carriers — with near-undetectable submarines and anti-ship missiles — which must also operate relatively far from India itself in the western and northern Arabian Sea. China does not have a similar disadvantage, as the PLAN would likely keep its carriers close and within the “first island chain” including Taiwan, closer to shore where supporting aircraft and ground-based missile launchers can help out.

Thus, Indian carriers would be relatively vulnerable and only one of them will have aircraft capable of launching with standard ordnance and fuel. And that is after Vishal sets sail in the next decade.

Riaz Haq said...

1st of 3 ‘Sea Sultan’ Maritime Patrol Aircrafts Joins #Pakistan #Navy. Based on Embraer’s Lineage 1000E, it has 8,500 km range & equipped for anti-surface & anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and intelligence surveillance & reconnaissance (ISR) https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2021/09/first-sea-sultan-maritime-patrol-aircraft-joins-pakistan-navy/ via @navalnewscom

First ‘Sea Sultan’ Maritime Patrol Aircraft Joins Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy inducted its first of three modern maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) dubbed locally as "Sea Sultan" and designated "Long Range Maritime Patrol jet".
Xavier Vavasseur 06 Sep 2021

Pakistan Navy press release

Karachi, 02 Sept 21: Induction ceremony of Pakistan Navy’s first modern Long Range Maritime Patrol twin engine jet aircraft was held at PNS Mehran, Karachi. Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Amjad Khan Niazi graced the occasion as chief guest. Upon arrival at Mehran base, the Chief Guest was received by Commander Pakistan Fleet Rear Admiral Naveed Ashraf.

The newly inducted twin engine jet aircraft is a variant of Brazilian built state of the art Embraer Jet aircraft globally utilized in air operations. Two more aircraft of the series have also been contracted by Pakistan Navy. These aircraft will be equipped with latest weapons and sensors to undertake Maritime Air Operations.

Speaking on the occasion, Chief of the Naval Staff paid rich tribute to Veteran Kashmiri Huriyat Leader Syed Ali Geelani and expressed condolence on his demise.

Later the Naval Chief commended remarkable transition of Pakistan Navy Air Arm from prop to jet age of Long Range Maritime Patrol Operations. He reassured the nation that Pakistan Navy is fully cognizant of prevailing challenges and is committed to upgrade its combat inventory to generate swift response. He also highlighted that Pakistan Navy is effectively contributing towards Government’s policy of promoting peace and stability in the region as a responsible maritime nation. He further underscored that Pakistan Navy is committed to safeguard its sea
fronts while ensuring conducive maritime environment in the region.

Earlier during his welcome address, Commander Pakistan Fleet Rear Admiral Naveed Ashraf highlighted capabilities of the new aircraft and expressed hope that addition of this potent aircraft will enhance PN capabilities to protect Maritime interests of Pakistan.

Later, Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Muhammad Amjad khan Niazi handed over aircraft documents to Commanding Officer of the concerned squadron. The ceremony was attended by senior serving and retired PN officers and CPOs/Sailors.

-End-

Naval News comments:

The Sea Sultan is based on Embraer’s Lineage 1000E business jet, which is a variant of the Embraer 190 regional airliner. The Lineage 1000E has a range of 8,500 km, a maximum speed of Mach 0.82, a service ceiling og 41,000 ft and a 120,000 lb MTOW. According to Defense News, Italy’s Leonardo was in charge of the conversion of three aircraft, but a follow-on contract is expected to bring the total number of Sea Sultans MPA to 10.

Details on the mission payload and sensor systems have not been disclosed but the latest MPA of the Pakistan Navy are fitted to conduct a wide range of missions such as anti-surface warfare (ASuW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), electronic intelligence (ELINT), electronic support measures (ESM), command and control (C2) and search and rescue (SAR).

The Pakistan Navy currently operates a fleet of modern ATR72 Sea Eagles and ageing P-3C Orions (set to be replaced by the Sea Sultans) for maritime patrol missions.


Riaz Haq said...

Did #Pakistan drop Leonardo as lead for Sea Sultan conversion of #Brazil made Embraer Lineage 1000 jet to replace #US made P-3C Orion? #SouthAfrica's Paramount Group is the lead contractor, with #Italy's Leonardo #Aerospace relegated to supplying hardware. https://www.defensenews.com/air/2021/09/09/did-pakistan-drop-leonardo-as-lead-on-sea-sultan-aircraft-conversion/


ISLAMABAD — Pakistan’s Navy has inducted into service its first Embraer Lineage 1000 jetliner, which is to be converted into the “Sea Sultan” design under the country’s long-range maritime patrol aircraft program. However, there remain unanswered questions surrounding the selection of a prime contractor and which company will carry out the conversion.

The Sept. 2 induction ceremony took place at PNS Mehran naval air station, where the P-3C Orion aircraft — which will be replaced by the Sea Sultan — operates.

A Navy release stated two more Lineage 1000 aircraft are under contract to “be equipped with the latest weapons and sensors to undertake Maritime Air Operations.”

Defense News reported in October that Pakistan selected the Brazilian-made Lineage 1000 for the program.

Pakistan previously hired Italy’s Leonardo as the prime contractor for the program, Defense News reported in July, and South Africa’s Paramount Group was to prepare the aircraft for conversion. But a source with knowledge of Pakistan’s defense programs told Defense News that Paramount Group is the lead contractor, with Leonardo relegated to supplying hardware.

He said Leonardo seems to have accepted this, knowing it could gain the experience to eventually independently offer a Lineage 1000 conversion. It’s unclear why Paramount Group was given the lead role.

The source, who spoke on condition of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the program, added that the first Sea Sultan will likely be used for training and liaison missions.

Former Australian defense attache to Islamabad and independent analyst Brian Cloughley described the Sea Sultan program as uncharacteristically quick by Pakistani standards.

“Acquisition of the new patrol aircraft is a welcome development for the PN, but it is intriguing that the usually lengthy contract process has taken such a short time. Apparently there were no competing tenders, and it is not known, indeed, if conventional procedures were followed,” he said.

Pakistan’s military has good working relationships with Leonardo as well as Germany’s Rheinland Air Service and Turkish Aerospace Industries, and those firms have considerable experience relevant to the Sea Sultan program. Paramount Group does not appear to have the same level of experience.

There is also no indication the Lineage 1000′s manufacturer, Embraer, is involved in the program. Analyst Alexandre Galante, who previously served in Brazil’s Navy, believes the company could have contributed its know-how, as it previously converted the E190 (from which the Lineage 1000 is derived).

“Embraer carried out studies a few years ago of a maritime patrol version of the E-Jet E190, but the project did not go ahead” he said, citing a lack of financial resources to invest in new equipment, as the military budget is mainly consumed by pay and pensions. “For this reason, the Brazilian Air Force purchased used P-3A aircraft and hired Airbus to modernize them.”

Riaz Haq said...

P282 Anti-ship Ballistic Missile: Strengthening Navy’s Conventional Deterrence - Centre for Strategic and Contemporary Research

https://cscr.pk/explore/themes/defense-security/p282-anti-ship-ballistic-missile-strengthening-navys-conventional-deterrence/


The development of the P282 anti-ship missile in Pakistan was announced by the Ex-Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, during his farewell address in October 2020. Only the information about the development work on the missile was made public. No other details like the range and timeline were then shared. The missile, however, will be capable of anti-ship and land-attack strikes. It could also be launched from a ship. It is also said to have hypersonic or Mach 5+ speed. A typical ballistic missile with a certain range normally has hypersonic speed. In addition to other factors, the speed of the missile increases with its range. Typically, a short or medium-range missile would have less speed than an intermediate or long-range missile. So, it can be assumed that the missile will likely have at least a 1000km range.

-----------

The expansion of the number and range of capabilities of the Indian Navy in recent decades has not gone unnoticed in Pakistan. The number of warships is increasing in the Indian Navy, and with that, their war-fighting capabilities would also get a boost. In comparison, Pakistan Navy was mostly constrained by budgetary allocations that could not enhance its war-fighting capabilities in the past. However, given the fast-paced Indian Naval modernisation plans, Pakistan Navy is now focusing on acquiring more assets and modern capabilities. Factors such as the development of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, operationalisation of Gwadar port, maritime and blue economy awareness have also enhanced the navy’ role in the security structure of the country. One capability that the Pakistan Navy is working on is to attain the capability to restrict the operational freedom of the Indian Navy during the war. In order to do that, it is working on the development of the P282 anti-ship/land-attack ballistic missile.

The possession of an anti-ship ballistic missile by the Pakistan Navy can become a major asset to deter India’s large naval fleet’s presence in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean during the peace and war. Pakistan has been developing capabilities that are in line with the Anti-Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) concept. Under this strategy, the defensive forces try to restrict the movement of the adversary in an area of interest and deny it the freedom to operate if limited access has been gained. Anti-ship warfare is the major component of anti-access capabilities. Anti-ship warfare includes a variety of cruise missiles, but the development of anti-ship ballistic missiles by China has received more attention.

Riaz Haq said...

Today, Pakistan’s Naval Air Arm also operates three shorter-range Franco-Italian ATR-72 twin-turboprop maritime patrol planes, and sixteen Mi-14, Sea King, and Z-9EC anti-submarine capable helicopters. However, the Orions and forthcoming Sea Sultan have significantly greater range, payload, and endurance than these other platforms.

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/will-pakistan%E2%80%99s-new-sea-sultan-sub-hunter-be-used-guide-anti-ship-ballistic-missiles

In a speech in October 2020, former Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi stated that Pakistan was developing “…in the hypersonic domain, the ship-based, long-range, anti-ship and land-attack P282 ballistic missile.” He described it as an effort to “leapfrog” Pakistan to capabilities similar to India’s supersonic Brahmos cruise missile.


----------------
Pakistan’s Orions have had an eventful service life, employed in combat against Taliban insurgents in Swat Valley, performing signals-intelligence gathering, surveillance, and bombing missions. But in 2011, insurgents raided Mehran and destroyed two P-3s based there, though the United States replaced the aircraft. A third P-3C was lost off the coast of Balochistan in 1999 in an accident that killed all twenty-one onboard.

As the future of U.S.-Pakistan relations remains murky, Islamabad explicitly sought a P-3 replacement that wouldn’t be subject to U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Thus the Sea Sultan is based on Brazilian Lineage 1000E regional jetliners purchased second-hand rather than directly from manufacturer Embraer. South African company Paramount Group is installing torpedo launchers and SeaSpray radars made by Italian firm Leonardo into the four-engine regional airliners.

The basic Lineage 1000 airliner has a comparable maximum range to a P-3C but is roughly fifty percent faster at cruising and maximum speed (629 and 543 miles per hour) and has a much higher maximum altitude too. Although the performance of a fully-equipped Sea Sultan is unknown, Pakistan’s tender specified a range of 4,600 miles and a maximum takeoff weight of sixty to seventy tons.

The SeaSpray AESA X-Band multi-mode radar may represent the most important change from the Orion. The 360-degree radar incorporates a Moving Target Indicator for tracking vehicles and synthetic-aperture mode which can provide detailed scans of ships or other surface targets. The SeaSpray 7500V2 model has a maximum range of 368 miles, but the somewhat shorter-range 7300E model, already in use on Pakistani ATR-72 patrol planes and Sea King helicopters, may be installed instead.


Even the 7300E, however, reportedly has high enough resolution to detect life rafts and ship-wrecked humans in inclement weather at a significant distance. Such resolution might also suffice to detect the protruding snorkel of a diesel-electric submarine sucking in air to recharge its batteries.

Like the Orion, Sea Sultans are planned to have electromagnetic and signals intelligence sensors (ESM and ELINT), sonar buoys, and an acoustic analysis station for submarine hunting, a satellite communications link, and flare/chaff dispensers to decoy missiles. They will also carry homing torpedoes for sub-hunting, and likely anti-ship missiles for surface warfare.

Pakistan’s Navy is focused on denying India’s larger fleet access to its littoral waters. Maritime patrol planes thus improve the Pakistani Navy’s awareness of ships and submarines approaching said waters, limiting the risk of surprise attack (like the Indian Navy’s successful missile attack on Karachi in 1971) and enabling coordinating response by other assets. Furthermore, they can attack maritime targets, conduct search and rescue missions, and scoop up electronic intelligence data on other militaries operating in the region.

Riaz Haq said...

MELBOURNE, Australia, ISLAMABAD, NEW DELHI, and WASHINGTON — A number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region are caught up in the global hypersonic and directed-energy weapons race, with these regional powers having either developed or publicly stated intentions to develop such technology.

Defense News has contacted regional government and military officials, businesses, and analysts to find out who is keeping pace in the worldwide contest.


https://www.defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2021/03/15/hypersonic-and-directed-energy-weapons-who-has-them-and-whos-winning-the-race-in-the-asia-pacific/


Whether Pakistani warships have sufficient power-generation capacity to operate directed-energy weapons may be inferred from Chinese and Turkish programs. Pakistan has ordered Type 054A/P frigates (similar to those in Chinese service) and Milgem corvettes (similar to Turkey’s Ada class), and is designing the related Jinnah-class frigate (possibly similar to Turkey’s Istanbul class).

Chinese destroyers have had an operational directed-energy capability since at least 2018, but frigates are not similarly equipped. However, an expert on China’s military believes this will change.

“Based on my interviews with Chinese sources, I conclude that China will be pacing most U.S. directed-energy weapon developments, be they solid-state lasers or microwave weapons,” said Richard Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center. “They were marketing a 30-kilowatt, mobile, solid-state laser weapon five years ago, so it is reasonable to expect they will soon have much more powerful land-, sea- and air-deployable laser weapons.”

Similarly, the installation of the Roketsan-made Alka laser weapon on Turkish warships would infer Pakistan receiving a similar setup. Roketsan literature indicates the Alka can be fitted to warships to destroy or disable drones and similar targets. The company says the system can destroy a target with a laser at 500 meters, and destroy a target at 1,000 meters with its electromagnetic weapon.

STM and fellow Turkish contractor Afsat signed an agreement “on engineering solutions for supplying and integrating the main propulsion system” for Pakistan’s corvettes in June 2020. Their propulsion/power-generation system was previously a CODAD (combined diesel and diesel) system before the U.S. cleared the export of gas turbines, allowing a CODAG (combined diesel and gas) system similar to the Ada corvettes to be fitted.

When asked, STM would not say whether this could produce sufficient power to support a directed-energy weapon.

Given the delivery timetable for Pakistan’s new frigates and corvettes, a directed-energy capability may be reality by mid-decade, but Ahmed, the expert at the Center for International Strategic Studies, believes the hypersonic program is more urgent. He said hypersonic technology is part of Pakistan’s “emerging menu of long-range [anti-access, area denial] capabilities that are increasingly going to be needed for maintaining a credible deterrent” against India’s Navy.

This is backed by reports that an Azeri surface-to-air Barak-8 missile system — a weapon also installed on some of India’s destroyers — downed an Armenian Iskander tactical ballistic missile last year, potentially rendering Pakistan’s present subsonic anti-ship missile arsenal vulnerable to interception.

Though Pakistan has acquired CM-302/YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missiles for its Type 054A/P frigates, Ahmed said the hypersonic P282 will enable Pakistan to “leapfrog” to a similar level of capability to India, which already has different BrahMos supersonic missile variants and is developing the hypersonic BrahMos II.

Irrespective of whether the P282 will be a wholly indigenous or collaborative effort, Ahmed views it as a critical program that will spawn land and air weapons potentially “deployed across a variety of platforms.”

Riaz Haq said...

#Turkey begins constructing 4th warship for #Pakistan Navy. The keel-laying ceremony was held at the #Karachi Shipyard. It will have state-of-the-art #weapons & sensors, including surface-to-surface & surface-to-air missiles, & anti-submarine weapons http://sabahdai.ly/_103w

keel-laying ceremony beginning the construction of a MILGEM (National Ship) Ada class corvette tailored for the Pakistan Navy was held in the southern Pakistani port city of Karachi Friday.

The ceremony at the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) – Pakistan Navy's specialized shipbuilding division – was attended by Naval Chief Adm. Amjad Khan Niazi, Pakistan Navy officers and representatives of Turkey's state-run defense firm ASFAT, said an official statement.

Addressing the ceremony, Niazi said the production of indigenous modern warships with the help of Turkey is a proud moment for Pakistan.

The joint venture, he said, will open new avenues of cooperation between Ankara and Islamabad in the field of defense production.

Induction of the MILGEM-class ships, the statement added, would significantly increase the operational capabilities of the Pakistan Navy.

The ships are being constructed according to modern naval ship class standards and will be equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors, including surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles, and anti-submarine weapons, the statement added.

In July 2018, the Pakistan Navy signed a contract with ASFAT for the acquisition of four MILGEM-class ships. According to the plan, two corvettes will be built in Turkey and the next two will be built in Pakistan, which also involves technology transfer.

MILGEM vessels are 99 meters (325 feet) long with a displacement capacity of 24,000 tons and can move at a speed of 29 nautical miles. The anti-submarine combat frigates can be hidden from radar.

In October 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, along with then-Chief of Pakistan Navy Adm. Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, had cut the metal plate of the first MILGEM Ada class corvette during a ceremony in Istanbul.

Turkey is one of the 10 countries in the world that can build, design and maintain warships using its national capabilities.

Riaz Haq said...


Shen Shiwei沈诗伟
@shen_shiwei

China state-affiliated media
Introducing PNS Tughril Flag of Pakistan - Most advanced Type 054-A/P guided-missile commissioned into
@PakistanNavy
service at a ceremony held at HZ Shipyard, Shanghai, China.Flag of China

https://twitter.com/shen_shiwei/status/1457677204251295745?s=20

--------------

The PNS Tughril is the first hull of four Type 054 frigates being constructed for the Pakistan Navy, the Pakistan Navy said, noting that the ship is a technologically advanced and highly capable platform with enormous surface-to-surface, surface-to-air and underwater firepower, besides extensive surveillance potentials.

Being equipped with state-of-the-art combat management and an electronic warfare system along with modern self-defense capabilities, the Type 054A/P frigate can simultaneously execute a number of naval warfare missions in a highly intense multi-threat environment, the Pakistani statement said.

The frigate is the largest and most advanced warship China has ever exported, CSSC said.

The completion and the delivery of the vessel is another major achievement of China-Pakistan friendship, and will further enhance the all-weather strategic cooperative partnership between the two countries, the Chinese shipbuilding company said in the statement.

Pakistani Ambassador to China Moin ul Haque said that the commissioning of the PNS Tughril ushers in a new chapter in Pakistan-China friendship that has matured through the test of time and remained steadfast in all domains, according to the statement from the Pakistan Navy.

In the context of the overall security paradigm of the region, Tughril-class frigates will strengthen Pakistan Navy's capabilities to respond to maritime challenges to ensure seaward defense, maintain peace, stability and balance of power in the Indian Ocean region, the ambassador said, who also praised the concerted efforts made by China for the landmark achievement by the timely delivery of the well-equipped and potent frigate despite the global pandemic.

The Vice Party Secretary and Director of the Board at CSSC Du Gang also applauded the timely construction of PNS Tughril while emphasizing that the commissioning of the ship is a major milestone and a testimony of the China-Pakistan long-lived friendship, as both countries are bound by the affinity of trust, compassion and commonality.

The head of the Pakistan Navy Mission overseeing construction of the 054A/P frigate, Commodore Rashid Mehmood Sheikh, said that the PNS Tughril, being a multi-mission capable frigate, will form the mainstay of the Pakistan Navy fleet while bolstering the Pakistan Navy's maritime defense capabilities, according to the Pakistani statement.

The delivery of the frigate also serves as a milestone in expanding the influence of Chinese vessels as products and boosting their competitiveness in the international market, CSSC said.

Zhang Junshe, a senior research fellow at the PLA Naval Research Academy, told the Global Times in a previous interview that the Type 054A, on which the Type 054A/P is based, is China's most advanced frigate.

Compared to previous Chinese frigates, the new ship has better air defense capability, as it is equipped with an improved radar system and a larger amount of missiles with a longer range, Zhang said, noting that the Type 054A frigate also has world-class stealth capability.

https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202111/1238452.shtml

Riaz Haq said...

The Tughril is the first of four frigates that China built for Pakistan under an agreement signed in 2017. Frigates are multi-role warships that are capable of carrying out anti-aircraft, anti-ship and anti-submarine missions.

https://www.theweek.in/news/world/2021/11/09/pakistan-inducts-most-advanced-warship-china-has-exported-details-here.html

The Tughril, which displaces around 4,000 tonnes, is a derivative of the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 054A class frigate. Analysts have considered the Type 054A the workhorse of the PLAN. The US Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) estimated in 2020 that at least 30 Type 054A frigates entered service with the PLAN since 2008.

The frigates being built for Pakistan were designated Type 054A/P and feature more advanced radars than the ships in Chinese service. Zhang Junshe, a senior research fellow at the PLA Naval Research Academy, told the Global Times the Tughril has better air defence capability compared with the Chinese ships and has a "larger amount of missiles with a longer range". China State Shipbuilding Corporation Limited (CSSC), the ship's builder, was quoted by Global Times as saying "the frigate is the largest and most advanced warship China has ever exported".

According to reports, the Tughril and her sister ships will be armed with the Chinese-made HQ-16 surface-to-air missile that can destroy aircraft and anti-ship missiles to a range of around 70km. It also carries anti-ship cruise missiles and anti-submarine torpedoes.




Vertical launch advantage

The Tughril will be the first Pakistan Navy ship equipped with a vertical launch system for surface-to-air missiles. In comparison with mechanical launchers, which can only fire a maximum of one or two missiles at once, a vertical launch system can simultaneously fire multiple missiles as the weapons are stored in a ready-to-fire cell. Vertical launch systems are considered more suitable to deal with large-scale air attacks.

The Tughril is estimated to have a vertical launch system equipped with 32 missile-launching cells.

A Pakistan Navy statement issued at the commissioning emphasised the "PNS Tughril, being a multi-mission capable frigate, will form the mainstay of the Pakistan Navy fleet while bolstering the Pakistan Navy's maritime defence capabilities."

The Type 054AP is one element of the Pakistan Navy's ongoing fleet modernisation initiative. Pakistan is also acquiring smaller corvettes from Turkey and up to eight diesel-electric submarines from China.

Riaz Haq said...

Richard Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, told Defense News the speculation can be put aside with the unveiling of a Pakistani ship-launched ballistic missile, dubbed P282.

https://www.defensenews.com/naval/2021/11/09/pakistan-receives-new-chinese-made-frigate-how-would-it-fare-against-indias-navy/

“Imagery revealed during the commissioning of Tughril confirms that the ‘P282′ is the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) CM-401 hypersonic-speed capable anti-ship ballistic missile,” Fisher said. The CM-401 is a short-range ballistic missile that can maneuver to avoid interception and can allegedly travel at Mach 6.


Highlighting the flexibility of the Type 054A/P, Fisher said the Tughril is the “first Chinese export warship to feature a 32-cell vertical launch system that can be armed with an array of anti-aircraft missiles, ship and land-attack cruise missiles and anti-submarine missiles, as they are on PLA Navy Type 054A frigates.”

The Type 054A/P also carries HHQ-16 medium-range air defense missiles that provide an area defense capability. Pakistan has experienced a capability gap since its lease ran out with the United States for four American Brooke-class frigates in 1994.

Pakistan’s four F-22P Zulfiquar (Type 053H3-derivative) frigates are incapable of dealing with modern missile threats, but might receive upgrades with the fielding of the Type-054A/Ps.

Tom Waldwyn, a naval expert at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, said the Type 054A/P ships “will be a considerable improvement … particularly in terms of [anti-submarine warfare] capability” over the 1970s-era ex-British Type 21 frigates that Pakistan acquired in the 1990s. The Type 21s will now undergo decommissioning.

However, he added, India’s Navy “maintains a significant numbers and capability advantage over Pakistan” despite its own programs having suffered “significant delays” and the service’s spread-out deployment among several coastal areas.

Furthermore, the “potentially more lucrative Indian market” had lured European, Russian and American firms away from supplying Pakistan, essentially forcing Islamabad to rely on Beijing for defense equipment, he said.

Though this may have hampered Pakistan’s ability to acquire cutting-edge defense equipment, Waldwyn said the delivery of eight Type 039B Yuan/Hangor II-class submarines will “enlarge the fleet and be a significant capability improvement, particularly if they are fitted with long-range cruise missiles.”

Citing Pakistan’s tests of the submarine-launched Harbah nuclear-capable cruise missile, he said their service entry “would be far more significant to the strategic balance than a handful of new frigates.”

Riaz Haq said...

Aselsan’s Zargana to protect Pakistan’s Agosta 90B submarines against torpedoes


ZARGANA System uses ZOKA Acoustic jammers and decoys. Acoustic jammer is a broadband high power acoustic noise generator that covers all operating frequency bands of both classical and modern acoustic homing torpedoes operating in passive, active, or combined homing modes. As a softkill measure, acoustic decoys are aimed to deceive incoming torpedoes by emulating dynamic and acoustic behaviors of the submarine.

Zargana system was fitted Turkish Navy’s PREVEZE-class (Type 209/1400) submarines, which was spotted by Yoruk Isik and released on Twitter in January 2021.

-----------------

Turkey's leading defence company Aselsan has completed factory acceptance tests (FAT) of the Zargana Torpedo Countermeasure System for the Pakistan Navy's Agosta 90B-class submarines mid-life upgrade (MLU) project.

The tests of Zargana were attended by Pakistan’s Attachee, a Pakistan Navy representative, and STM Defence officials, according to Aselsan’s most recent bulletin. The FATs were also carried out as part of Zargana’s integration with Indonesian submarines.

Aselsan made the initial announcement of the export of the Zargana torpedo countermeasure system to Pakistan in May 2019. The contract is part of the Pakistan Navy’s Agosta 90B MLU program, which includes the modernization of three Agosta 90B submarines under a contract signed in 2016 with the Turkish STM Company as the prime contractor. STM officials revealed during the Naval Systems Seminar held in Ankara on 15 and 16 November that they delivered the first modernized submarine, PNS Hamza. According to multiple OSINT reporters, the second submarine’s upgrade is complete.

Because officials did not disclose relevant information, it is unknown when the next trials will take place or which submarine will be equipped. The best option appears to be outfitting the third Agosta 90B-class submarine, PNS Saad (S-138), which is currently being modernized.

In the same bulletin, Aselsan announced that it had completed the FAT of its MITOSTM WECDIS (Warship Electronic Chart Display), an electronic map-based navigation system that assists navigation by providing information compatible with current electronic maps and provides route planning and route tracking capability to navigation personnel, for the Pakistan Navy’s first Babur-class corvette.

The defense industry collaboration between Turkey and Pakistan has grown year after year. Aside from the MLU of Agosta 90B submarines, Turkey is building four Babur-class (PN MILGEM) corvettes for the Pakistan Navy. Though officials did not provide any details regarding Pakistan’s Jinnah-class frigate project, officials from KUASAR Marine, a Turkish engineering firm, informed Naval News in an interview that they will be in charge of the frigate’s design.

Riaz Haq said...

Turkish Aerospace, Pakistani institution to jointly produce UAV parts

https://www.dailysabah.com/business/defense/turkish-aerospace-pakistani-institution-to-jointly-produce-uav-parts

One of Turkey’s leading unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) producers, Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI), has inked a contract with Pakistan's National Engineering and Science Commission (NESCOM) to produce components for TAI's medium-altitude, long-endurance (MALE) combat drone, Anka.

TAI and NESCOM will be jointly responsible for employment, resource and technology transfer within the scope of the agreement that was inked to expand the markets for the Turkish drones, an Anadolu Agency (AA) report said Saturday.

TAI General Manager Temel Kotil said, “The contract we made with Pakistan within the scope of our Anka UAV systems will provide significant gains to the UAV industry. This acquisition, especially with Pakistan’s National Engineering and Science Commission, will strengthen our UAVs.”

The Anka UAV performed its maiden flight in September 2016 and entered serial production in 2017.

The drone, which is manufactured locally, is currently in active use by the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK), the Gendarmerie General Command and the National Intelligence Organization (MIT).

Anka can stay in the air for more than 24 hours at an altitude of 30,000 feet (9,144 meters) with a payload capacity of 250 kilograms (550 pounds).

Anka has three configurations. The Anka-S configuration has Beyond Line Of Sight (BLOS) capability through satellite links and is being used by the TSK and the Gendarmerie units. The Anka-B configuration can use Link Relay capabilities and is also used by the TSK and the Gendarmerie The Anka-I, which is the configuration that performs signal intelligence, is used by the MIT.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan S-139 #sub sinks frigate with a single torpedo shot. During #SEASPARK-2022 exercise, guided missiles and torpedoes were fired at various targets. One shot was fired by the PNS/M HAMZA submarine [S-139] that sank decommissioned frigate @BGMilitary https://bulgarianmilitary.com/2022/03/19/watch-pakistan-s-139-sub-sinks-frigate-with-a-single-torpedo-shot/

Agosta-class 90B submarine PNS/M HAMZA [S-139], upgraded by Turkey’s STM for the Pakistani Navy, managed to hit and sink a decommissioned frigate with a single torpedo shot, learned BulgarianMilitary.com, citing the Turkish online portal savunmasanayist.com.

During the tactical exercise SEASPARK-2022, which is held two years after the command of the Pakistani Navy and held between February 17 and March 13, 2022, this year, guided missiles and torpedoes were fired at various targets.

One of the actual shots was fired by the PNS/M HAMZA submarine [S-139], which was upgraded as part of the Pakistani submarine modernization project Agosta-class 90B [Padyom] and delivered to the Pakistani Navy on 29 April 2021.

The target is destroyed with one torpedo shot!
PNS/M HAMZA [S-139], equipped with Turkish engineering solutions from STM, destroyed a Tariq-class ship [frigate Type 21], decommissioned with a single torpedo shot, model DM-2A4. Military delegations invited to the demonstration followed the exercise from the Pakistani marine supply tanker PNS Moawin, which was designed and built by STM and delivered in 2018.

PNS Hamza was designed and constructed by the KSEW Ltd. under the technology transfer agreement with France in 1994. The Turkish company STM has modernized this submarine. The submarine has an integrated underwater command and control system [IUCCS & C2IS], weapons control system [WCS], sonar systems, periscopes [attack and navigation], electronic warfare, radar, data distribution system, electronic map system, and information system STMDENGİZ.

STM and Pakistani submarines
STM won the tender of the Pakistani navy for medernization of the sub years ago, beating French rivals in the field. In 2016, Turkey outsourced for the first time the local development and engineering of a weapons system in an area that requires advanced technology. Turkey is intensively developing its engineering and technological development in the field of naval combat weapons systems, including submarines.

STM is currently upgrading two other Agosta-class submarines, again the Pakistani Navy.

Riaz Haq said...

Indian View of PNS Haibat:

Will Pakistan’s indigenous ‘PNS Haibat’ prove to be a gamechanger for its defence industry or the dragon’s proxy?
Security columnist and analyst Rear Admiral Vineet Bakhshi (Retd) highlighted the Pakistani industry’s collaborative effort with Beijing.

https://www.financialexpress.com/defence/will-pakistans-indigenous-pns-haibat-prove-to-be-a-gamechanger-for-its-defence-industry-or-the-dragons-proxy/2479761/

By Aritra Banerjee & Shreya Mundhra

The Pakistan Navy commissioned its first indigenous Fast Attack Craft Missile FAC (M) PNS Haibat. Pakistan’s Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) issued a statement announcing the commissioning of the country’s indigenous vessel: “PNS Haibat is the first project designed by Maritime Technologies Complex and constructed by Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KSEW) without any foreign technical assistance.”

The indigenous aspect of this development and its regional and global significance seems to be a divisive subject. Abhijit Iyer-Mitra, a senior fellow at the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies is of the opinion that the commissioning of PNS Haibat is not particularly geopolitically worthwhile, given that that requires the weapon systems and the electronics to be indigenous. “In this case, the guns seem to be Turkish, the missile seems to be Chinese and the propulsion seems to be Franco-German. So, the possibility of re-export or rather export-export using a re-export licence-from these three suppliers seems unlikely,” he stated.

The Chinese involvement seems to have cast an ominous shadow on the development, too. In a scathing review, Captain DK Sharma (Retd), a former Indian Navy Spokesperson, notes that “Pakistan on its own cannot make anything. So now it is a kind of proxy accretion of assets positioned by China; they are slowly and steadily building up their force. Over the past few years, they have been giving them submarines, including the latest AIP submarines. Four are being built in China, and four are being constructed in KS&EW. They have also given them the latest frigates. The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) is being augmented by various J-10 series nomenclature.” Capt. Sharma believes that the building of this craft points towards Beijing making a “colony”, following the trend it set by laying a debt trap for Sri Lanka.

However, analysts based in Pakistan view the development differently.

“The ship will enhance the coastal defence capability of the Pakistan Navy. Armed with locally developed ‘Harbah’ Anti-Ship and Land Attack cruise missiles, this Fast attack craft will play its part in coastal defence. This ship is completely designed and manufactured by the Pakistan Navy,” noted Umair Aslam, Founding Editor of Global Defence Insight (GDI) – a Rawalpindi-based strategic affairs think tank. “In the current geopolitical context, Pakistan appears to be concentrating on its naval capabilities. China is supplying it with new frigates. Turkey has also been supplying Milgem class corvettes and other naval vessels. PNS Haibat’s induction is also one of Pakistan’s naval modernisation goals. This indigenisation effort will enable the Pakistan Navy to pursue more advanced programmes in the future, such as frigates and corvettes,” he commented.

Referring to indigenisation of Pakistan’s defence industry, Syed Ali Abbas Bukhari, Co-Founding Editor of GDI said that “the country is already working on it, having developed state-of-the-art fighter jets like the JF-17, Super Mushak training jets, and Khalid Main Battle Tanks, to name a few.” Bukhari also noted that the Pakistan Navy has taken this significant step, “demonstrating its trust in its own capacity” to carry out such initiatives.


Riaz Haq said...

Should India insist on large warships after sinking of Russia’s Moskva?

Moskva rests at the bottom of the Black Sea and its loss could animate India’s maritime debate involving large naval ships. But the warning sign that must hang over it, is that its relevance to the Indian context can be different.

https://theprint.in/opinion/should-india-insist-on-large-warships-after-sinking-of-russias-moskva-the-lesson-not-to-take/921688/

The loss of a key surface naval asset to cruise missiles provides fodder to buttress some arguments in an ongoing global debate within maritime powers. The debate is an offshoot of a larger debate on the survivability of large platforms like aircraft carriers due to their vulnerability to precision-guided munitions like cruise missiles. It is a debate that is particularly relevant to India and one that continues to animate the Indian Navy’s insistence on the continued relevance of the aircraft carrier.

Technological advancements in surveillance capabilities that are networked with missiles based on air, land, and sea platforms have certainly increased the vulnerability of surface naval assets. Accuracy is significantly improved by using a combination of Global Positioning Signals (GPS), laser guidance and inertial navigation systems. Simultaneously, the development of countermeasures also reduces the vulnerability factor. It is a cat-and-mouse game in technology development that mostly tends to favour the attacker over the defender. The obvious route for the attacker is to overwhelm the defender’s ability by firing a large number of missiles simultaneously on the same target. Also, the pace of development and cost of missiles that can penetrate the defender’s missile shield is quicker and cheaper than developing and fielding missile defences.

Riaz Haq said...

ANALYSIS: PAKISTAN’S JINNAH-CLASS FRIGATE PROGRAM

https://quwa.org/2022/02/20/analysis-pakistans-jinnah-class-frigate-program-2/

Initiated in 2015, the Pakistan Navy’s (PN) wide-reaching fleet modernization and expansion efforts are now fully underway. The PN has begun to (or will) induct new frigates, corvettes, submarines, jet-powered maritime patrol aircraft, and additional helicopters as well as drones.

However, the PN’s vision to build a 50-strong surface fleet (inclusive of 20 “major surface vessels”) offers the most interesting glimpse of this service arm’s evolution.

One can expect Pakistan to double-down on anti-access and area-denial (A2/AD) projects, like submarines (and it has), but growing the surface fleet to over 20 ‘large’ warships was an intriguing turn. It indicates that the PN is more focused than ever on securing Pakistan’s sea-lanes with an overt presence, as opposed to strictly secretive or less observable elements, like submarines and aircraft.

One of the keystone ingredients of the PN’s surface fleet growth plans is the Jinnah-Class Frigate (JCF), an original warship that Pakistan is designing in collaboration with Turkey. Based on its specifications and its expected capabilities, the JCF is the blueprint of its future, workhorse warship.

Background
The JCF is a key part of the PN MILGEM program. Under this program, the PN ordered four new customized multi-mission corvettes based on the Turkish Ada design. However, it also signed onto a joint-project with the principal contractor, ASFAT Inc. (Military Factor and Shipyard Management), to design, develop, and build an original frigate tailored for the PN’s requirements.

This frigate is the JCF. PN officials have only recently begun to discuss the JCF in detail.[1] It seems that the JCF is an elaborate project. It involves the transfer of intellectual property (IP) of the JCF to Pakistan while also supporting an upgrade of KSEW to support the project.

The original design expertise and IP are crucial pieces. Traditionally, when the PN ordered ships based on ‘transfer-of-technology’ (ToT) agreements, the OEM would supply kits-of-materiel. In most situations, the OEM likely determined the selection of critical inputs, such as steel and propulsion.

However, with the JCF, Pakistan might gain the ability to control more of the cost by choosing the critical input suppliers. So, in theory, it could source the steel through a competitive bidding process, for example. By controlling the design/IP, the PN could potentially even open the tender to domestic suppliers, thereby incentivizing the private sector to develop indigenous alternatives…

Riaz Haq said...

ASFAT Selects SSI For Pakistan’s Jinnah Class Frigate

https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2022/04/asfat-selects-ssi-for-jinnah-class/

ASFAT (Askeri Fabrika ve Tersane İşletme A.Ş.), a state-owned leading Turkish defense contractor, has selected SSI ShipConstructor as the engineering and detailed design solution as part of their design support for the Pakistani Navy Jinnah Class Frigate program.

Founded in 2018 as part of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, ASFAT is responsible for developing, managing, and utilizing the public naval shipyards in Turkey and providing design, construction, sustainment, and training for both Turkish and foreign navies.

“We’re excited to be working with a leader in the Turkish defense industry. ASFAT has previously demonstrated its commitment to innovative technologies. By choosing SSI’s solution, they can take advantage of the latest innovations, reduce costs, and eliminate many of the typical change management risks present in naval projects.”

The Jinnah class frigate project’s needs demanded a solution that could be implemented quickly and return value as soon as possible. The use of SSI’s solutions also aligns ASFAT with global leaders from the US, Canadian, and other naval and coast guard shipbuilders currently designing, constructing, and delivering vessels for navies.

ASFAT was aided in making its decision by SSI’s Turkish Partner, TECNOR, whose local industry knowledge, shipbuilding experience, and sales and technical support will help ensure a smooth transition for ASFAT.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan to launch 3rd Babur class guided missile heavy corvette this month

https://en.dailypakistan.com.pk/13-May-2022/pakistan-to-launch-3rd-babur-class-guided-missile-heavy-corvette-this-month


According to the Pakistan Strategic Forum, "The class of four Babur corvettes are being built under the joint venture MILGEM project between Pakistan and Turkey, with 2 ships being built in Istanbul, Turkey and 2 in Karachi, Pakistan at a cost of around $1.5 Billion to the Pakistan Navy. The Babur Class Corvettes are 3,000 tonne multi-mission platforms, equipped for anti-ship warfare (AShW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW) as well as anti-air warfare (AAW).

"In the Anti-Surface category, the corvettes will be armed with ATMACA anti-ship missiles, with two four-cell launchers. ASuW helicopters can also be deployed from the ship, carrying anti-ship and anti-submarine weapons.

"In anti-air warfare, the corvettes have a 12 cell GWS-26 vertical launch system (VLS) that carries the MBDA Albatros NG/Common Anti-Air Modular Missile-Extended Range (CAMM-ER) surface-to-air missile (SAM) with a range of between 50-65 kilometres. The Babur-class will also use an Aselsan Gökdeniz dual 35 mm close-in-weapon-system (CIWS) with Aselsan ATOM airburst ammunition for terminal and point air defense.

"In Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), the corvettes have two 3-cell 324 mm lightweight torpedoes launchers as well as the Yakamos hull-mounted sonar and a HIZIR towed array sonar system as well as decoy. ASW helicopters can also be deployed from the ship with submarine hunter-killer capabilities.

"Other weapons systems include a 76 mm OTO Melara Super Rapid main naval gun and two Aselsan STOP 25 mm machine guns. The ships will also have a 10-ton capacity helicopter hangar and deck. The warships have a range of 9,300 kilometres and are powered by General Electric LM2500 CODAD engines.

"The electronics suit for the four ships will be supplied by Aselsan at a cost of 215 million dollars which includes a main 3D AESA S-band naval radar, ASELSAN ALPER LPI Surface Radar, AKREP (AKR-D Block B-1/2) Fire Control Radar, SATCOM, a new network-oriented battle-management system, ARES-2NC ESM modules, ELINT and SIGINT modules, Electronic Warfare (EW) modules, SeaEye-AHTAPOT EO Reconnaisance and Survellience System, ASELSAN Piri (Infrared Search and Track) IRST system, as well as the Yakamos hull-mounted sonar system and HIZIR torpedo countermeasure system. The HIZIR is a complete suite consisting of a towed array, decoy array and expendable decoys."

Riaz Haq said...

Is Indian Navy's aircraft carrier a big threat to Pakistan Navy?

https://cscr.pk/explore/themes/defense-security/is-indian-aircraft-carrier-a-big-threat-for-pakistan-navy/


The possession of an aircraft carrier is of significant value for any navy. The idea behind the development of an aircraft carrier is to project power at a long distance in peacetime and achieve air dominance at sea during a war. It restricts the adversary warships outside of a designated area, acts as a coercive tool, protects interests at sea, and exercises influence over an area. All major powers having interests outside of their territories have developed them, especially after World War II when the potential of carriers to strike targets accurately at a long-distance using aircraft was effectively demonstrated. India operates one aircraft carrier; another is under sea trials, and the third one is planned. The possession of these carriers lifts India as a major power in the Indian Ocean Region. However, the possession of carriers may have more utility during peacetime than a full-fledged war due to the growing effectiveness and success of anti-ship capabilities.

Indian Maritime Doctrine and Aircraft Carriers

Indian Maritime Doctrine outlines a large area as an area of interest for the Indian Navy to strengthen its position as a blue water force capable of operating and projecting power beyond its home waters. The doctrine enlists primary, secondary, and “other areas” as areas of interest based on the location of the Indian Diaspora and overseas investments vital for the Indian Navy. It also enlists various enabling concepts to protect interests in these areas like “sea control” and “sea denial.”

The backbone of a blue water navy is the aircraft carrier and the Indian Navy plans to possess three aircraft carriers in total, giving it the flexibility to have two operational carriers all the times. INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier with a displacement of 45,000 tons is the current operational carrier of India. The under-trial carrier is domestically built INS Vikrant and is slated to be commissioned early next year. The construction of follow-on to Vikrant is being debated in India due to the questions on the utility of aircraft carriers in comparison to submarines. It has not been approved by the Indian Government yet. Indian Navy operates two squadrons of MiG 29K carrier-borne multi-role aircraft inducted in 2010. Various operational problems have been observed in the aircraft like engine, airframe, and fly-by-wire system.

Limitations of Indian Aircraft Carriers

While the anti-ship capabilities are becoming common, more advanced, and precise, Indian carriers are not among the most advanced in the world. There are also certain limitations of the Indian carriers to operate and effectively project power against Pakistan. Firstly, Indian carriers have limited displacement and can carry up to 36 mixes of aircraft. The limited displacement also means reduced fuel load and an operational range of aircraft, forcing it to operate near the adversary. Displacement capacity also impacts the weapons load on the aircraft. Secondly, the aircraft on the carriers are allocated defensive and offensive roles. Increasing numbers for one role can have catastrophic implications for the other. Thirdly, take-off and landing on the carrier are totally different from ground-based landing and take-off. Indian carriers use Short Take-off But Assisted Recovery (STOBAR) take-off and landing system, which has a slower take-off rate than the more advanced Catapult Assisted Take-off But Arrested Recovery (CATOBAR) system.

Riaz Haq said...

Is Indian Navy's aircraft carrier a big threat to Pakistan Navy?

https://cscr.pk/explore/themes/defense-security/is-indian-aircraft-carrier-a-big-threat-for-pakistan-navy/

Pakistan’s Counter Options against Aircraft Carriers

Pakistan is beefing up its muscles against the increasing number of Indian warships and capabilities. Part of its efforts is focused on developing anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) capabilities. It is developing various anti-ship capabilities to effectively neutralize the Indian advantage of large numbers of warships and aircraft carriers. There are three layers of defence against Indian aircraft if deployed against Pakistan.

Firstly, Pakistan deploys anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM) on its submarines. Pakistan currently operates two Agosta-70 submarines that can fire Harpoon anti-ship missiles, three Agosta 90B submarines that can carry Exocet anti-ship missiles. Eight submarines are on order from China which will also have anti-ship capabilities. Secondly, it has also developed or acquired several ASCMs such as Harba ASCM launched from the ship and the air-launched CM-400AKG anti-ship missile with supersonic speed. The coastal/land-based Zarb ASCM provides the third line of defence in the coastal waters of Pakistan against the intruding carrier. The Navy is also reportedly developing a supersonic cruise missile and an anti-ship ballistic missile. The development of anti-ship ballistic missiles will create a long buffer zone against the Indian carrier depending on the missile’s range.

Indian Navy will seriously consider the growing effectiveness of Pakistan’s anti-ship capabilities for the deployment of its carriers. These capabilities will force Indian carriers to operate from a safer distance making it less useful against the country. Even if trying to carry out a blockade of Pakistan or achieve air dominance against Pakistan in the Arabian sea, it risks its survival against Pakistan’s potent anti-ship capabilities.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan's 3rd MILGEM corvette 'PNS BADR' launched in Karachi - Naval News

https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2022/05/pakistans-3rd-milgem-corvette-pns-badr-launched-in-karachi/


Turkish state-owned company ASFAT ceremonially launched the third PN MILGEM corvette for Pakistan Navy (PN), PNS BADR (281), at Pakistan's Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KS&EW) on 20 May 2022.


PN MILGEM Program consists of 4 ships, 2 ships will be built in Istanbul Shipyard Command and 2 ships will be built in KSEW. The program started on 11 March 2019. 4 ships are planned to be delivered in August 2023, February 2024, August 2024, and February 2025, respectively.

The exact configuration of the Pakistan Milgem-class ships has not been made public yet. During the Aman Naval Exercise held in February 2019, Admiral Abbasi said that Pakistan ships will be fitted with a 16-Cell VLS behind the main gun. It is expected that the Babur-class corvettes will be armed with MBDA’s Albatros NG air defence system and Harbah Anti-ship and land attack missiles.

The propulsion system for all the MILGEM ships consist of one LM2500 gas turbine in a combined diesel and gas turbine configuration with two diesel engines; total propulsion power is 31,600 kilowatts.

Turkey’s Ada-class are multipurpose corvettes able to conduct a wide a range of missions, including reconnaissance, surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, surface-to-surface and surface-to-air warfare.

Key data:

Displacement: 2,926 tonnes
Length: 108.2 m
Beam: 14.8 m
Draft: 4.05 m
Propulsion: CODAG
Max speed: 31 knots
Range: 3500 nautical miles
Endurance: 15 days at sea
Crew: 93+40

Riaz Haq said...

#India joins as 35th member of #maritime counterterrorism #partnership that includes #Pakistan, #US, #Australia, #Bahrain, #Egypt, #France & #Germany. #PakistanNavy has held the most commanderships of the CTF 150 and CTF 151, at 12 & 9 times, respectively. https://theprint.in/defence/whats-combined-military-forces-bahrain-us-backed-coalition-india-joined-on-quad-sidelines/970558/

What’s Combined Military Forces-Bahrain? US-backed coalition India joined on Quad sidelines
India is 35th member of the maritime counterterrorism partnership that also includes Pakistan, Australia, Bahrain, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany and Greece, among others.


Established in 2001 with only 12 members, the coalition — then called the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) — was formed as a coalition of regional and international like-minded partners to counter the threat of international terrorism and uphold the international rules-based order.

The United States Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT) was tasked with leading the then CMF in 2001.

Today, the CMF-B is primarily tasked with ensuring stability and security across 3.2 million square miles of international waters by acting against illegal non-state actors operating in vital sea lines of communication. Its scope has expanded from just counterterrorism to counternarcotics, countersmuggling operations, and suppressing piracy.

The coalition is headquartered in Bahrain, along with the NAVCENT and the 5th fleet of the US.

Other Asian members include Pakistan, the Philippines, Seychelles, Singapore and Malaysia.

Participation in the CMF-B is voluntary — it’s mandated neither by a political agreement nor a military one.

So far, India has been conducting similar anti-piracy missions on its own.

“With India now joining this grouping, it will operate in coordination with the CMF-B members,” a defence source told ThePrint. “Currently, India has two ships deployed round the clock between the Gulf of Aden and the Persian Gulf for anti-piracy and anti-smuggling operations.”

The details of India’s membership have yet to be worked out, the sources said.

“These will be finalised in due course of time,” a source added. “The modalities will map out how many ships India will deploy and whether they will start by deploying personnel.”

CMF-B task forces
The work of the CMF-B is divided into four combined task forces — the CTF 150, CTF 151, CTF 152, and CTF 153.

The CTF 150 focuses on ensuring maritime security in the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean.

Participating nations have included Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Spain, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Command of CTF 150 generally rotates between nations on a four-monthly basis. It’s currently being commanded by the Pakistan Navy.

CTF 151 focuses on counterpiracy. The CTF 152 aims to ensure maritime security in the Arabian Gulf (also known as Persian Gulf) and is currently being commanded by the Kuwait Navy.

The CTF 153 — which was established in April 2022 — focuses on ensuring maritime security in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, and is currently being commanded by the US Navy.

Pakistan has held the most commanderships of the CTF 150 and CTF 151, at 12 and 9 times, respectively.

As an associate member, India will reportedly not get command of the task forces’ and will also have a limited say in planning operations.

Structurally, the CMF-B is commanded by a US Navy vice-admiral. The vice-admiral also serves as the commander of NAVCENT and the US Navy’s 5th Fleet.

The deputy commander of the CMF-B is a commodore of the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan boosts #defense budget by nearly 6% in PKR to $7.19 billion in FY 2023. Official figure for #military expenditures amounts to about 2.2% of its gross domestic product — a drop from 2.45% of its #GDP compared to the fiscal 2021-2022 time frame.
https://www.defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2022/06/10/pakistan-boosts-defense-budget-by-nearly-6/

Though mainly covering salary increases, some of the extra money is earmarked for infrastructure such as the continued development of Jinnah Naval Base in Ormara, the Navy’s main operational base, and a naval air base in Turbat.

Official figures state the 83 billion rupee (U.S. $412 million) increase pushes the defense budget up to nearly 1.45 trillion rupees (U.S. $7.19 billion). That implies the 2021 defense budget was about $7.49 billion.

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a Sweden-based think think, found that Pakistan’s military-related expenditures for 2021 came to $11.3 billion. However, the difference could come down to how the procurement budget is created.

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a Sweden-based think think, found that Pakistan’s military-related expenditures for 2021 came to $11.3 billion (including pensions). However, the difference could come down to how the procurement budget is created.


Amid the ongoing threat of domestic terrorism and the need to maintain a credible deterrent against India, the fate of Pakistan’s economy does not bode well, according to Pakistan expert Claude Rakisits, who teaches at the Australian National University.

“Pakistan’s economic situation is in dire straits. This makes it difficult for the government to buy new hardware or even plan ahead for new acquisitions,” he said.

Brian Cloughley, an analyst and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad, has tracked developments in Pakistan for decades, and he doubts the government’s fiscal approach will be different from previous ones that failed to address underlying issues, including the country’s elite effectively ruling for their own benefit, leading to Pakistan’s cycle of economic woes.


“It is likely, however, that there will be announcement of deferment of expenditure plans for at least some acquisitions, if only to try to convince the [World Bank and International Monetary Fund] that their present, fairly benevolent policy on Pakistan should be maintained,” he said.

But he also believes Pakistan can likely rely on its allies and other friendly nations to carry the load. “The Chinese and the Saudis will probably continue to support Pakistan’s military posture and plans, and the current — most serious — economic crisis will have little effect on the military overall.”

Rakisits agreed that Pakistan might rely on China, although Beijing will likely step in for its own benefit.

“China has a vital interest in ensuring that not only does Pakistan’s economic situation not get worse, which could threaten the overall stability of the country and the viability of its CPEC project, but that it is in a position to maintain its defense capability,” Rakisits said, referring to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which is meant to improve infrastructure to strengthen trade between the two countries.

“Accordingly, It’s almost certain that Beijing will assist Pakistan financially in one way or another, especially in light of the West’s increased interest in selling military hardware to India,” he added.

Riaz Haq said...

China Delivers Its ‘Most Advanced’ Frigate – PNS Taimur – To Pakistan; Navy Says Will Boost Combat Capabilities


https://eurasiantimes.com/china-delivers-its-most-advanced-frigate-pns-taimur-to-pakistan-navy/


The Pakistan Navy received the second Type 054A/P frigate (PNS Taimur) from China on Thursday, significantly boosting the country’s ambitions to reinforce its maritime frontiers.

According to the state-run Global Times, PNS Taimur was commissioned at the Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai, China.

This is the second of the four Type 054 A/P frigates China produced for the Pakistan Navy. In January, the Pakistan Navy Fleet received its first Type 054A/P frigate, the PNS Tughril. The other two are being built in China.

Taimur is a competent and technologically powerful maritime asset equipped with advanced combat management, electronic warfare systems, and high-tech weapons and sensors to fight in multi-threat environments, Pakistan Navy said in a statement.

The ships will provide the Pakistan Navy with a sustainable boost in combat power and allow it to take on new challenges in maritime security and regional peace.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Navy's ship 'Taimur' commissioned in China
PNS says frigate equipped with latest combat management, warfare system to fight under multi-threat environment

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2362860/pakistan-navys-ship-taimur-commissioned-in-china


A second of the four Type 054 A/P Frigates, Pakistan Navy ship 'Taimur' was commissioned at the Hudong Zhonghua shipyard in China.

According to an official statement issued on Thursday, the head of the Pakistan Navy Mission in China Commodore Rashid Mehmood Sheikh graced the occasion as the chief guest.


The communique further stated that Taimur is a technologically advanced and highly capable sea asset having hi-tech weapons and sensors, the latest combat management and an electronic warfare system to fight in a multi-threat environment.

These ships, it added, will provide a sustainable boost to the combat capability of the Pakistan Navy and enable it to meet emerging challenges in the domain of maritime security and regional peace.

Speaking on the occasion, Commodore Rashid underlined that induction of the state-of-the-art frigates will significantly enhance the Pakistan Navy's capabilities in strengthening the defence of sea frontiers.

He praised the concerted efforts made by the China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC), China Shipbuilding Trading Company (CSTC), China Ship Development & Design Centre (CSDDC), HZ Shipyard and PLA (Navy) for their "landmark achievement and timely delivery of the well-equipped and potent frigate."

Later, Deputy Director General Military Product Dept China in his address highlighted that Pakistan and China are cognisant of changing geopolitical environment and taking effective measures to deal with the added responsibilities and evolving challenges together.

Head of Pakistan Navy Mission in China handing over the Command Scroll to Commanding Officer PNS Taimur during the commissioning ceremony in China. He underscored that friendship between the two countries is a pillar of peace and stability in the region.

The ceremony was attended by high-level dignitaries from BOMETEC, OIMC, SASTIND, PLA (N) and CSSC besides Chairmen of CSTC & HZ Shipyard, along with prominent figures of the Pakistani community in China.

The first 054 A/P Frigate PNS TUGHRIL has joined PN Fleet in January 2022, while another two frigates of the same class are presently under construction in China.

Riaz Haq said...

#China & #Pakistan launch #naval drills to counter #US Indo-Pacific strategy. Focus is on attacking maritime targets, tactical maneuvers, anti-#submarine warfare, reinforcing damaged #ships, anti-#aircraft & anti-#missile operations & replenishment at #sea https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/3184897/china-and-pakistan-launch-naval-drills-aimed-countering-us-indo

The Indian Ocean is a vital trading hub, and 80 per cent of China’s oil imports come through the Malacca Strait, the ocean’s busiest “choke point”.

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Lin Minwang, a professor of South Asian studies at Fudan University in Shanghai, said the exercise would help China to expand its engagement in the Indian Ocean and counter US efforts to advance its Indo-Pacific strategy, which emphasises India’s “continued rise” and leadership in the region.
“The strengthening of maritime security between India and the United States has led to China’s greater engagement in the Indian Ocean.”
China must strengthen naval cooperation with countries in the region, including Pakistan, Iran, and Middle Eastern countries, Lin said.

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The maritime exercise – the second in the ‘Sea Guardians’ series – will allow Pakistan to test Chinese-made warships
The drills coincide with US-led Rimpac, which has excluded China since 2018

China and Pakistan have launched a joint naval exercise in Shanghai, with an eye on countering the US Indo-Pacific strategy and responding to security threats in the Indian Ocean.

The four-day “Sea Guardians – 2” maritime exercise, jointly held by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy and Pakistan Navy, started at the Wusong military port, state news agency Xinhua reported.

The exercise aims to advance the strategic partnership between China and Pakistan and improve their joint response to maritime security threats, according to Xinhua.

This is the second time China and Pakistan have held a “Sea Guardians” joint maritime exercise. The first was held in January 2020 in the northern Arabian Sea.

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To counter India, it is important for Pakistan to improve its navy by acquiring advanced equipment from Beijing and enhancing its capabilities through these drills, according to Lin.
The drills coincide with the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (Rimpac), a US-led multinational naval exercise joined by 25 other nations. The exercise began in Hawaii in late June and will last until August.
China took part in Rimpac in 2014 and 2016, but was not invited in 2018 or subsequent years as US-China relations worsened under the administration of former US president Donald Trump.


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The Pakistan Navy sent the PNS Taimur – the second of four powerful Type 054A/P frigates built by China – to take part in the exercise. The ship was delivered to the Pakistan Navy in Shanghai on June 23. The first of the frigates, the PNS Tughril, joined the Pakistan Navy fleet in January.
The Chinese vessels and aircraft taking part in the exercise are mainly from the PLA Eastern Theatre Command. They include the guided-missile frigates Xiangtan and Shuozhou, supply ship Qiandaohu, a submarine, an early warning aircraft, two fighter jets and one helicopter.