Thursday, June 18, 2015

Navy Modernization to Boost Pakistan Shipbuilding Industry

Pakistan is launching domestic construction of warships, submarines and missile boats as part of its ambitious naval modernization program in collaboration with China, according to media reports.

Karachi Shipyard 

Chinese media reports have described a building program involving six of eight S-20 AIP-equipped variants of the Type-039A/Type-041 submarine under negotiation; four "Improved F-22P" frigates equipped with enhanced sensors and weaponry (possibly including the HQ-17 surface-to-air missile developed from the Russian Tor 1/SA-N-9); and six Type-022 Houbei stealth catamaran missile boats, to be built by Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW), according to DefenseNews.

Pakistan is expanding and modernizing its underwater fleet with 8 additional AIP-equipped submarines jointly built with China.  Mansoor Ahmed of Quaid-e-Azam University told Defense News that AIP-equipped conventional submarines "provide reliable second strike platforms, [and] an assured capability resides with [nuclear-powered attack and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines], which are technically very complex and challenging to construct and operate compared to SSKs, and also very capital intensive."

Expansion of KSEW in Karachi includes a new foundry, fabrication facilities to cover all aspects of ship construction, berthing facilities, and two graving docks of 26,000 and 18,000 dead weight tons, spread over 71 acres. A 7,881-ton ship lift transfer system will be completed next year. KSEW will expand to occupy facilities vacated by the Navy as it transfers from Karachi to Ormara. The Pakistan Navy Dockyard, which is adjacent to KSEW, already has facilities upgraded by the French during construction of Agosta-90B submarines.

The Pakistan Navy modernization efforts further expands existing China-Pakistan military manufacturing collaboration at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) which has resulted in design and manufacturing of JF-17 fighter jets for Pakistan Air Force.

JF-17 Fighter Jet
In addition to designing and building military hardware together, Pakistan and China are also increasingly collaborating on manufacturing consumer appliances and products. The Pakistan-China economic corridor project includes setting up of several special economic zones for this purpose. A good example of this cooperation is Haier-Ruba special economic zone in Lahore.  Haier-Ruba joint venture in Pakistan has announced plans to start manufacturing laptops and smartphones in Lahore this year, according to the JV chairman Shah Faisal Afridi. The Haier-Ruba group is one of the largest manufacturers of polyester yarn and home appliances in the country.

The growth of both military and civilian manufacturing industries is helping to develop Pakistan's human capital and creating job opportunities for engineers, technicians and other workers.

Pakistan has taken a page from China's industrialization playbook which shows that the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) led the nation's industrial growth, first with military hardware and then expanding into consumer and industrial product manufacturing.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan to Deploy AIP Subs For 2nd Strike

Pakistani Military Pushing Industrialization

IDEAS 2014: Pakistan's Arms Bazar

Pakistan-China Industrial Corridor to Boost FDI, Manufacturing and Exports

Haier Pakistan to Expand to Consumer Electronics

India's Israel Envy: What If Modi Attacks Pakistan?

Pakistan's Human Capital


Arsalan said...

currently we have two dry docks at the KSEW that need to be increased to AT LEAST four so that it enables us to at least be able to work on two new construction and one dock for maintenance while the fourth one spared as back up/emergency or in case there is increased need so a third project can be started there. If we want to MODERNIZE our navy building one ship at a time than God help us!

S. Afridi said...

success will be linked to two much bigger problems not being addressed, inland navigable waterways & domestic vessel ownership

Syed Qasim Abbas said...

The development of Gwadar as a ship repair port is extremely important,whether that happens is another question since it would cut into business of Nawaz Sharifs freinds the Dubai Sheiks.

Riaz Haq said...

Minister for Finance Ishaq Dar said on Thursday the shipbuilding industry has a huge potential due to long deep-sea shores of the country.

Chairing a meeting to discuss a proposal for building new shipyards along Pakistan’s coasts, he said in line with the true potential and ideal location, the shipbuilding industry could contribute to national economic development and poverty alleviation.

He said in the last eight months the industrial sector had performed well and it was the vision of the PML-N government to make Pakistan a country that could prosper and develop as per its potential.

He said it was the responsibility of the government to attract investment in key industrial projects like shipyards as major triggers for further industrial growth.

He assured full support of the Ministry of Finance to the Ministry of Defence Production for the projects, which could help generate economic activity and attract foreign expertise and investments.

He stressed the need of training and utilising the human resource, which would contribute to employment opportunities and increased per capita income.

Chairman Ship Building Association Vice Admiral (R) Iftikhar Ahmad Rao gave a presentation on the global shipyard industry and emphasised that nations which realised the importance of their seas benefitted and became great powers.

He said the maritime sector was a prime source of growth, employment and social cohesion in developing countries. According to him, the world GDP grew at an average of 3.6% per annum whereas sea trade grew 4.3% per annum in the last 50 years.

In other words, world’s GDP grew eight times whereas sea trade grew 13 times in the last half century.

He said China started shipbuilding in the 1990s and today it was the global leader with a 41% share, followed by South Korea and Japan with 33% and 20% share respectively.

There are over 1,000 shipyards in China and even India has over 100 shipyards. In comparison, Pakistan has only one shipyard, the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works with two small dry docks.

He underlined the deep-sea shores, abundance of labour force and strategic location as Pakistan’s advantages in comparison to other regional countries.

Riaz Haq said...

Today's #India-#Pakistan Armed Tensions - Will New U.S. Military and Nuclear Aid to #Modi Inflame Them?

The Obama Administration cooperates with India in large measure from hope for collaboration with India to contain China’s military buildup and aggressive moves. Punit Saurabh just published a persuasive report, India and U.S. Grow Closer Against a Backdrop of An Expansionist China. President Obama has gone twice to India, and forged a strong tie with Modi. Those ties expand at the level of the Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, and further down at the level of the procurement undersecretary, Frank Kendall.

But that does not mean Pakistan will look on the India-U.S. cooperation as benign. On the contrary, something of an opposing set of alliances is shaping up. A little-mentioned aspect of this has been what Saurabh calls “China’s overt and covert support to the Pakistani defense buildup, aimed at India through supply of submarines, JF-17 fighters, and strategic inroads in sensitive parts of Kashmir. In other words, China is helping Pakistani on sea, air, and land, just as the U.S. helps India.

So, what is the U.S. providing for the Indian military that may add to these tensions? The single most interesting item: the Pentagon has publicly set up a collaboration group to help India build its next aircraft carrier, implementing it this month. India has kept open the option that this could be a nuclear-propelled aircraft carrier.

India is said to be particularly interested in the Pentagon’s method of launching planes, from these carriers Specifically, the next generation “Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System” (EMALS) will be used on the new Ford-class U.S. carriers. India wants that and may get it. And, it wants to build the aircraft carrier itself, at least in part. In light of the U.S. sharing advanced technology, the other part might get built in the Newport News Shipbuilding yard. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Huntington Ingalls, already a major beneficiary of defense appropriations, and very well connected — the kind of step that tilts advanced U.S. arms making and selling toward India.

As for nuclear, India seeks, and is getting, cooperation on building nuclear reactors for civilian energy generation. That would mean a lot of lucrative business for Westinghouse and General Electric.

Of course, the United States has strong ties with Pakistan, too. In fact, today there is some extra good will, as the United States fights the Afghan Taliban and Pakistan has taken up arms vigorously against the Pakistani Taliban. The U.S. tries its best not to seem to be tilting toward India in the subcontinent powers’ tense rivalry.

Still, the cooperation agreements between Obama and Modi pledged to come together “to disrupt entities such as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed . . .and the Haqqani Network.” Of course, those entities work with Pakistan’s powerful intelligence service, ISI. Lashkar-e-Tayyiba was behind the Mumbai terror attack. The Haqqani Network is one of our major enemies in Afghanistan. A joint list like that by Obama and Modi aligns them against Pakistani support for violent Islamic terror groups.

None of this is to say that the United States can stop working with India against China. That must go ahead. But it has the potential to antagonize Pakistan. And that agitates the potentially scariest confrontation in the world.

Riaz Haq said...

#China, #Pakistan to jointly export upgraded jet fighter #JF17 #DubaiAirshow … via @ibnlive

Beijing: China and Pakistan will jointly export an upgraded version of the JF-17 multi-role fighter jet co-produced by the two countries since 1998. Officials from Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) command said on Monday at the ongoing Dubai Airshow that an upgraded version of the jointly developed JF-17 fighter jet is expected to be exported to more customers.
Briefing reporters at Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai, Liu Yu, Vice President of China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation, said the next generation of the JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft will satisfy the growing market demand from third parties "as the future JF-17 aircraft is a comprehensive elevation of the aircraft."

The future JF-17 will have more advanced capabilities, such as air-to-air refuelling, data link and electronic warfare, and will be integrated with more new guided weapons, state-run Xinhua quoted Liu as saying in Dubai. A dual-seated version of the JF-17 fighter/trainer is also under development, added Liu.
China, which maintained close strategic relations with Pakistan military for long has recently reached USD five billion deal to provide eight submarines to its all-weather ally. PAF Vice Marshal Arshad Malik said the Pakistani army expects the new version JF-17 jet to get into service by the end of 2016.

The JF-17 fighter is co-produced by AVIC and PAF since 1998 based on the principle of "joint investment, joint development, and sharing risks and returns." At present, JF-17 fighter is already procured by a third party customer, and several potential customers are conducting or plan to conduct the evaluation of the JF-17 fighter, Xinhua report said without giving details. The 14th Dubai International Airshow officially kicked off in Dubai yesterday and will run through Thursday.`

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan's tool of war: #PAF's rolling thunder #JF17 Fighter Jet

Pakistan Air Force’s thunder
JF-17 is a single-engine multi-role fighter,capable of performing interception roles, ground attack and aerial reconnaissance. The fighter was inducted as a replacement for the ageing fleet A-5C, F-7P, Mirage 3 and Mirage 5 aircraft that were due to be replaced.

The initial Block 1 JF-17s were received in 2007, with production of the upgraded Block 2 JF-17s started in 2013. The upgraded models have upgraded avionics, air-to-air refuelling capability, data link, enhanced electronic warfare capability and enhanced load carrying ability.

The JF-17 is powered by a Russian RD-93 afterburning turbofan, which has a top speed for Mach 1.6. The engine is a derivative of the engine that powers the MIG-29 Fulcrum. With the recent improvement in Pakistan-Russia relations, it might be possible to source the engines directly from Russia, rather than through China. In November it was reported that PAF will stick with using the RD-93, and not opt for a Chinese-made engine.

It was also reported recently that PAF is interested in joint engine development with Russia. The air force for years has wanted to expand its technical capabilities in engine development, as they have lacked the capability in this highly-technical field.

Splash one bandit
The JF-17 can be equipped with air-to-air and air-to-ground ordinance, and has a 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon mounted under the port side air intake.

The aircraft can carry 8,000lbs of ordinance on seven external hardpoints, which is an adequate amount of ordinance for any mission profile. The JF-17 enhances the much needed capability of the air force in beyond visual range (BVR) engagements.

JF-17 mounts both short-range infra-red air to air missiles along with longer ranged radar-guided BVR missiles, an essential capability for a frontline interceptor. Missiles used on the aircraft come from a variety of different nations.

Apart from a capable air-to-air mix, the aircraft can be fitted with laser-guided, satellite-guided and dumb iron bombs. The precision-guided weapons are paired with a targeting pod, mounted on the centreline hardpoint. JF-17's are also capable of carrying anti-runway munitions, specifically the Durandal, which crater a runway, denying its use to enemy aircraft.

The JF-17 Thunder, when equipped for an anti-maritime mission profile, can be equipped with the C-802 anti-ship missile (ASM) and the hypersonic CM-400AKG, often referred to as a ‘carrier-killer’ ASM. It hits the target at Mach 4 or above and its kinetic impact alone is enough to destroy any high-value target.

For Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) missions, the Thunder can be equipped with anti-radiation missiles for neutralising the enemy's air defence radars, allowing the PAF to operate in a less restrictive airspace.

Overall, the varying ordinance carried by the JF-17 makes it a capable aircraft for multiple mission profiles.

The JF-17 fighter incorporates a fly-by-wire system, through which the aircraft’s pitch axis is controlled, with leading edge slats/flaps and trailing edge flaps automatically adjusted during maneuvering to increase turning performance. The performance of the jet reportedly is similar to the F-16.

Incorporating a defensive aids system (DAS), sensors such as radar warning receivers (RWR) and missile approach warning (MAW) enable the pilot to have a clear picture of the threats in an operational area. The electronic warfare (EW) suite of the aircraft is mounted in the tail of the JF-17.

It is reported that the pilots can be equipped helmet mounted sights, which gives the pilots a distinct advantage in visual-range air combat, as they can simply look at and guide the missile onto their intended target.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistani Naval Modernization Appears Stalled

Pakistan's naval modernization program appears stalled, with no discernible progress being made on efforts to modernize and expand the surface and sub-surface fleet. This comes amid moves ensure the security of the deepwater port of Gwadar, and fears of mass obsolescence vis-a-vis arch rival India.

Gwadar is the start of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to link western China to the Middle East and Africa through Pakistan. It will carry commercial goods and energy resources, slashing the time to ship goods to China via the Malacca Straits and South China Sea.

For Pakistan, ensuring maritime security has been of increased concern. Earlier this month, a newly raised battalion of Marines began protecting Gwadar. Author, analyst, and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad Brian Cloughley says this was probably through extra enlistments due to the Marines "already being stretched in commitments."

Ensuring Gwadar's defense has been the theme of recent exercises. A domestic series of drills, Seapark, was held in November and December.

A series of recent bilateral exercises with China's Navy have also been held, the third of which concluded on Tuesday off the Pakistani coast.

It aimed to protect sea lines of communication and the CPEC by improving coordination and interoperability at operational and tactical levels. Chinese ships consisted of two Type-054A frigates (Liuzhou and Sanya) and a replenishment ship (Qinghaihu).

Pakistan participated with warships, helicopters, patrol and fighter aircraft, plus special forces. Air defense, boarding, communication, and joint maneuver drills were carried out.

However, the need to ensure seaward defense of Gwadar has exposed the apparent lack of progress in the Navy's modernization program. The frontline fleet currently consists of three Agosta-90B/Khalid and two Agosta-70 submarines, plus four F-22P/Zulfiquar, one Oliver Hazard Perry, and five ex-British Type-21/Amazon class frigates.

Pakistan has negotiated the purchase of eight AIP-equipped submarines from China, finalizing the deal in October. This was reportedly followed by a domestic frigate and fast attack boat-building program with Chinese assistance.

This latter program was also to include upgrades to the current F-22P class frigates, Pakistan's most modern and capable surface ships even though they are only marginally better than the remaining frigates in being able to protect themselves from missile attack.

Cloughley believes time is running out.

"It seems that the emphasis for the moment is on developing the submarine arm of the Navy, but it is essential for Pakistan's security that it acquire more surface ships, and that a decision on number and type be made this year."

Nothing has as of yet been signed however and despite request for clarification by Defense News there has been no official word on any progress or the programs' status.

This pales in comparison to India, which is fast modernizing and expanding its naval power.

Riaz Haq said...

This pales in comparison to India, which is fast modernizing and expanding its naval power.

Sam Bateman, an adviser for the Maritime Security Programme at S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore, said, "Pakistan has already fallen far behind India in terms of maintaining a level of conventional deterrent/operational effectiveness, and is at risk of falling even further behind."

Bateman, who previously served in Australia's Navy outlines a course of action similar to the stalled modernization program.

"In broad terms, the [Pakistan Navy] has three requirements: frigates, submarines and fast attack craft," he said.

"Looking at its current force structure, my priority for force development would be submarines," he said. "The existing submarine fleet is far short of being an adequate or credible deterrent force. The deterrent value of submarines, as well as their utility for covert surveillance and intelligence collection operations, points to the importance of the [Pakistan Navy] building a credible force."

Therefore Pakistan's "top priority" must be to finalize the submarine deal with China.

Though much emphasis by analysts has been on the state of Pakistan's frigate force Bateman believes the next priority should lie with fast attack craft.

"In a conflict situation, these would be the major surface assets of the [Pakistan Navy]."

Pakistan is currently building further examples of the Azmat class stealthy fast attack craft, but has is believed to be considering something more potent.

News of Pakistan's interest in the Chinese Type-022 'Houbei' was first reported in June. Speaking at the time, Tom Waldwyn of the International Institute for Strategic Studies expressed surprise.

"It would be surprising if Pakistan, or indeed any country, signed a deal to purchase new Type-022s as China stopped production of these vessels several years ago. So any purchase of Type-022s would almost certainly be secondhand vessels," he said.

Adding, "These types of vessels are more suited to littoral environments where they can attack opposing ships at high speed and fire off a barrage of anti-ship missiles. If Pakistan were to acquire these ships that is likely to be how they would be employed."

The state of the frigates has attracted most attention however.

"The current frigate force is just adequate for the [Pakistan Navy's] peacetime requirements, notably sovereignty protection and participation in international coalition and peacekeeping missions, such as the counter-piracy task forces in the Gulf region", said Bateman.

Ideally, he believes two to three further Perry class frigates would help matters "to build up its frigate force to about eight vessels, if the updated F-22P vessels can't be acquired quickly."

However, entrenched hostility toward Pakistan in the US Congress essentially rules this out, and Cloughley believes Pakistan has no real alternatives.

"China is the obvious supplier, as it is unlikely that the US Congress would approve transfer of any surplus vessels, and in any event the US and European countries are concentrating on India as regards provision of military material."

As for the Type-21 class frigates they are essentially obsolete and Bateman says they "should be scrapped."

Modernization of Pakistan's airpower however could help mitigate some of the Navy's shortcomings, especially with the JF-17 Thunder now entering service.

"The JF-17 can carry anti-ship missiles, and it is probable that when the present aircraft of 8 Squadron at Masroor are retired, then they will be replaced by a maritime strike version of the JF-17", said Cloughley.

The JF-17 already equips No. 2 Squadron also based at Masroor, and can carry a brace of C-802A/CSS-N-8 Saccade anti-ship missiles.

Riaz Haq said...

#Karachi Shipyard cuts steel on first of 6 MPVs of 600 tons each for #Pakistan #Navy. #China | IHS Jane's 360 …

Key Points
KSEW has begun building the first of six MPVs for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency
The vessels will replace the Barkat-class patrol boats that have been in service since the late 1980s
Pakistan's state-owned shipbuilder Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) has held a steel-cutting ceremony for the first of six maritime patrol vessels (MPVs) on order for the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA).

New details on Pakistan's capability requirements for the vessels have also emerged.

The steel-cutting ceremony was held on 3 May and was attended by senior officials from the Pakistan Navy, KSEW, and China Shipbuilding Trading Company (CSTC).

The MPVs, each displacing 600 tonnes at full load, are being constructed under a transfer-of-technology arrangement signed between KSEW and CSTC in June 2015. KSEW will construct two vessels in Pakistan while the remaining four will be built by CSTC in China.

No further details on the vessels were provided by KSEW in its media release for the ceremony; the company also declined an interview request from IHS Jane's on 4 May, citing confidentiality issues.

However, a tender document on the MPV programme, published by the Pakistani government's planning commission, revealed a requirement for a platform that can attain a maximum speed of 30 kt and a cruising speed of between 12-16 kt. The vessel should also have a standard range of 4,500 n miles at cruising speed, and have an endurance of 21 days at sea without replenishment.

Armament to be fitted onboard includes either a 37 mm or a 30 mm gun as a primary weapon, in addition to mountings for two 12.7 mm machine guns.

An artist's illustration of the MPV, shown at the ceremony, suggests that the PMSA has opted for an automatic stabilised naval gun system as the platform's main weapon.

The illustration also suggests that the platform can accommodate a single helicopter on its flight deck on top of two rigid-hull inflatable boats at the stern section.

Riaz Haq said...

#French #India #submarine #ScorpeneLeak Lets Vital Stats Are Out In Open: 10 Facts … via @ndtv

The sonar system, including the frequencies used by its key components, the Flank Array, the Sonar Intercept Receiver, the Distributed Array and the Active Array have been compromised. All these systems work together to allow the submarine to detect enemy warships and submarines and attack them using torpedoes.

The latest tranche of data appears to contradict the Ministry of Defence statement earlier today that there was no immediate security risk from the leak of secret documents detailing the capabilities of the Scorpene.

The Australian newspaper, which reported on the leak two days ago, posted new details this evening on its website but with sensitive info redacted.

So though the documents prove that the classified information had been compromised, it is not in the public domain.
The documents posted earlier have been examined and do not pose any security compromise as the vital parameters have been blacked out," the defence ministry said in a statement earlier. However, it is The Australian which has redacted sensitive data. It is possible that these documents are also available to others.

Six Scorpenes designed by French shipmaker DCNS are being built in Mumbai. The first is expected to join service before the end of this year.

On Tuesday night, the Australian said it had 22,000 pages of details that exposed the combat capability of the submarines, being built at a cost of $3.5 billion.

The documents were stolen from DCNS and not leaked, an unnamed French government source said to news agency Reuters, adding that the information published so far shows only operational aspects of the submarines.

The source said the documents appeared to have been stolen in 2011 by a former French employee that had been fired while providing training in India on the use of the submarines.

India and France have opened investigations with Delhi asking for a detailed report.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan prepares to launch third Azmat-class missile boat at #Karachi Shipyard | IHS Jane's 360 …

State-owned Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Limited (KSEW) will launch an Azmat-class missile-capable patrol craft for the Pakistan Navy on 17 September.

The platform, which was laid down in August 2015, will be the country's third Azmat-class boat. First-of-class PNS Azmat (1013) was commissioned in June 2012, while second ship PNS Deshat (1014) was inducted in June 2014.

Contracts to acquire a third and fourth vessel were signed in June 2013 and June 2014 respectively. Construction of these platforms is being undertaken in collaboration with China's shipbuilding industry under an arrangement aimed at transferring technology to KSEW.

The Azmat class is based on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN's) Houjian (Type 037/2)-class missile boat design. The 63 m vessel has a top speed of 30 kt, and a range of 1,000 n miles at 18 kt, according to IHS Jane's Fighting Ships.

The platform's offensive capabilities are provided by eight (two quad) launchers that are capable of deploying the C-802A surface-to-surface missile, a twin 37 mm gun mounting in the forward section, and a Type 630 30 mm close-in weapon system (CIWS) for defence against aerial threats.