Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Pakistan Daal Consumption Declines Sharply As Meat Consumption Rises

Pakistan's per capita daal (pulse) consumption has sharply declined to about 7 kg/person from about 15 Kg/person in 1960s, according to data released by Food and Agriculture Organization and reported in Pakistani media. Meat has replaced it as the main source of protein with per capita meat consumption rising from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published in the Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resources.

USDA Food Chart
Rising Incomes:

FAO report titled "State of Food and Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific Region" said rising incomes in developing nations are causing a shift from plant proteins — such as those found in pulses (daal) and beans — to more expensive animal proteins such as those found in meat and dairy.

According to the Household Integrated Surveys of Pakistan, the average monthly household income in the country jumped 15% from Rs. 30,999 in 2013-14 to Rs. 35,662 in 2015-16.

Food Consumption By Quintiles in Pakistan

Pulses Consumption:

Per capita consumption of pulses in Pakistan has sharply declined from about 15 kg per person a year to about 7 kg per person a year, found a new report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Daal (Pulse) Consumption Trend in South Asia. Source: FAO

In neighboring India, too, the consumption of pulse declined from about 22kg per person per year to about 15kg per person per year. In Sri Lanka, however, pulse consumption seemed to have fluctuated between 5kg and 10kg per person per year since 1960, except for a sharp drop from 1970 to 1985, the report said.

Dairy Consumption: 

Economic Survey of Pakistan reported that Pakistanis consumed over 45 million tons of milk in fiscal year 2016-17, translating to about 220 Kg/person.

FAO's "State of Food and Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific Region" says that Mongolia and Pakistan are the only two among the 26 countries in Asia Pacific region where per capita milk consumption exceeded 370 grams/day.

Meat Consumption:

Pakistan's per capita meat consumption has nearly tripled from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published by the United States National Library of Medicines at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).  Organization for Economic Development (OECD) explains that meat demand increases with higher incomes and a shift - often due to growing urbanization - to food preferences that favor increased proteins from animal sources in diets.


Meat Production in Pakistan. Source: FAO

The NIH paper authors Mohammad Shoaib and Faraz Jamil point out that Pakistan's meat consumption of 32 Kg per person is only a third of the meat capita meat consumption in rich countries like Australia and the United States.

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Nature magazine reports that Pakistanis are among the most carnivorous people in the world.  After studying the eating habits of 176 countries, the authors found that average human being is at 2.21 trophic level. It put Pakistanis at 2.4, the same trophic level as Europeans and Americans. China and India are at 2.1 and 2.2 respectively.

Chicken Vs Daal:

IN 2016, Pakistan's then finance minister Ishaq Dar suggested to his countrymen to eat chicken instead of daal (pulses or legumes). To some, the minister sounded like Queen Marie-Antoinette (wife of France's King Louis XVI) who reportedly said to hungry rioters during the French Revolution:  “Qu'ils mangent de la brioche”—“Let them eat cake”?

It was indeed true that some varieties of daal were priced higher than chicken. For example, maash was selling at Rs. 260 per kilo, higher than chicken meat at Rs. 200 per kilo. But other daals such as mung, masur and chana were cheaper than chicken.

The reason for higher daal prices and relatively lower chicken prices can be found in the fact that Pakistan's livestock industry, particularly poultry farming, has seen significant growth that the nation's pulse crop harvests have not.

Summary:

Per capita daal consumption is falling while meat and milk consumption is rising in Pakistan with rising household incomes. According to the Household Integrated Surveys of Pakistan, the average monthly household income in the country jumped from Rs. 30,999 in 2013-14 to Rs. 35,662 in 2015-16.  Pulse consumption has sharply declined to about 7 kg/person from about 15 Kg/person in 2000, according to data released by Food and Agriculture Organization and reported in Pakistani media. Meat has replaced it as the main source of protein with per capita meat consumption rising from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published in the Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resources.

31 comments:

Ahsan H. said...

Wow, that's a huge change! How does this compare with India?

Riaz Haq said...

Ahsan: "Wow, that's a huge change! How does this compare with India?"

The change to more animal protein in diet is expected with rising incomes.

Indians consume about 5kg of meat and 15kg of daal per person per year

Milk consumption per capita in India is about a quarter of Pakistan’s

Anonymous said...

Coastal Indian states have higher fish consumption. Overall India per capita fish consumption went from 5.2kg to 5.9kg (2006 to 2011) whereas Pakistan was 1.9kg to 2.0kg correspondingly.

http://www.helgilibrary.com/indicators/fish-consumption-per-capita/


Respectfully disagree with your statement on milk consumption in India being 1/4 of Pakistan.
Total Milk production 2016
India 167 million tonnes or 351 gm per day per capita. http://www.india.com/business/milk-production-in-india-up-by-18-81-in-2016-17-dairy-farmers-income-hiked-2682174/

Pakistan 2016
42 million tonnes or 561 gm per day per capita.
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/01/16/pakistan-fourth-largest-milk-producing-country-in-world/

351gm versus 561gm is not 1/4!

Habib said...

It is good news !

Jamal said...

More heart disease and Cancer.

Z Basha Jr said...

Riaz Sb.. I am confused...As daal is more expensive than chicken, more people are replacing the protein?.. Does that indicate increasing affluence? Its not like we are eating more and more foie gras? We are eating more and more something that's cheaper?

Richard Khan said...

Most of the meat consumption is chicken, and one of the reasons for the switch from daal to chicken is the higher cost of dAal

Riaz Haq said...

Basha: ".As daal is more expensive than chicken, more people are replacing the protein?.. Does that indicate increasing affluence? Its not like we are eating more and more foie gras? We are eating more and more something that's cheaper?"


Read the following paragraph in the post again: "It was indeed true that some varieties of daal were priced higher than chicken. For example, maash was selling at Rs. 260 per kilo, higher than chicken meat at Rs. 200 per kilo. But other daals such as mung, masur and chana were cheaper than chicken."

Prices do fluctuate but in general meat costs more than pulses. And the reason is simple: It costs more to raise livestock to produce meat than to plant and harvest daal.

Riaz Haq said...

RK: "Most of the meat consumption is chicken, and one of the reasons for the switch from daal to chicken is the higher cost of dAal"

It's an incorrect statement. Look at the following graph again. It clearly shows that a lot more beef and mutton is produced and consumed than chicken.

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xdqB1UidcOk/Wd_--ZNnQrI/AAAAAAAAJZA/VXovTdrvPJkv9bQldCAccjsUxAmn_rh_wCLcBGAs/s1600/Meat%2BProduction%2BPakistan.png

Z Basha Jr said...

thats indeed good news.. hope risks of red meat consumption are well understood by awam...

Riaz Haq said...

How big is Pakistan’s meat trade and who’s buying its exports?

https://www.salaamgateway.com/en/story/correctionhow_big_is_pakistans_meat_trade_and_whos_buying_its_exports-SALAAM11092017080303/

*Corrects percentage of Pakistan's 10 biggest meat and edible meat offal (MEMO) export buyers to their overall MEMO imports in 2016, from 2.67 percent of $9.258 billion to 2.58 percent, which is equivalent to $238.99 million

Pakistan’s government is exploring new markets for export of meat and dairy products with a focus on the halal trade, according to local press reports.

How big is Pakistan’s meat and dairy trade now and where are its exports going?

EXPORTS

According to ITC Trade Map data, in 2016, Pakistan exported $313.538 million in three categories: 1. Meat and edible meat offal (internal organs) ($239.74 million), 2. Dairy produce; birds’ eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin ($67.471 million), and 3. Live animals ($6.327 million).

These three categories account for 1.53 percent of Pakistan’s $20.5 billion exports of all products to the world in 2016.

Meat and edible meat offal (MEMO) is the biggest of the three categories, accounting for 76.5 percent of the three’s exports.

Pakistan’s biggest export is textiles and textile articles, which brought in $9.481 billion in nine months from November 2016 to July 2017, according to most recent data from the State Bank of Pakistan.

BIGGEST MEMO BUYERS

Pakistan exported $238.99 million, or 99.69 percent, of all its MEMO in 2016 to 10 countries: UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Vietnam, Bahrain, Oman, Afghanistan, Qatar, Thailand, and Malaysia.

However, Pakistan is a small MEMO export player. Its 10 biggest MEMO export markets imported a total of $9.258 billion of MEMO in 2016, out of which only 2.58 percent came from Pakistan.

BEEF, MOSTLY

Fresh or chilled beef is Pakistan’s biggest MEMO export, making up 56.86 percent, or $136.319 million, of its MEMO exports in 2016. This is followed by $44.726 million of chilled or frozen meat of sheep or goats, and $31.554 million of frozen meat of bovines.

Only around $3.06 million, or 1.28 percent, of Pakistan’s MEMO exports are poultry-based.

The nation hopes to change this by targeting an increase in poultry-based MEMO sales to UAE, its biggest MEMO export market, after the GCC country lifted its ban on Pakistan’s poultry and its products in February this year. UAE imposed the ban in 2006 after an outbreak of avian influenza in Pakistan.

UAE imported an estimated $725.247 million of poultry products in 2016, 66.2 percent, or $480.224 million, of which came from Brazil.

Riaz Haq said...

Dressing (Preferred meat) vs Offal (Orhan meats etc) percentages in a study in Peshawar Pakistan


Data on age wise proportion of cattle slaughtered at Peshawar suggested that largest counts (24.35 %) ofcattle were slaughtered at the age of 41- 50 months followed by 21-30 and 51- 60 months age groups (Table I).Animals of age 41-50 months were higher in slaughter proportion and most within this group were females. Lowermilk yield during their first lactation might be a cause for their removal from the herd and sale to butchers. Animalsolder than 61 months age group showed the lowest proportion, because older meat is not preferred by consumers inPeshawar. They mostly prefer meat from animals aged 21-50 months.

Dressing percentage data of the above mention breeds of animals showed that Dajal male gave the highest value (55.7%) followed by non- descript males (54.0%) and Lohanni males (53.6%) (Table II). Mekasha et al.,(2011) studies the African zebu cattle Ogaden bull and reported that dressing percentage was 54.7. Jabbar et al.,(2009) obtained a similar trend in their studies. According to their study the Dajal breed cattle showed highest (5 8.0)dressing percentage. The higher DP value of the Dajal in their study was probably because animals were fed for 92days on mixed concentrate diet and especially reared for body weight gain, whereas, the in present study animal

DRESSING PERCENTAGE AND OFFAL PRODUCTION... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273724540_DRESSING_PERCENTAGE_AND_OFFAL_PRODUCTION_OF_VARIOUS_BREEDS_OF_ZEBU_CATTLE_SLAUGHTERED_AT_THE_PESHAWAR_ABATTOIR [accessed Apr 21 2018].

Riaz Haq said...

Asia Is Eating Less Rice, More Wheat
Published on Wednesday, 15 March 2017 15:00 Written by Saigoneer.

https://saigoneer.com/eat-drink/eat-drink-categories/saigon-food-culture/9542-asia-is-eating-less-rice,-more-wheat

As Asian nations become wealthier, more and more people are eating wheat.

According to The Economist, the popularity of rice in Asia remains well above the global average; in fact the continent is responsible for 90% of the world’s rice consumption. Historically, the grain was – and still is – a staple for many, particularly the latter half of the 20th century, when rice consumption in Asian nations reached as high as 103 kilograms per person annually, the news outlet reports.

However in recent years, as incomes have risen and tastes have changed, the grain’s much-coveted position in many Asian societies has weakened a little. Though rice is still ubiquitous across the continent and is not likely to disappear any time soon, its consumption has been on the decline since 2000 in countries like Singapore, China, Indonesia and South Korea.

Instead, some Asian consumers are turning to wheat, reports The Economist. In 2016, for instance, Vietnam consumed 39.9 kilograms of wheat per person, a steady increase compared to the country’s consumption in 2000. Though it’s still a far cry from the global average – 78 kilograms per capita – the figure puts Vietnam above the Southeast Asian average of 26 kilograms per person each year, and consumption is expected to continue growing in the future. In fact, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) expects Southeast Asians to consume roughly 23.4 million tons of wheat in 2016-2017.

Riaz Haq said...

The annual report explained that wheat is Pakistan’s dietary staple.

http://www.world-grain.com/Departments/Country-Focus/Country-Focus-Home/Focus-on-Pakistan.aspx

“Pakistan has a variety of traditional flat breads, often prepared in a traditional clay oven called a tandoor,” the report said. “The tandoori style of cooking is common throughout rural and urban Pakistan. Wheat flour currently contributes 72% of Pakistan’s daily caloric intake with per capita wheat consumption of around 124 kg per year, one of the highest in the world.”

Diets are changing in Pakistan, the report said.

“As incomes increase and a stronger middle class emerges, consumers are gradually shifting towards more dairy, meat, and other higher-value food products in their diet,” the report said. “Over the long term, this shift to a more balanced diet has the potential to limit the pace of growth in wheat consumption.”

The attaché forecast 2016-17 wheat demand at 24.5 million tonnes and explained that just 3% would be used for food, with 97% going for planning and human consumption.

Riaz Haq said...

India ranks 43rd in the global ranking in average per capita tea consumption with 0.73 kg compared with 7.54 kgs in Turkey, 4.34 kgs in Morocco, 2.74 kgs in United Kingdom and 1.01 kgs in Pakistan.

https://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/tea-board-on-promotional-drive-to-increase-per-capita-tea-consumption-116073000191_1.html

Per capita consumption of tea
Country Quantity (Per KG)
Turkey 7.54
Morocco 4.34
Ireland 3.22
United Kingdom 2.74
UAE 1.89
Kuwait 1.61
Russia 1.21
Iran 1.07
Pakistan 1.01
India 0.73
Source: Industry, Wikipedia


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A massive increase of 35.8 per cent in per capita consumption of tea in Pakistan has been recorded from 2007 to 2016.

According to the current market situation and medium-term outlook, published by the Food and Agriculture (FAO) of the United Nations, Pakistan is among the seven countries where per capita consumption of tea has been increased.

The highest increase was seen in Malawi with 565.2pc, followed by China 128.6pc, Rwanda 110.2pc, Turkey 25.9pc, Indonesia 26.6pc and Libya 39.8pc.

Currently, black tea consumption in Pakistan has been estimated at 1,72,911 tonnes which is expected to increase to 2,50,755 tonnes in 2027, the FAO report projects. This showed in next 10 years, tea consumption will increase by 77,844 tonnes.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1415762

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan among top three dairy producers
Amin Ahmed Updated June 01, 2017

https://www.dawn.com/news/1336575

ISLAMABAD: The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations says Pakistan is among the three countries in Asia and Pacific region which are the world’s top dairy producing countries.

The total value of Asian dairy production exceeded $110 billion in 2013, and figured in the three top commodities in the region in terms of gross value of production. While the dairy production in Pakistan, India and China largely meet domestic consumption, Australia and New Zealand produce a surplus, FAO says on the occasion of World Milk Day being celebrated on June 1 (Thursday).

According to latest figures published in Pakistan Economic Survey 2016-17, milk production in the country is on the increase and during the current fiscal year the gross production of milk was estimated to be 56,080,000 tonnes.

FAO warned that while dairy has big potential, the sector needs to be more sustainable and competitive in Asia and Pacific region. This means helping smallholder farmers gain greater access to markets and services and develop successful dairy business models to increase domestic production.


The aim is to create a sector, which is socially responsible and produces safe and healthy food making more efficient use of the natural resources and reduces the effects on the environment. Only by doing so, will the sector become more sustainable for the benefit of future generations. FAO remains committed to working with all stakeholders to achieve a dairy sector that contributes to health and prosperity of the world.

An Asia Pacific Regional Audit done by the International Osteoporosis Foundation has concluded that the average dietary calcium intake in Asia is well below the FAO-WHO recommendation of 1,000 to 1,300 milligrams per day and most Asian countries have seen a two-to-three fold increase in the incidence of hip fractures during the past 30 years.

In order to facilitate dairy farmers, duty free import of calf milk replacer and cattle feed premix was allowed. During the current fiscal year, 310.2 metric tonnes of calf milk replacer and 298.9 metric tons of cattle feed premix was imported.

Last December, the Royal Friesland Company acquired 51 per cent of Engro Foods Pakistan, which was one of the largest private sector foreign direct investments in Pakistan’s dairy sector, amounting to $450 million.

Under the new deal and 2020 strategy arrangements, Engro Foods will aim for higher milk quality, variety of milk packages and products and farmers’ capacity building leading to a reduction in poverty.

In addition, regulatory duties to the tune of 25pc have been imposed on the import of skimmed milk powder and whey powder. This is to attract further investments in the dairy sector along with protecting small dairy farmers.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Poultry Sector Thriving With Annual Production Of 1.02b Broilers. making Pakistan the 11th largest producer of poultry meat. Poultry production in Pakistan is providing direct job opportunities to over 1.5 million people. #chicken #meat https://www.urdupoint.com/en/agriculture/pakistan-poultry-sector-thriving-with-annual-482696.html


"Pakistan has become the 11th largest poultry producer in the world with a production of 1.02 billion broilers annually whereas current investment in poultry sector is more than Rs 200 billion," according to official documents.

Today, Poultry has been a balancing force to keep check on the prices of mutton and beef, but also serving as backbone of agriculture sector as it consumes over seven million tons of agro- residues.

Pakistan is an ideal country for investment in poultry sector as its meat contributed 30pc of the total meat production in the country.

Poultry sector has shown around 8 to 10pc growth rate annually, which reflected its inherent potential to grow further besides goal oriented policies of Government to promote livestock and poultry sector in the country.

Poultry has contributed 1.4pc of GDP during 2015-16 while its contribution in agriculture and livestock value-added stood at 6.9 pc and 11.7 pc respectively. Its value added at current factor cost has increased from Rs 140.5 billion in 2014-15 to Rs 151.2 billion in 2015-16, showing a record increase of 7.6pc compare to last year.

Dr Aasal Khan, Director Planning and Economics Development told APP on Friday that poultry sector in KP has grown tremendously during last five years in Khyber Pakthunkhwa.

He said large number of people especially in rural areas was associated with poultry sector and special financial incentives for them would help promote this hard earned business to new heights.

Livestock Department KP has chalked out a comprehensive plan to encourage commercial and domestic poultry farming in the province to cater the needs of meat requirement of ever growing population.

He said strengthening of commercial and domestic poultry services was a major component of the new livestock policy 2018 and solid efforts are being made to increase poultry production in the province.

The KP government has accorded high priority to livestock and poultry sectors by focusing on establishment of model poultry farms to promote this business keeping in view of dependence of a large number of people of rural areas on it.

He said thousands of poultry farms were existed in all districts of KP and technical assistance and necessary training would be provided to farmers to bolster poultry production in the province.

Dr Aasal said KP Govt has allocated Rs 2573 million for uplift agriculture, livestock, poultry, fisheries and cooperatives department for 40 projects including 30 ongoing with allocation of Rs 2217.999 million and 10 new costing Rs 355.001 million in budget 2018-19 to further strengthen this key sector.

The new projects including control of livestock diseases, eco-friendly management of fruit flies, database development through information and communication technology in crop reporting service, solarization of agriculture tubewells, establishment of trout villages in Malakand and Hazara divisions would strengthening of poultry services.

He said most of farmers are unaware from where to get veterinary services and suffer great economic losses in case of viral disease outbreak.

Poor marketing and coordination between institutions and poultry owners besides lack of technical know how challenges if addresses, livestock and poultry sector can achieve many laurels in days to come.

He said owing to goal oriented policies of present government, eggs, meat, milk and poultry production had registered substantial increase during last five years in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and people are now easily getting these commodities at their doorsteps.

Riaz Haq said...

Cargill plans $200M expansion in Pakistan, with focus on poultry and dairy
Cargill will also start grain trading and add other operations in Pakistan.

http://www.startribune.com/cargill-plans-200m-expansion-in-pakistan-with-focus-on-poultry-and-dairy/504558562/

Cargill Inc. will invest $200 million in Pakistan over the next several years to build out the company’s supply chain there and harness growing demand for chicken throughout the region.


Cargill Inc. will invest $200 million in Pakistan over the next several years to build out the company’s supply chain there and harness growing demand for chicken throughout the region.

This marks a substantial expansion for the Minnetonka-based agribusiness — the world’s largest — which has run a small operation in Pakistan since the early 1980s. It’s also the company’s latest in a rapid series of investments throughout Asia, and specifically in the south and southeast parts of the continent.

Cargill currently has cotton, sugar, metals and animal feed business interests, as well as oil-crushing facilities, in Pakistan, but will scale up its legacy grain-trading business there over the next three to five years. Cargill did not provide additional details on what those operations will entail, but the company said it will increase its employee base beyond the modest 50 people currently working in the country.

“Finalizing one of our first investments in the agricultural supply chain in Pakistan is our top priority,” Imran Nasrullah, head of Cargill Pakistan, said in a statement. “We have received a very positive response from the Pakistani government and we value their support as we expand our presence here.”

Cargill’s investment will expand its dairy and meat business in Pakistan and deepen its focus on the Asia-Pacific region. Marcel Smits, the company’s former chief financial officer, was given a newly created role — head of Asia Pacific — in October amid a major executive reshuffle.

The company said Smits’ role was to “lead Cargill’s accelerated growth plan in the Asia Pacific region, a high-potential market for the company and its customers.” One month later, the company announced several multimillion-dollar investments in Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines.

South and Southeast Asia hold some of the greatest growth potential in chicken, according to a recent Rabobank analysis.

Cargill is also growing its chicken business in another growth region: Central and South America. Cargill acquired Campollo in late 2018, less than a year after it acquired Pollos Bucanero, both Colombia-based chicken companies.

The office of Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan applauded Cargill’s investment. The news comes as Pakistan attempts to attract foreign investment to stabilize and grow its economy.

Riaz Haq said...

PAKISTAN’S red meat consumption tripled from 11.7 kilograms per person in 2000 to over 32kg in 2016. It is set to go further up to 47kg by 2020 because of two main reasons: higher incomes and a changing lifestyle due to growing urbanisation in the last two decades, enabling people to go for protein-rich food.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1432040


No apparent efforts are being made by either public or private sector to meet growing demand for red meat. We are illegally slaughtering female animals at private abattoirs and less-monitored municipal facilities to fill the gap. The practice is depleting our livestock reserves, which currently stand at around 169 million head. Of them, 74m are cows and buffaloes and 95m are sheep and goats. It is feared that if this trend is not checked, the livestock-surplus country may face a shortage of animals in the near future.

In order to maintain a healthy stock of cattle head and sustain the provision of quality meat for domestic consumption and exports, experts and consumer representatives suggest abolishing the official capping of meat prices, which is discouraging investment in the sector.

Farmers say they cannot supply quality meat at the government-notified rates

Consumer Solidarity Forum’s Mohsin Bhatti claims that at least 50 per cent of around 20,000 animals slaughtered in Lahore every day are female. Their illegal slaughter is carried out at homes of butchers, service stations and in villages at night.

ARTICLE CONTINUES AFTER AD

Low meat prices make herd owners sell their 12- to 14-month-old animals, both male and female. They should ideally wait until animals are 22 months old, he says. This deprives consumers of healthy meat.

“The sector holds great investment potential, which may bring prosperity to livestock farmers in the countryside provided the artificial price-setting mechanism that is holding it hostage is done away with,” says Dr M Hayat Jaspal, chairman of the Meat Science and Technology Department at the Lahore Veterinary University (UVAS).

He argues market forces will ensure that quality red meat is available at the cheapest rate to consumers just like in the poultry sector, which is free from the official price mechanism. “Whenever governments intervene in any sector through price regimes, they destroy it.”

However, meat exporters apprehend that if the official price mechanism is abolished, the commodity will become dearer and hurt exports that are already on the decline for the last couple of years. “We’re already facing higher production costs due to various reasons. Uncapping meat prices will lead to a hike in local animal markets, thus making export consignments more expensive and uncompetitive in the world,” says Shehzad Aslam Ghauri, a Lahore-based exporter of red meat.

But Dr Jaspal dispels the price hike fears. “If prices play such a big role, then why is the meat export volume on the decline even at the existing low official rates?” He says the price may go up in the short run, but will stabilise after a year. “That’s because by then new investment will improve the supply side and, like in the poultry industry, market forces will regulate prices and ensure a balance between supply and demand.”

Even if new farms are not set up by that time, meat production will double as farmers will use feedlots to fatten up their cattle, which is not feasible at the present price level.

Endorsing these views, Dr Sher Ali of UVAS says that quality meat from fattened animals will help exporters earn at least 25pc more from their existing consignments, which are sent to low-end foreign markets because of poor meat quality. At the current officially notified rates, he says, it is impossible to produce quality meat. “The university itself, despite enjoying certain subsidies, could produce quality beef at Rs550 per kg in its ongoing pilot project while the official rate of beef is around Rs400.”

Riaz Haq said...

The government has set a target to produce about 4.708 million tons of meat during the fiscal year 2019-20 as against the production of 4.478 million tons of the corresponding period of last year.

https://www.urdupoint.com/en/pakistan/about-4708-million-tons-of-meat-to-be-produc-660313.html

The meat production in country had witnessed about 1.3% growth during the last fiscal year (2018-19) as the meat production targets were set at 4.420 million tons during the outgoing fiscal year, said an official in the Ministry of National food Security and Research.

Talking to APP here on Wednesday, he said that during the period under review, beef production targets were fixed at 2.303 million tons and mutton production at 748,000 tons to tackle with the domestic consumption as well as to export.

During last fiscal year, he said that production of mutton had witnessed about 0.5% growth where as mutton production was reduced by 1.1%, adding that beef production was recorded at 2.227 million tons and mutton 732,000 tons during 2018-19, he added.

Meanwhile, poultry production targets which was main source of meat provision for a large scale of local population was fixed at 1.

657 million tons during the current financial year, he added.

He said that during the last financial year (2018-19), poultry production in the country grew by 3.6% as about 1.518 million tons of the above mentioned commodity was produced to meet with the local consumption as well as to export, he added.

Besides, he informed that government has set a target to produce 61.690 million tons of milk during current fiscal year and 20.133 million eggs to fulfill the domestic consumption.

Both milk and eggs production during last year had registered about 1.3% and 0.3% growth in their respective production, he added.

The government was also focusing to exploit the potential of aqua culture in coastal areas and rivers across the country, particularly in Balochistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and had set a target to produce about 920,000 tons of fish during the period under review. About 336,000 tons inland fisheries and 584,000 tons of marine fish production targets were fixed for current fiscal year.

Riaz Haq said...

The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore has won an international collaborative funding with combined worth of 2.8 million Canadian dollar (equivalent to Rs 300 million) from International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada, under the Innovative Veterinary Solutions for Antimicrobial Resistance (InnoVet-AMR) programme


https://www.urdupoint.com/en/education/uvas-wins-rs-300m-canadian-funding-to-develop-658565.html

The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore has won an international collaborative funding with combined worth of 2.8 million Canadian dollar (equivalent to Rs 300 million) from International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada, under the Innovative Veterinary Solutions for Antimicrobial Resistance (InnoVet-AMR) programme.

The InnoVet-AMR is a partnership between the IDRC and the UK government’s Global AMR Innovation Fund (GAMRIF), which is part of the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC). This project is a collaboration of UVAS and Punjab University in Pakistan and Purdue University in the USA to develop new technologies that will collectively replace the use of antibiotics in Pakistan’s poultry production.

Prof Dr Zafar Hayat is project leader from UVAS with Prof Dr Athar Mahmud and Dr Gulbeena Saleem as Co-PIs/team members. The UVAS research team joins Dr Paul Ebner, Purdue professor of animal sciences, Nicole Widmar, Purdue professor of agricultural economics and Dr Shafiqur Rehman from the University of Punjab to reduce risk that antimicrobial resistance in poultry poses to health and food security.



The project will reduce reliance on antibiotics in Pakistan’s poultry industry and support the transition to alternatives that enhance poultry health and efficiency without posing any risk to public health.

Platforms will be designed and implemented to encourage the rapid development of phage and nutraceutical-based antibiotic alternatives and a framework will be defined to introduce and promote these technologies for commercial and field use.

Vice-Chancellor Prof Dr Talat Naseer Pasha congratulated the faculty on winning such a useful project and said it will prove a milestone in the development of poultry sector and availability of antibiotic-free and safe chicken to the consumers.

Riaz Haq said...

As of 2017, Pakistan is the world's 9th largest meat producing country.

Pakistan produced 1.87 million tons of meat in 2017, accounting for 2.89% of global meat production.

Here's the top 10 list:

1. US (12 million tons), 2. Brazil (9.5 million tons) , 3. EU (7.87 million tons) , 4. China (7 million tons), 5. India (4.25 million tons) , 6. Argentina (2.6 million tons), 7. Australia (2 million tons) , 8. Mexico (1.91 million tons) , 9. Pakistan (1.78 million tons) , 10. Turkey (1.7 million tons)

http://www.thedailyrecords.com/2018-2019-2020-2021/world-famous-top-10-list/world/largest-meat-producing-countries-world-beef-exporting-10-top/14456/

Riaz Haq said...

World Cattle Inventory:



Pakistan ranks 8th in the world in number of heads of cattle:



World 1,467,548,724
Rank Country Head % Of Total
1 Brazil 211,764,292 14.43%
2 India 189,000,000 12.88%
3 China 113,500,000 7.73%
4 United States 89,299,600 6.08%
5 Ethiopia 54,000,000 3.68%
6 Argentina 51,095,000 3.48%
7 Sudan  41,917,000 2.86%
8 Pakistan 38,299,000 2.61%
9 Mexico 32,402,461 2.21%
10 Australia 29,290,769
2.00%



https://beef2live.com/story-world-cattle-inventory-ranking-209-countries-fao-247-127843

Riaz Haq said...

1.44 million tons annual chicken meat production in Pakistan

https://pakistanpoultry.org/an-overview-of-poultry-industry/


Meat and Egg Production

Broiler Live

GP (325,000 x 4) 1.3 Million Kg
PS (12.5 Million x 4) 50.0 Million Kg
Broiler (1.237 Billion x 1.8) 2,226.0 Million Kg
Layer

PS (800,000 x 1.8) 1.44 Million Kg
Commercial Layer (70,000,000 x 1.8) 126.00 Million Kg
Total Production 2,400.00 Million Kg
Meat (60%) 1,440.00 Million Kg
Meat (per Capita) (1,440/200 Million) 7.20 Kg
Table eggs (per Capita) (17,500/200 Million) 88 Eggs / Capita

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan's average daily per capita calorific intake was estimated by ADB at 2,440 kcal in 2013. Cereals accounted for 48% of daily calorific intake in 2013. Calorific intake from animal sources comprised 22%, while fruit and vegetables accounted for 2%. The average daily per capita protein consumption was estimated at 65.5 grams, while the average dietary energy supply adequacy was estimated to be 108% in 2015-2017.

https://www.brecorder.com/2020/01/08/559976/political-instability-disasters-hinder-agri-output-adb/

Approximately 46% of agricultural production comes from the cropping sector, compared with 54% from livestock. Buffalo meat was the single most valuable commodity produced in Pakistan in 2016 at around $9.8 billion. Other important commodities produced included buffalo's milk ($9.4 billion), wheat ($7.4 billion), beef ($5.5 billion), cotton ($3.3 billion), and chicken meat ($3.2 billion).

Sugarcane was the largest crop produced with 65 million tons in 2016. Other important products included wheat (26 million tons), rice (10.2 million tons), maize (6.1 million tons), and cotton (5.3 million tons). Around 4.5 million tons of fertilizers were used in Pakistan in 2016, and a further 913,000 tons were imported into the country that year.

Pakistan's livestock sub-sector, on the other hand, has demonstrated steady growth, especially in the face of increasing demand for livestock products due to a growing and rapidly urbanized population.

The country's livestock sub-sector represents approximately 56% of value addition in agriculture and employs roughly 30 million people. Despite the increased production of poultry products, its external trade is low and has not realized the potential experienced in other livestock sub-sectors. In 2016, total poultry exports were valued at $2.7 million.

Pakistan imported $7.1 billion worth of agricultural goods in 2016, compared with $3.7 billion in agricultural exports. Pakistan's main agricultural export commodities were rice ($1.7 billion), wheat flour ($173 million), tangerines and mandarins ($158 million), beef ($155 million), sugar ($123 million), and dates ($103 million). Palm oil was Pakistan's main food import at $1.7 billion, followed by cotton lint ($581 million), tea ($490 million), rapeseed ($464 million), soybeans ($383 million), and coffee ($329 million).

Riaz Haq said...

he DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight, or 0.36 grams per pound.

This amounts to:

56 grams per day for the average sedentary man.
46 grams per day for the average sedentary woman.
Though this meager amount may be enough to prevent downright deficiency, studies show that it’s far from sufficient to ensure optimal health and body composition.


https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-much-protein-per-day

Riaz Haq said...

Agriculture Development
in the Central Asia Regional
Economic Cooperation Program
Member Countries
Review of Trends, Challenges,
and Opportunities
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEArch INSTITuTE
DECEMBER 2019

Food Intake
The average daily per capita calorific intake was estimated at 2,440 kcal in 2013. Figure A.62 displays the
proportion of calorific intake contributed by each of the major food groups. Cereals accounted for 48% of
daily calorific intake in 2013. Calorific intake from animal sources comprised 22%, while fruit and vegetables
accounted for 2%. The average daily per capita protein consumption was estimated at 65.5 grams, while the
average dietary energy supply adequacy was estimated to be 108% in 2015–2017.


https://www.adb.org/publications/trends-agricultural-development-carec-countries

Riaz Haq said...

Highlights (food security, nutrition and health conditions)

http://www.fao.org/3/ca5585en/ca5585en.pdf

• Pakistan’s food security and nutrition status has much room to improve (slide 12).
• In 2015–2017, one-fifth (20.5 percent) of its population was undernourished; the percentage
was higher than the Southern Asian average (15.2 percent), the Asian average (11.5 percent)
and the world average (10.8 percent).
• In 2012, 45.0 percent of children in Pakistan were stunted (chronic malnutrition); the
percentage was higher than the Southern Asian average of 37.9 percent, the Asian average of
27.1 percent and the world average of 24.9 percent.
• In 2016, 52.1 percent of Pakistan’s women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were anaemic; the
percentage was much higher than the world average (32.8 percent).
• Pakistan’s total protein intake increased from 59.4 g/day per capita in 1993 to 65.5 g/day in 2013
(slide 13). Its 65.5 g/day per capita total protein intake in 2013 was slightly higher than the Southern
Asian average (61.7 g/day), yet much lower than the world average (81.2 g/day) (slide 14).
• Pakistan’s life expectancy at birth in 2017 was 67 years (68 years for women and 66 years for men),
which was lower than the Southern Asian average (69 years), the Asian average (73 years), the
developing regions average (71 years) and the world average of 72 years at that time (slide 15).

Pakistan: 20.5 percent of the population (nearly 40 million people) were undernourished in
the mid-2010s – the percentage was higher than the Southern Asian average (15.2 percent),
Asian average (11.5 percent) and world average (10.8 percent); a large proportion (45 percent
in 2012) of children were stunted.

Pakistan: Total protein intake increased from 59.4 g/day per capita in 1993
to 65.5 g/day per capita in 2013; the share of animal protein in total protein
increased from 33.4 percent to 41.6 percent, yet the share of fish and
seafood declined from 1.3 percent to 0.9 percent.

Pakistan’s total protein intake in 2013 was 65.5 g/day per capita, slightly higher than the Southern Asian
average (61.7 g) but only 80 percent of the world average (81.2 g); its animal protein was 41.6 percent of
total protein, slightly higher than the world average (39.6 percent) and much higher than the Southern
Asian average (22.5 percent); its fish protein was 0.9 percent of total protein, much lower than the
Southern Asian average (3.1 percent) and world average (6.5 percent).

Pakistan: In 2017, life expectancy at birth was 67 years, lower than the Southern Asian
average (69), developing regions average (71) and world average (72); women are
expected to live longer than men in Pakistan (68 years versus 66 years).

Highlights (contribution of fish to food and nutrition)
• Pakistan’s 27.3 g/day per capita animal protein intake in 2013 was slightly lower than the world average
(32.1 g/day) but twice as much as the Southern Asian average (13.9 g/day) (slide 18), yet fish
contributed only 2.2 percent of the country’s animal protein intake in 2013 (slide 19), declining from
3.8 percent in 1993 (slide 20), much lower than the Southern Asian average (13.7 percent) and world
average (16.3 percent) (slide 19).
• In 2013, 82.8 percent of Pakistan’s fish production was food fish for direct human consumption, and
17.2 percent was for non-food uses (slide 21).
• In 2013, 98.8 percent of Pakistan’s food fish supply was from domestic production, and food fish import
accounted for 1.2 percent (slide 21).
• In 2013, 67.1 percent of Pakistan’s food fish utilization was for domestic consumption, and 32.9 percent
was for export (slide 21).
• Only one-third of the increase in Pakistan’s food fish supply during 1993–2013 went to domestic
consumption; the other two-thirds were accounted for by net export. The 28 percent increase in total
fish consumption during the period is only half of the 56 percent growth in its population, resulting in a
decline in its per capita fish consumption from 2.8 kg in 1993 to 1.9 kg in 2013 (slide 22).

Riaz Haq said...

Chickens in Pakistan have been feasting on captured locusts under an initiative to combat swarms of the insects that are threatening food supplies in the impoverished country.

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/pakistan-turns-locusts-chicken-feed-tackle-invasion-200610105115257.html


Prime Minister Imran Khan has endorsed plans to expand a pilot project in the breadbasket province of Punjab, where villagers earned cash by gathering locusts that were then dried out, shredded and added to poultry feed.

Farmers are struggling as the worst locust invasion in 25 years wipes out entire harvests in Pakistan's agricultural heartlands, leaving people scrambling for income.

Muhammad Khurshid from Pakistan's food ministry and biotechnologist Johar Ali set up the programme, drawing on efforts in war-ravaged Yemen, where authorities have encouraged people to eat the protein-rich locusts amid famine.

The pair chose Punjab's Okara district, where farmers had not used any pesticides that would make locusts unsuitable for consumption.

"We first had to learn, and then teach the locals how to catch the locusts. Nets are useless against them," Khurshid told the AFP news agency.

At night, locusts cluster on trees and plants, making them easy to scoop up as they lie motionless in the cooler temperatures until the sun begins to rise.

For a reward of 20 rupees (12 cents) per kilogramme (roughly two pounds) of locusts, locals worked all night to collect them.

One farmer who lost all her crops to the insects said she and her son earned 1,600 rupees ($10) during a single locust-gathering outing, helping to offset the financial damage.

Organisers struggled at first to convince farmers to join the hunt but, by the third night, word had spread, and hundreds joined in - turning up with their own bags to stuff full.

With 20 tonnes of captured locusts, authorities ran out of money to pay the collectors and the programme was paused.

The ministry, which recently announced the results of February's pilot, is now preparing to expand the project to other locations.

The harvested locusts went to Hi-Tech Feeds - Pakistan's largest animal-feed producer - which substituted 10 percent of the soybean in its chicken food with the insects.

"There was no issue with the feed, the locusts have a good potential for use in poultry feed," general manager Muhammad Athar said, after trying the modified product on 500 broiler hens.

Nationwide emergency
While the project is not a solution to the devastation inflicted on crops, it can provide hard-hit farmers with a fresh revenue stream and relieve pressure on authorities struggling to distribute locust-beating pesticides.

Locust swarms have gnawed their way through crops across East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and parts of India this year, and experts fear their numbers will explode as monsoon rains arrive this month.

The crisis is so severe that the government has declared a nationwide emergency and appealed for help from the international community.

Bananas, mangoes, vegetables and other crops are all vulnerable - raising fears of food shortages - as are the wheat and cotton harvests that provide Pakistan with vital revenue.

According to the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan could suffer about $5bn in losses if 25 percent of its crops are damaged.

A reduced harvest could also push prices up and risks worsening food insecurity.

About 20 percent of the population are already undernourished, with almost half of all children under five stunted, according to the World Food Programme.

Riaz Haq said...

Asafoetida (Heeng): The smelly spice #India loves but never grew. It's imported from #Afghanistan, #Iran. Known to battle flatulence, it is often recommended in recipes that involve gassy foods such as lentils (daal) or beans. #Ayurveda #Gas https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-54617077

Asafoetida, a smelly, acrid spice beloved by Indians, has been used to lace their food for centuries. But it was never cultivated in the region - until now.

Last week, scientists planted about 800 saplings of the plant in Lahaul and Spiti, a cold desert nestled in the Himalayan mountains, exactly two years after India's Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) imported six varieties of seeds from Iran.

"We are confident it will work," says Dr Ashok Kumar, one of the scientists who painstakingly germinated the seeds in a lab. He says this was necessary because for every 100 seeds, only two sprout. The plant, it turns out, has a vexing habit of going dormant.

"It goes to sleep to adapt to harsh conditions," Dr Kumar says.

Asafoetida, or hing as it's commonly known in India, is a perennial, flowering plant that largely grows in the wild. It thrives in dry soil in temperatures under 35C. So India's tropical plateaus and plains, humid coast and heavy monsoons rule out much of the country for hing farming.

Instead, Indians rely on imports mostly from Afghanistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan - worth more than $100m in 2019 - to get their fix.

This is surprising news for many Indians who would argue that hing is inherently Indian. For many Hindus and Jains, who don't eat onion and garlic because of dietary restrictions, hing's pungency makes it an ideal substitute.

"I use it in all my dals, and I don't cook them with onion or garlic," says Marryam Reshii, food writer and author of The Flavour of Spice. "When you have hing in your food, that tiny whiff of it... it just tastes so, so great!"

Ms Reshii calls herself a "hing lover" - she even put out a detailed thread earlier this week clarifying the origins and uses of her favourite spice.

She says hing's unique smell, a strong, bitter odour, makes it "unlike any other spice".

It even derives its name from that scent - asafoetida in Latin means "fetid gum". The smell is so strong that raw hing, a greyish-white sticky resin collected from the roots, is dried and mixed with flour - wheat in India's north, rice in the south - to turn it into an edible spice. Wholesalers who import hing use tiny amounts of it to make graded variations that sell in the form of blocks, coarse granules or a fine powder.

Although the Persians once called it "the food of the gods", hing is now barely found in cuisines outside of India. In other parts of the world it's either used for medicinal reasons or as an insecticide! But In India, which, by some estimates, accounts for 40% of the world's hing consumption, it's hard to overstate its role in the kitchen.

A dash of it while cumin seeds and red chillies splutter in hot ghee can make an everyday dal sing. Across the country, it seasons delicately spiced soups (shorbas) and fresh relishes (koshambirs) and spikes leafy greens and vegetables tossed in ginger, turmeric and tomatoes. In the north, Kashmiri Hindus stir it in with lamb, red chillies, fennel and dried ginger to make their classic rogan josh and southerners use it to temper their sambars, a variety of steaming lentil stew topped with mustard seeds and curry leaves. It's what sets apart Kolkata's famed hing kachoris (pastries fried to a crisp) and the fluffy idlis (steamed rice cakes) of the temple town of Kanchipuram.


-------------

But he says Kabuli hing is a "hot-selling" item, while Hadda hing, which is "sweeter and smells of oranges" is the least popular.

Riaz Haq said...

Meet Hing: The Secret-Weapon Spice Of Indian Cuisine

by Carolyn Beans

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/06/22/482779599/meet-hing-the-secret-weapon-spice-of-indian-cuisine

The moment my boyfriend — now husband — and I got serious about our future together, my father-in-law got serious about teaching me to cook Indian cuisine. My boyfriend was already skilled in the kitchen. But Dr. Jashwant Sharma wanted extra assurance that the dishes from his native country would always have a place in our home. Plus, as he told me recently, he thought I'd like it.



"We mix four, five, six different spices in a single dish. These create a taste and aroma that you don't get in any other food. People exposed to it usually like it," he said.

Even before our cooking sessions, I knew that cumin and coriander are common ingredients and that turmeric will turn your fingers yellow. Hing, however, was something entirely new to me.

Europeans gave it the decidedly unflattering moniker "devil's dung." Even its more common English name, asafoetida, is derived from the Latin for fetid. Those unaccustomed to it can respond negatively to its strong aroma, a mix of sulfur and onions.


Hing comes from the resin of giant fennel plants that grow wild in Afghanistan and Iran. The resin can be kept pure, but in the States, you mostly find it ground to a powder and mixed with wheat. In The Book of Spice, author John O'Connell describes how Mughals from the Middle East first brought hing to India in the 16th century.

Many Indians use hing to add umami to an array of savory dishes. But for the uninitiated, hing can be a tough sell. Kate O'Donnell, author of The Everyday Ayurveda Cookbook, says that she only included hing as an optional spice. "For a Western palette, hing can be shocking," she says

I first encountered hing in one of our early cooking sessions. My father-in-law whipped its well-sealed white plastic bottle out of the cupboard, added a pinch to the pan, and put it back so quickly that I didn't notice the smell. I was most struck by how it bubbled and then dissolved in the hot ghee (clarified butter). And I was a bit skeptical that a pinch of anything could influence a giant pot of lentils liberally seasoned with three other spices.

Later, while experimenting on my own, I got my first full whiff of the spice. To me, the aroma is far from gag-inducing, but it takes a real leap of faith to add it to food. Once you make that leap, magical things happen.

When cooked, hing's pungent odor mellows to a more mild leek- and garlic-like flavor. Some still smell a hint of sulfur, but for many that quality fades entirely. My father-in-law says that hing has a balancing effect on a dish. "It smooths out the aroma of all the other spices and makes them all very pleasant," he says.

Vikram Sunderam, a James Beard Award winner and chef at the Washington, D.C., Indian restaurants Rasika West End and Rasika Penn Quarter, says that he adds hing to lentil or broccoli dishes. But he uses it judiciously.

"Hing is a very interesting spice, but it has to be used in the right quantity," he cautions. "Even a little bit too much overpowers the whole dish, makes it just taste bitter."

Some believe that hing helps with digestion and can ward off flatulence. Perhaps that's why many — including Sunderam — add it to legumes, broccoli and other potentially gas-inducing vegetables.

Some Indians also use it as a substitute for garlic and onions — ingredients discouraged by certain Eastern religions and Ayurvedic medicine.

That substitution makes sense to Gary Takeoka, a food chemist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Takeoka studied hing's volatiles — the chemical compounds that produce smells. "A major proportion of hing's volatiles are sulfur compounds," he explains. "Some of these are similar to the ones found in onions and garlic."