Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Pakistan Daal Consumption Declines Sharply As Meat Consumption Rises

Pakistan's per capita daal (pulse) consumption has sharply declined to about 7 kg/person from about 15 Kg/person in 1960s, according to data released by Food and Agriculture Organization and reported in Pakistani media. Meat has replaced it as the main source of protein with per capita meat consumption rising from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published in the Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resources.

USDA Food Chart
Rising Incomes:

FAO report titled "State of Food and Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific Region" said rising incomes in developing nations are causing a shift from plant proteins — such as those found in pulses (daal) and beans — to more expensive animal proteins such as those found in meat and dairy.

According to the Household Integrated Surveys of Pakistan, the average monthly household income in the country jumped 15% from Rs. 30,999 in 2013-14 to Rs. 35,662 in 2015-16.

Food Consumption By Quintiles in Pakistan

Pulses Consumption:

Per capita consumption of pulses in Pakistan has sharply declined from about 15 kg per person a year to about 7 kg per person a year, found a new report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Daal (Pulse) Consumption Trend in South Asia. Source: FAO

In neighboring India, too, the consumption of pulse declined from about 22kg per person per year to about 15kg per person per year. In Sri Lanka, however, pulse consumption seemed to have fluctuated between 5kg and 10kg per person per year since 1960, except for a sharp drop from 1970 to 1985, the report said.

Dairy Consumption: 

Economic Survey of Pakistan reported that Pakistanis consumed over 45 million tons of milk in fiscal year 2016-17, translating to about 220 Kg/person.

FAO's "State of Food and Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific Region" says that Mongolia and Pakistan are the only two among the 26 countries in Asia Pacific region where per capita milk consumption exceeded 370 grams/day.

Meat Consumption:

Pakistan's per capita meat consumption has nearly tripled from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published by the United States National Library of Medicines at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).  Organization for Economic Development (OECD) explains that meat demand increases with higher incomes and a shift - often due to growing urbanization - to food preferences that favor increased proteins from animal sources in diets.


Meat Production in Pakistan. Source: FAO

The NIH paper authors Mohammad Shoaib and Faraz Jamil point out that Pakistan's meat consumption of 32 Kg per person is only a third of the meat capita meat consumption in rich countries like Australia and the United States.

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Nature magazine reports that Pakistanis are among the most carnivorous people in the world.  After studying the eating habits of 176 countries, the authors found that average human being is at 2.21 trophic level. It put Pakistanis at 2.4, the same trophic level as Europeans and Americans. China and India are at 2.1 and 2.2 respectively.

Chicken Vs Daal:

IN 2016, Pakistan's then finance minister Ishaq Dar suggested to his countrymen to eat chicken instead of daal (pulses or legumes). To some, the minister sounded like Queen Marie-Antoinette (wife of France's King Louis XVI) who reportedly said to hungry rioters during the French Revolution:  “Qu'ils mangent de la brioche”—“Let them eat cake”?

It was indeed true that some varieties of daal were priced higher than chicken. For example, maash was selling at Rs. 260 per kilo, higher than chicken meat at Rs. 200 per kilo. But other daals such as mung, masur and chana were cheaper than chicken.

The reason for higher daal prices and relatively lower chicken prices can be found in the fact that Pakistan's livestock industry, particularly poultry farming, has seen significant growth that the nation's pulse crop harvests have not.

Summary:

Per capita daal consumption is falling while meat and milk consumption is rising in Pakistan with rising household incomes. According to the Household Integrated Surveys of Pakistan, the average monthly household income in the country jumped from Rs. 30,999 in 2013-14 to Rs. 35,662 in 2015-16.  Pulse consumption has sharply declined to about 7 kg/person from about 15 Kg/person in 2000, according to data released by Food and Agriculture Organization and reported in Pakistani media. Meat has replaced it as the main source of protein with per capita meat consumption rising from 11.7 kg in 2000 to 32 kg in 2016. It is projected to rise to 47 kg by 2020, according to a paper published in the Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resources.

44 comments:

Ahsan H. said...

Wow, that's a huge change! How does this compare with India?

Riaz Haq said...

Ahsan: "Wow, that's a huge change! How does this compare with India?"

The change to more animal protein in diet is expected with rising incomes.

Indians consume about 5kg of meat and 15kg of daal per person per year

Milk consumption per capita in India is about a quarter of Pakistan’s

Anonymous said...

Coastal Indian states have higher fish consumption. Overall India per capita fish consumption went from 5.2kg to 5.9kg (2006 to 2011) whereas Pakistan was 1.9kg to 2.0kg correspondingly.

http://www.helgilibrary.com/indicators/fish-consumption-per-capita/


Respectfully disagree with your statement on milk consumption in India being 1/4 of Pakistan.
Total Milk production 2016
India 167 million tonnes or 351 gm per day per capita. http://www.india.com/business/milk-production-in-india-up-by-18-81-in-2016-17-dairy-farmers-income-hiked-2682174/

Pakistan 2016
42 million tonnes or 561 gm per day per capita.
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/01/16/pakistan-fourth-largest-milk-producing-country-in-world/

351gm versus 561gm is not 1/4!

Habib said...

It is good news !

Jamal said...

More heart disease and Cancer.

Z Basha Jr said...

Riaz Sb.. I am confused...As daal is more expensive than chicken, more people are replacing the protein?.. Does that indicate increasing affluence? Its not like we are eating more and more foie gras? We are eating more and more something that's cheaper?

Richard Khan said...

Most of the meat consumption is chicken, and one of the reasons for the switch from daal to chicken is the higher cost of dAal

Riaz Haq said...

Basha: ".As daal is more expensive than chicken, more people are replacing the protein?.. Does that indicate increasing affluence? Its not like we are eating more and more foie gras? We are eating more and more something that's cheaper?"


Read the following paragraph in the post again: "It was indeed true that some varieties of daal were priced higher than chicken. For example, maash was selling at Rs. 260 per kilo, higher than chicken meat at Rs. 200 per kilo. But other daals such as mung, masur and chana were cheaper than chicken."

Prices do fluctuate but in general meat costs more than pulses. And the reason is simple: It costs more to raise livestock to produce meat than to plant and harvest daal.

Riaz Haq said...

RK: "Most of the meat consumption is chicken, and one of the reasons for the switch from daal to chicken is the higher cost of dAal"

It's an incorrect statement. Look at the following graph again. It clearly shows that a lot more beef and mutton is produced and consumed than chicken.

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xdqB1UidcOk/Wd_--ZNnQrI/AAAAAAAAJZA/VXovTdrvPJkv9bQldCAccjsUxAmn_rh_wCLcBGAs/s1600/Meat%2BProduction%2BPakistan.png

Z Basha Jr said...

thats indeed good news.. hope risks of red meat consumption are well understood by awam...

Riaz Haq said...

How big is Pakistan’s meat trade and who’s buying its exports?

https://www.salaamgateway.com/en/story/correctionhow_big_is_pakistans_meat_trade_and_whos_buying_its_exports-SALAAM11092017080303/

*Corrects percentage of Pakistan's 10 biggest meat and edible meat offal (MEMO) export buyers to their overall MEMO imports in 2016, from 2.67 percent of $9.258 billion to 2.58 percent, which is equivalent to $238.99 million

Pakistan’s government is exploring new markets for export of meat and dairy products with a focus on the halal trade, according to local press reports.

How big is Pakistan’s meat and dairy trade now and where are its exports going?

EXPORTS

According to ITC Trade Map data, in 2016, Pakistan exported $313.538 million in three categories: 1. Meat and edible meat offal (internal organs) ($239.74 million), 2. Dairy produce; birds’ eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin ($67.471 million), and 3. Live animals ($6.327 million).

These three categories account for 1.53 percent of Pakistan’s $20.5 billion exports of all products to the world in 2016.

Meat and edible meat offal (MEMO) is the biggest of the three categories, accounting for 76.5 percent of the three’s exports.

Pakistan’s biggest export is textiles and textile articles, which brought in $9.481 billion in nine months from November 2016 to July 2017, according to most recent data from the State Bank of Pakistan.

BIGGEST MEMO BUYERS

Pakistan exported $238.99 million, or 99.69 percent, of all its MEMO in 2016 to 10 countries: UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Vietnam, Bahrain, Oman, Afghanistan, Qatar, Thailand, and Malaysia.

However, Pakistan is a small MEMO export player. Its 10 biggest MEMO export markets imported a total of $9.258 billion of MEMO in 2016, out of which only 2.58 percent came from Pakistan.

BEEF, MOSTLY

Fresh or chilled beef is Pakistan’s biggest MEMO export, making up 56.86 percent, or $136.319 million, of its MEMO exports in 2016. This is followed by $44.726 million of chilled or frozen meat of sheep or goats, and $31.554 million of frozen meat of bovines.

Only around $3.06 million, or 1.28 percent, of Pakistan’s MEMO exports are poultry-based.

The nation hopes to change this by targeting an increase in poultry-based MEMO sales to UAE, its biggest MEMO export market, after the GCC country lifted its ban on Pakistan’s poultry and its products in February this year. UAE imposed the ban in 2006 after an outbreak of avian influenza in Pakistan.

UAE imported an estimated $725.247 million of poultry products in 2016, 66.2 percent, or $480.224 million, of which came from Brazil.

Riaz Haq said...

Dressing (Preferred meat) vs Offal (Orhan meats etc) percentages in a study in Peshawar Pakistan


Data on age wise proportion of cattle slaughtered at Peshawar suggested that largest counts (24.35 %) ofcattle were slaughtered at the age of 41- 50 months followed by 21-30 and 51- 60 months age groups (Table I).Animals of age 41-50 months were higher in slaughter proportion and most within this group were females. Lowermilk yield during their first lactation might be a cause for their removal from the herd and sale to butchers. Animalsolder than 61 months age group showed the lowest proportion, because older meat is not preferred by consumers inPeshawar. They mostly prefer meat from animals aged 21-50 months.

Dressing percentage data of the above mention breeds of animals showed that Dajal male gave the highest value (55.7%) followed by non- descript males (54.0%) and Lohanni males (53.6%) (Table II). Mekasha et al.,(2011) studies the African zebu cattle Ogaden bull and reported that dressing percentage was 54.7. Jabbar et al.,(2009) obtained a similar trend in their studies. According to their study the Dajal breed cattle showed highest (5 8.0)dressing percentage. The higher DP value of the Dajal in their study was probably because animals were fed for 92days on mixed concentrate diet and especially reared for body weight gain, whereas, the in present study animal

DRESSING PERCENTAGE AND OFFAL PRODUCTION... (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273724540_DRESSING_PERCENTAGE_AND_OFFAL_PRODUCTION_OF_VARIOUS_BREEDS_OF_ZEBU_CATTLE_SLAUGHTERED_AT_THE_PESHAWAR_ABATTOIR [accessed Apr 21 2018].

Riaz Haq said...

Asia Is Eating Less Rice, More Wheat
Published on Wednesday, 15 March 2017 15:00 Written by Saigoneer.

https://saigoneer.com/eat-drink/eat-drink-categories/saigon-food-culture/9542-asia-is-eating-less-rice,-more-wheat

As Asian nations become wealthier, more and more people are eating wheat.

According to The Economist, the popularity of rice in Asia remains well above the global average; in fact the continent is responsible for 90% of the world’s rice consumption. Historically, the grain was – and still is – a staple for many, particularly the latter half of the 20th century, when rice consumption in Asian nations reached as high as 103 kilograms per person annually, the news outlet reports.

However in recent years, as incomes have risen and tastes have changed, the grain’s much-coveted position in many Asian societies has weakened a little. Though rice is still ubiquitous across the continent and is not likely to disappear any time soon, its consumption has been on the decline since 2000 in countries like Singapore, China, Indonesia and South Korea.

Instead, some Asian consumers are turning to wheat, reports The Economist. In 2016, for instance, Vietnam consumed 39.9 kilograms of wheat per person, a steady increase compared to the country’s consumption in 2000. Though it’s still a far cry from the global average – 78 kilograms per capita – the figure puts Vietnam above the Southeast Asian average of 26 kilograms per person each year, and consumption is expected to continue growing in the future. In fact, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) expects Southeast Asians to consume roughly 23.4 million tons of wheat in 2016-2017.

Riaz Haq said...

The annual report explained that wheat is Pakistan’s dietary staple.

http://www.world-grain.com/Departments/Country-Focus/Country-Focus-Home/Focus-on-Pakistan.aspx

“Pakistan has a variety of traditional flat breads, often prepared in a traditional clay oven called a tandoor,” the report said. “The tandoori style of cooking is common throughout rural and urban Pakistan. Wheat flour currently contributes 72% of Pakistan’s daily caloric intake with per capita wheat consumption of around 124 kg per year, one of the highest in the world.”

Diets are changing in Pakistan, the report said.

“As incomes increase and a stronger middle class emerges, consumers are gradually shifting towards more dairy, meat, and other higher-value food products in their diet,” the report said. “Over the long term, this shift to a more balanced diet has the potential to limit the pace of growth in wheat consumption.”

The attaché forecast 2016-17 wheat demand at 24.5 million tonnes and explained that just 3% would be used for food, with 97% going for planning and human consumption.

Riaz Haq said...

India ranks 43rd in the global ranking in average per capita tea consumption with 0.73 kg compared with 7.54 kgs in Turkey, 4.34 kgs in Morocco, 2.74 kgs in United Kingdom and 1.01 kgs in Pakistan.

https://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/tea-board-on-promotional-drive-to-increase-per-capita-tea-consumption-116073000191_1.html

Per capita consumption of tea
Country Quantity (Per KG)
Turkey 7.54
Morocco 4.34
Ireland 3.22
United Kingdom 2.74
UAE 1.89
Kuwait 1.61
Russia 1.21
Iran 1.07
Pakistan 1.01
India 0.73
Source: Industry, Wikipedia


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A massive increase of 35.8 per cent in per capita consumption of tea in Pakistan has been recorded from 2007 to 2016.

According to the current market situation and medium-term outlook, published by the Food and Agriculture (FAO) of the United Nations, Pakistan is among the seven countries where per capita consumption of tea has been increased.

The highest increase was seen in Malawi with 565.2pc, followed by China 128.6pc, Rwanda 110.2pc, Turkey 25.9pc, Indonesia 26.6pc and Libya 39.8pc.

Currently, black tea consumption in Pakistan has been estimated at 1,72,911 tonnes which is expected to increase to 2,50,755 tonnes in 2027, the FAO report projects. This showed in next 10 years, tea consumption will increase by 77,844 tonnes.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1415762

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan among top three dairy producers
Amin Ahmed Updated June 01, 2017

https://www.dawn.com/news/1336575

ISLAMABAD: The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations says Pakistan is among the three countries in Asia and Pacific region which are the world’s top dairy producing countries.

The total value of Asian dairy production exceeded $110 billion in 2013, and figured in the three top commodities in the region in terms of gross value of production. While the dairy production in Pakistan, India and China largely meet domestic consumption, Australia and New Zealand produce a surplus, FAO says on the occasion of World Milk Day being celebrated on June 1 (Thursday).

According to latest figures published in Pakistan Economic Survey 2016-17, milk production in the country is on the increase and during the current fiscal year the gross production of milk was estimated to be 56,080,000 tonnes.

FAO warned that while dairy has big potential, the sector needs to be more sustainable and competitive in Asia and Pacific region. This means helping smallholder farmers gain greater access to markets and services and develop successful dairy business models to increase domestic production.


The aim is to create a sector, which is socially responsible and produces safe and healthy food making more efficient use of the natural resources and reduces the effects on the environment. Only by doing so, will the sector become more sustainable for the benefit of future generations. FAO remains committed to working with all stakeholders to achieve a dairy sector that contributes to health and prosperity of the world.

An Asia Pacific Regional Audit done by the International Osteoporosis Foundation has concluded that the average dietary calcium intake in Asia is well below the FAO-WHO recommendation of 1,000 to 1,300 milligrams per day and most Asian countries have seen a two-to-three fold increase in the incidence of hip fractures during the past 30 years.

In order to facilitate dairy farmers, duty free import of calf milk replacer and cattle feed premix was allowed. During the current fiscal year, 310.2 metric tonnes of calf milk replacer and 298.9 metric tons of cattle feed premix was imported.

Last December, the Royal Friesland Company acquired 51 per cent of Engro Foods Pakistan, which was one of the largest private sector foreign direct investments in Pakistan’s dairy sector, amounting to $450 million.

Under the new deal and 2020 strategy arrangements, Engro Foods will aim for higher milk quality, variety of milk packages and products and farmers’ capacity building leading to a reduction in poverty.

In addition, regulatory duties to the tune of 25pc have been imposed on the import of skimmed milk powder and whey powder. This is to attract further investments in the dairy sector along with protecting small dairy farmers.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #Poultry Sector Thriving With Annual Production Of 1.02b Broilers. making Pakistan the 11th largest producer of poultry meat. Poultry production in Pakistan is providing direct job opportunities to over 1.5 million people. #chicken #meat https://www.urdupoint.com/en/agriculture/pakistan-poultry-sector-thriving-with-annual-482696.html


"Pakistan has become the 11th largest poultry producer in the world with a production of 1.02 billion broilers annually whereas current investment in poultry sector is more than Rs 200 billion," according to official documents.

Today, Poultry has been a balancing force to keep check on the prices of mutton and beef, but also serving as backbone of agriculture sector as it consumes over seven million tons of agro- residues.

Pakistan is an ideal country for investment in poultry sector as its meat contributed 30pc of the total meat production in the country.

Poultry sector has shown around 8 to 10pc growth rate annually, which reflected its inherent potential to grow further besides goal oriented policies of Government to promote livestock and poultry sector in the country.

Poultry has contributed 1.4pc of GDP during 2015-16 while its contribution in agriculture and livestock value-added stood at 6.9 pc and 11.7 pc respectively. Its value added at current factor cost has increased from Rs 140.5 billion in 2014-15 to Rs 151.2 billion in 2015-16, showing a record increase of 7.6pc compare to last year.

Dr Aasal Khan, Director Planning and Economics Development told APP on Friday that poultry sector in KP has grown tremendously during last five years in Khyber Pakthunkhwa.

He said large number of people especially in rural areas was associated with poultry sector and special financial incentives for them would help promote this hard earned business to new heights.

Livestock Department KP has chalked out a comprehensive plan to encourage commercial and domestic poultry farming in the province to cater the needs of meat requirement of ever growing population.

He said strengthening of commercial and domestic poultry services was a major component of the new livestock policy 2018 and solid efforts are being made to increase poultry production in the province.

The KP government has accorded high priority to livestock and poultry sectors by focusing on establishment of model poultry farms to promote this business keeping in view of dependence of a large number of people of rural areas on it.

He said thousands of poultry farms were existed in all districts of KP and technical assistance and necessary training would be provided to farmers to bolster poultry production in the province.

Dr Aasal said KP Govt has allocated Rs 2573 million for uplift agriculture, livestock, poultry, fisheries and cooperatives department for 40 projects including 30 ongoing with allocation of Rs 2217.999 million and 10 new costing Rs 355.001 million in budget 2018-19 to further strengthen this key sector.

The new projects including control of livestock diseases, eco-friendly management of fruit flies, database development through information and communication technology in crop reporting service, solarization of agriculture tubewells, establishment of trout villages in Malakand and Hazara divisions would strengthening of poultry services.

He said most of farmers are unaware from where to get veterinary services and suffer great economic losses in case of viral disease outbreak.

Poor marketing and coordination between institutions and poultry owners besides lack of technical know how challenges if addresses, livestock and poultry sector can achieve many laurels in days to come.

He said owing to goal oriented policies of present government, eggs, meat, milk and poultry production had registered substantial increase during last five years in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and people are now easily getting these commodities at their doorsteps.

Riaz Haq said...

Cargill plans $200M expansion in Pakistan, with focus on poultry and dairy
Cargill will also start grain trading and add other operations in Pakistan.

http://www.startribune.com/cargill-plans-200m-expansion-in-pakistan-with-focus-on-poultry-and-dairy/504558562/

Cargill Inc. will invest $200 million in Pakistan over the next several years to build out the company’s supply chain there and harness growing demand for chicken throughout the region.


Cargill Inc. will invest $200 million in Pakistan over the next several years to build out the company’s supply chain there and harness growing demand for chicken throughout the region.

This marks a substantial expansion for the Minnetonka-based agribusiness — the world’s largest — which has run a small operation in Pakistan since the early 1980s. It’s also the company’s latest in a rapid series of investments throughout Asia, and specifically in the south and southeast parts of the continent.

Cargill currently has cotton, sugar, metals and animal feed business interests, as well as oil-crushing facilities, in Pakistan, but will scale up its legacy grain-trading business there over the next three to five years. Cargill did not provide additional details on what those operations will entail, but the company said it will increase its employee base beyond the modest 50 people currently working in the country.

“Finalizing one of our first investments in the agricultural supply chain in Pakistan is our top priority,” Imran Nasrullah, head of Cargill Pakistan, said in a statement. “We have received a very positive response from the Pakistani government and we value their support as we expand our presence here.”

Cargill’s investment will expand its dairy and meat business in Pakistan and deepen its focus on the Asia-Pacific region. Marcel Smits, the company’s former chief financial officer, was given a newly created role — head of Asia Pacific — in October amid a major executive reshuffle.

The company said Smits’ role was to “lead Cargill’s accelerated growth plan in the Asia Pacific region, a high-potential market for the company and its customers.” One month later, the company announced several multimillion-dollar investments in Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines.

South and Southeast Asia hold some of the greatest growth potential in chicken, according to a recent Rabobank analysis.

Cargill is also growing its chicken business in another growth region: Central and South America. Cargill acquired Campollo in late 2018, less than a year after it acquired Pollos Bucanero, both Colombia-based chicken companies.

The office of Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan applauded Cargill’s investment. The news comes as Pakistan attempts to attract foreign investment to stabilize and grow its economy.

Riaz Haq said...

PAKISTAN’S red meat consumption tripled from 11.7 kilograms per person in 2000 to over 32kg in 2016. It is set to go further up to 47kg by 2020 because of two main reasons: higher incomes and a changing lifestyle due to growing urbanisation in the last two decades, enabling people to go for protein-rich food.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1432040


No apparent efforts are being made by either public or private sector to meet growing demand for red meat. We are illegally slaughtering female animals at private abattoirs and less-monitored municipal facilities to fill the gap. The practice is depleting our livestock reserves, which currently stand at around 169 million head. Of them, 74m are cows and buffaloes and 95m are sheep and goats. It is feared that if this trend is not checked, the livestock-surplus country may face a shortage of animals in the near future.

In order to maintain a healthy stock of cattle head and sustain the provision of quality meat for domestic consumption and exports, experts and consumer representatives suggest abolishing the official capping of meat prices, which is discouraging investment in the sector.

Farmers say they cannot supply quality meat at the government-notified rates

Consumer Solidarity Forum’s Mohsin Bhatti claims that at least 50 per cent of around 20,000 animals slaughtered in Lahore every day are female. Their illegal slaughter is carried out at homes of butchers, service stations and in villages at night.

ARTICLE CONTINUES AFTER AD

Low meat prices make herd owners sell their 12- to 14-month-old animals, both male and female. They should ideally wait until animals are 22 months old, he says. This deprives consumers of healthy meat.

“The sector holds great investment potential, which may bring prosperity to livestock farmers in the countryside provided the artificial price-setting mechanism that is holding it hostage is done away with,” says Dr M Hayat Jaspal, chairman of the Meat Science and Technology Department at the Lahore Veterinary University (UVAS).

He argues market forces will ensure that quality red meat is available at the cheapest rate to consumers just like in the poultry sector, which is free from the official price mechanism. “Whenever governments intervene in any sector through price regimes, they destroy it.”

However, meat exporters apprehend that if the official price mechanism is abolished, the commodity will become dearer and hurt exports that are already on the decline for the last couple of years. “We’re already facing higher production costs due to various reasons. Uncapping meat prices will lead to a hike in local animal markets, thus making export consignments more expensive and uncompetitive in the world,” says Shehzad Aslam Ghauri, a Lahore-based exporter of red meat.

But Dr Jaspal dispels the price hike fears. “If prices play such a big role, then why is the meat export volume on the decline even at the existing low official rates?” He says the price may go up in the short run, but will stabilise after a year. “That’s because by then new investment will improve the supply side and, like in the poultry industry, market forces will regulate prices and ensure a balance between supply and demand.”

Even if new farms are not set up by that time, meat production will double as farmers will use feedlots to fatten up their cattle, which is not feasible at the present price level.

Endorsing these views, Dr Sher Ali of UVAS says that quality meat from fattened animals will help exporters earn at least 25pc more from their existing consignments, which are sent to low-end foreign markets because of poor meat quality. At the current officially notified rates, he says, it is impossible to produce quality meat. “The university itself, despite enjoying certain subsidies, could produce quality beef at Rs550 per kg in its ongoing pilot project while the official rate of beef is around Rs400.”

Riaz Haq said...

The government has set a target to produce about 4.708 million tons of meat during the fiscal year 2019-20 as against the production of 4.478 million tons of the corresponding period of last year.

https://www.urdupoint.com/en/pakistan/about-4708-million-tons-of-meat-to-be-produc-660313.html

The meat production in country had witnessed about 1.3% growth during the last fiscal year (2018-19) as the meat production targets were set at 4.420 million tons during the outgoing fiscal year, said an official in the Ministry of National food Security and Research.

Talking to APP here on Wednesday, he said that during the period under review, beef production targets were fixed at 2.303 million tons and mutton production at 748,000 tons to tackle with the domestic consumption as well as to export.

During last fiscal year, he said that production of mutton had witnessed about 0.5% growth where as mutton production was reduced by 1.1%, adding that beef production was recorded at 2.227 million tons and mutton 732,000 tons during 2018-19, he added.

Meanwhile, poultry production targets which was main source of meat provision for a large scale of local population was fixed at 1.

657 million tons during the current financial year, he added.

He said that during the last financial year (2018-19), poultry production in the country grew by 3.6% as about 1.518 million tons of the above mentioned commodity was produced to meet with the local consumption as well as to export, he added.

Besides, he informed that government has set a target to produce 61.690 million tons of milk during current fiscal year and 20.133 million eggs to fulfill the domestic consumption.

Both milk and eggs production during last year had registered about 1.3% and 0.3% growth in their respective production, he added.

The government was also focusing to exploit the potential of aqua culture in coastal areas and rivers across the country, particularly in Balochistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and had set a target to produce about 920,000 tons of fish during the period under review. About 336,000 tons inland fisheries and 584,000 tons of marine fish production targets were fixed for current fiscal year.

Riaz Haq said...

The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore has won an international collaborative funding with combined worth of 2.8 million Canadian dollar (equivalent to Rs 300 million) from International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada, under the Innovative Veterinary Solutions for Antimicrobial Resistance (InnoVet-AMR) programme


https://www.urdupoint.com/en/education/uvas-wins-rs-300m-canadian-funding-to-develop-658565.html

The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore has won an international collaborative funding with combined worth of 2.8 million Canadian dollar (equivalent to Rs 300 million) from International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada, under the Innovative Veterinary Solutions for Antimicrobial Resistance (InnoVet-AMR) programme.

The InnoVet-AMR is a partnership between the IDRC and the UK government’s Global AMR Innovation Fund (GAMRIF), which is part of the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC). This project is a collaboration of UVAS and Punjab University in Pakistan and Purdue University in the USA to develop new technologies that will collectively replace the use of antibiotics in Pakistan’s poultry production.

Prof Dr Zafar Hayat is project leader from UVAS with Prof Dr Athar Mahmud and Dr Gulbeena Saleem as Co-PIs/team members. The UVAS research team joins Dr Paul Ebner, Purdue professor of animal sciences, Nicole Widmar, Purdue professor of agricultural economics and Dr Shafiqur Rehman from the University of Punjab to reduce risk that antimicrobial resistance in poultry poses to health and food security.



The project will reduce reliance on antibiotics in Pakistan’s poultry industry and support the transition to alternatives that enhance poultry health and efficiency without posing any risk to public health.

Platforms will be designed and implemented to encourage the rapid development of phage and nutraceutical-based antibiotic alternatives and a framework will be defined to introduce and promote these technologies for commercial and field use.

Vice-Chancellor Prof Dr Talat Naseer Pasha congratulated the faculty on winning such a useful project and said it will prove a milestone in the development of poultry sector and availability of antibiotic-free and safe chicken to the consumers.

Riaz Haq said...

As of 2017, Pakistan is the world's 9th largest meat producing country.

Pakistan produced 1.87 million tons of meat in 2017, accounting for 2.89% of global meat production.

Here's the top 10 list:

1. US (12 million tons), 2. Brazil (9.5 million tons) , 3. EU (7.87 million tons) , 4. China (7 million tons), 5. India (4.25 million tons) , 6. Argentina (2.6 million tons), 7. Australia (2 million tons) , 8. Mexico (1.91 million tons) , 9. Pakistan (1.78 million tons) , 10. Turkey (1.7 million tons)

http://www.thedailyrecords.com/2018-2019-2020-2021/world-famous-top-10-list/world/largest-meat-producing-countries-world-beef-exporting-10-top/14456/

Riaz Haq said...

World Cattle Inventory:



Pakistan ranks 8th in the world in number of heads of cattle:



World 1,467,548,724
Rank Country Head % Of Total
1 Brazil 211,764,292 14.43%
2 India 189,000,000 12.88%
3 China 113,500,000 7.73%
4 United States 89,299,600 6.08%
5 Ethiopia 54,000,000 3.68%
6 Argentina 51,095,000 3.48%
7 Sudan  41,917,000 2.86%
8 Pakistan 38,299,000 2.61%
9 Mexico 32,402,461 2.21%
10 Australia 29,290,769
2.00%



https://beef2live.com/story-world-cattle-inventory-ranking-209-countries-fao-247-127843

Riaz Haq said...

1.44 million tons annual chicken meat production in Pakistan

https://pakistanpoultry.org/an-overview-of-poultry-industry/


Meat and Egg Production

Broiler Live

GP (325,000 x 4) 1.3 Million Kg
PS (12.5 Million x 4) 50.0 Million Kg
Broiler (1.237 Billion x 1.8) 2,226.0 Million Kg
Layer

PS (800,000 x 1.8) 1.44 Million Kg
Commercial Layer (70,000,000 x 1.8) 126.00 Million Kg
Total Production 2,400.00 Million Kg
Meat (60%) 1,440.00 Million Kg
Meat (per Capita) (1,440/200 Million) 7.20 Kg
Table eggs (per Capita) (17,500/200 Million) 88 Eggs / Capita

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan's average daily per capita calorific intake was estimated by ADB at 2,440 kcal in 2013. Cereals accounted for 48% of daily calorific intake in 2013. Calorific intake from animal sources comprised 22%, while fruit and vegetables accounted for 2%. The average daily per capita protein consumption was estimated at 65.5 grams, while the average dietary energy supply adequacy was estimated to be 108% in 2015-2017.

https://www.brecorder.com/2020/01/08/559976/political-instability-disasters-hinder-agri-output-adb/

Approximately 46% of agricultural production comes from the cropping sector, compared with 54% from livestock. Buffalo meat was the single most valuable commodity produced in Pakistan in 2016 at around $9.8 billion. Other important commodities produced included buffalo's milk ($9.4 billion), wheat ($7.4 billion), beef ($5.5 billion), cotton ($3.3 billion), and chicken meat ($3.2 billion).

Sugarcane was the largest crop produced with 65 million tons in 2016. Other important products included wheat (26 million tons), rice (10.2 million tons), maize (6.1 million tons), and cotton (5.3 million tons). Around 4.5 million tons of fertilizers were used in Pakistan in 2016, and a further 913,000 tons were imported into the country that year.

Pakistan's livestock sub-sector, on the other hand, has demonstrated steady growth, especially in the face of increasing demand for livestock products due to a growing and rapidly urbanized population.

The country's livestock sub-sector represents approximately 56% of value addition in agriculture and employs roughly 30 million people. Despite the increased production of poultry products, its external trade is low and has not realized the potential experienced in other livestock sub-sectors. In 2016, total poultry exports were valued at $2.7 million.

Pakistan imported $7.1 billion worth of agricultural goods in 2016, compared with $3.7 billion in agricultural exports. Pakistan's main agricultural export commodities were rice ($1.7 billion), wheat flour ($173 million), tangerines and mandarins ($158 million), beef ($155 million), sugar ($123 million), and dates ($103 million). Palm oil was Pakistan's main food import at $1.7 billion, followed by cotton lint ($581 million), tea ($490 million), rapeseed ($464 million), soybeans ($383 million), and coffee ($329 million).

Riaz Haq said...

he DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight, or 0.36 grams per pound.

This amounts to:

56 grams per day for the average sedentary man.
46 grams per day for the average sedentary woman.
Though this meager amount may be enough to prevent downright deficiency, studies show that it’s far from sufficient to ensure optimal health and body composition.


https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-much-protein-per-day

Riaz Haq said...

Agriculture Development
in the Central Asia Regional
Economic Cooperation Program
Member Countries
Review of Trends, Challenges,
and Opportunities
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEArch INSTITuTE
DECEMBER 2019

Food Intake
The average daily per capita calorific intake was estimated at 2,440 kcal in 2013. Figure A.62 displays the
proportion of calorific intake contributed by each of the major food groups. Cereals accounted for 48% of
daily calorific intake in 2013. Calorific intake from animal sources comprised 22%, while fruit and vegetables
accounted for 2%. The average daily per capita protein consumption was estimated at 65.5 grams, while the
average dietary energy supply adequacy was estimated to be 108% in 2015–2017.


https://www.adb.org/publications/trends-agricultural-development-carec-countries

Riaz Haq said...

Highlights (food security, nutrition and health conditions)

http://www.fao.org/3/ca5585en/ca5585en.pdf

• Pakistan’s food security and nutrition status has much room to improve (slide 12).
• In 2015–2017, one-fifth (20.5 percent) of its population was undernourished; the percentage
was higher than the Southern Asian average (15.2 percent), the Asian average (11.5 percent)
and the world average (10.8 percent).
• In 2012, 45.0 percent of children in Pakistan were stunted (chronic malnutrition); the
percentage was higher than the Southern Asian average of 37.9 percent, the Asian average of
27.1 percent and the world average of 24.9 percent.
• In 2016, 52.1 percent of Pakistan’s women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were anaemic; the
percentage was much higher than the world average (32.8 percent).
• Pakistan’s total protein intake increased from 59.4 g/day per capita in 1993 to 65.5 g/day in 2013
(slide 13). Its 65.5 g/day per capita total protein intake in 2013 was slightly higher than the Southern
Asian average (61.7 g/day), yet much lower than the world average (81.2 g/day) (slide 14).
• Pakistan’s life expectancy at birth in 2017 was 67 years (68 years for women and 66 years for men),
which was lower than the Southern Asian average (69 years), the Asian average (73 years), the
developing regions average (71 years) and the world average of 72 years at that time (slide 15).

Pakistan: 20.5 percent of the population (nearly 40 million people) were undernourished in
the mid-2010s – the percentage was higher than the Southern Asian average (15.2 percent),
Asian average (11.5 percent) and world average (10.8 percent); a large proportion (45 percent
in 2012) of children were stunted.

Pakistan: Total protein intake increased from 59.4 g/day per capita in 1993
to 65.5 g/day per capita in 2013; the share of animal protein in total protein
increased from 33.4 percent to 41.6 percent, yet the share of fish and
seafood declined from 1.3 percent to 0.9 percent.

Pakistan’s total protein intake in 2013 was 65.5 g/day per capita, slightly higher than the Southern Asian
average (61.7 g) but only 80 percent of the world average (81.2 g); its animal protein was 41.6 percent of
total protein, slightly higher than the world average (39.6 percent) and much higher than the Southern
Asian average (22.5 percent); its fish protein was 0.9 percent of total protein, much lower than the
Southern Asian average (3.1 percent) and world average (6.5 percent).

Pakistan: In 2017, life expectancy at birth was 67 years, lower than the Southern Asian
average (69), developing regions average (71) and world average (72); women are
expected to live longer than men in Pakistan (68 years versus 66 years).

Highlights (contribution of fish to food and nutrition)
• Pakistan’s 27.3 g/day per capita animal protein intake in 2013 was slightly lower than the world average
(32.1 g/day) but twice as much as the Southern Asian average (13.9 g/day) (slide 18), yet fish
contributed only 2.2 percent of the country’s animal protein intake in 2013 (slide 19), declining from
3.8 percent in 1993 (slide 20), much lower than the Southern Asian average (13.7 percent) and world
average (16.3 percent) (slide 19).
• In 2013, 82.8 percent of Pakistan’s fish production was food fish for direct human consumption, and
17.2 percent was for non-food uses (slide 21).
• In 2013, 98.8 percent of Pakistan’s food fish supply was from domestic production, and food fish import
accounted for 1.2 percent (slide 21).
• In 2013, 67.1 percent of Pakistan’s food fish utilization was for domestic consumption, and 32.9 percent
was for export (slide 21).
• Only one-third of the increase in Pakistan’s food fish supply during 1993–2013 went to domestic
consumption; the other two-thirds were accounted for by net export. The 28 percent increase in total
fish consumption during the period is only half of the 56 percent growth in its population, resulting in a
decline in its per capita fish consumption from 2.8 kg in 1993 to 1.9 kg in 2013 (slide 22).

Riaz Haq said...

Chickens in Pakistan have been feasting on captured locusts under an initiative to combat swarms of the insects that are threatening food supplies in the impoverished country.

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/pakistan-turns-locusts-chicken-feed-tackle-invasion-200610105115257.html


Prime Minister Imran Khan has endorsed plans to expand a pilot project in the breadbasket province of Punjab, where villagers earned cash by gathering locusts that were then dried out, shredded and added to poultry feed.

Farmers are struggling as the worst locust invasion in 25 years wipes out entire harvests in Pakistan's agricultural heartlands, leaving people scrambling for income.

Muhammad Khurshid from Pakistan's food ministry and biotechnologist Johar Ali set up the programme, drawing on efforts in war-ravaged Yemen, where authorities have encouraged people to eat the protein-rich locusts amid famine.

The pair chose Punjab's Okara district, where farmers had not used any pesticides that would make locusts unsuitable for consumption.

"We first had to learn, and then teach the locals how to catch the locusts. Nets are useless against them," Khurshid told the AFP news agency.

At night, locusts cluster on trees and plants, making them easy to scoop up as they lie motionless in the cooler temperatures until the sun begins to rise.

For a reward of 20 rupees (12 cents) per kilogramme (roughly two pounds) of locusts, locals worked all night to collect them.

One farmer who lost all her crops to the insects said she and her son earned 1,600 rupees ($10) during a single locust-gathering outing, helping to offset the financial damage.

Organisers struggled at first to convince farmers to join the hunt but, by the third night, word had spread, and hundreds joined in - turning up with their own bags to stuff full.

With 20 tonnes of captured locusts, authorities ran out of money to pay the collectors and the programme was paused.

The ministry, which recently announced the results of February's pilot, is now preparing to expand the project to other locations.

The harvested locusts went to Hi-Tech Feeds - Pakistan's largest animal-feed producer - which substituted 10 percent of the soybean in its chicken food with the insects.

"There was no issue with the feed, the locusts have a good potential for use in poultry feed," general manager Muhammad Athar said, after trying the modified product on 500 broiler hens.

Nationwide emergency
While the project is not a solution to the devastation inflicted on crops, it can provide hard-hit farmers with a fresh revenue stream and relieve pressure on authorities struggling to distribute locust-beating pesticides.

Locust swarms have gnawed their way through crops across East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and parts of India this year, and experts fear their numbers will explode as monsoon rains arrive this month.

The crisis is so severe that the government has declared a nationwide emergency and appealed for help from the international community.

Bananas, mangoes, vegetables and other crops are all vulnerable - raising fears of food shortages - as are the wheat and cotton harvests that provide Pakistan with vital revenue.

According to the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan could suffer about $5bn in losses if 25 percent of its crops are damaged.

A reduced harvest could also push prices up and risks worsening food insecurity.

About 20 percent of the population are already undernourished, with almost half of all children under five stunted, according to the World Food Programme.

Riaz Haq said...

Asafoetida (Heeng): The smelly spice #India loves but never grew. It's imported from #Afghanistan, #Iran. Known to battle flatulence, it is often recommended in recipes that involve gassy foods such as lentils (daal) or beans. #Ayurveda #Gas https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-54617077

Asafoetida, a smelly, acrid spice beloved by Indians, has been used to lace their food for centuries. But it was never cultivated in the region - until now.

Last week, scientists planted about 800 saplings of the plant in Lahaul and Spiti, a cold desert nestled in the Himalayan mountains, exactly two years after India's Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) imported six varieties of seeds from Iran.

"We are confident it will work," says Dr Ashok Kumar, one of the scientists who painstakingly germinated the seeds in a lab. He says this was necessary because for every 100 seeds, only two sprout. The plant, it turns out, has a vexing habit of going dormant.

"It goes to sleep to adapt to harsh conditions," Dr Kumar says.

Asafoetida, or hing as it's commonly known in India, is a perennial, flowering plant that largely grows in the wild. It thrives in dry soil in temperatures under 35C. So India's tropical plateaus and plains, humid coast and heavy monsoons rule out much of the country for hing farming.

Instead, Indians rely on imports mostly from Afghanistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan - worth more than $100m in 2019 - to get their fix.

This is surprising news for many Indians who would argue that hing is inherently Indian. For many Hindus and Jains, who don't eat onion and garlic because of dietary restrictions, hing's pungency makes it an ideal substitute.

"I use it in all my dals, and I don't cook them with onion or garlic," says Marryam Reshii, food writer and author of The Flavour of Spice. "When you have hing in your food, that tiny whiff of it... it just tastes so, so great!"

Ms Reshii calls herself a "hing lover" - she even put out a detailed thread earlier this week clarifying the origins and uses of her favourite spice.

She says hing's unique smell, a strong, bitter odour, makes it "unlike any other spice".

It even derives its name from that scent - asafoetida in Latin means "fetid gum". The smell is so strong that raw hing, a greyish-white sticky resin collected from the roots, is dried and mixed with flour - wheat in India's north, rice in the south - to turn it into an edible spice. Wholesalers who import hing use tiny amounts of it to make graded variations that sell in the form of blocks, coarse granules or a fine powder.

Although the Persians once called it "the food of the gods", hing is now barely found in cuisines outside of India. In other parts of the world it's either used for medicinal reasons or as an insecticide! But In India, which, by some estimates, accounts for 40% of the world's hing consumption, it's hard to overstate its role in the kitchen.

A dash of it while cumin seeds and red chillies splutter in hot ghee can make an everyday dal sing. Across the country, it seasons delicately spiced soups (shorbas) and fresh relishes (koshambirs) and spikes leafy greens and vegetables tossed in ginger, turmeric and tomatoes. In the north, Kashmiri Hindus stir it in with lamb, red chillies, fennel and dried ginger to make their classic rogan josh and southerners use it to temper their sambars, a variety of steaming lentil stew topped with mustard seeds and curry leaves. It's what sets apart Kolkata's famed hing kachoris (pastries fried to a crisp) and the fluffy idlis (steamed rice cakes) of the temple town of Kanchipuram.


-------------

But he says Kabuli hing is a "hot-selling" item, while Hadda hing, which is "sweeter and smells of oranges" is the least popular.

Riaz Haq said...

Meet Hing: The Secret-Weapon Spice Of Indian Cuisine

by Carolyn Beans

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/06/22/482779599/meet-hing-the-secret-weapon-spice-of-indian-cuisine

The moment my boyfriend — now husband — and I got serious about our future together, my father-in-law got serious about teaching me to cook Indian cuisine. My boyfriend was already skilled in the kitchen. But Dr. Jashwant Sharma wanted extra assurance that the dishes from his native country would always have a place in our home. Plus, as he told me recently, he thought I'd like it.



"We mix four, five, six different spices in a single dish. These create a taste and aroma that you don't get in any other food. People exposed to it usually like it," he said.

Even before our cooking sessions, I knew that cumin and coriander are common ingredients and that turmeric will turn your fingers yellow. Hing, however, was something entirely new to me.

Europeans gave it the decidedly unflattering moniker "devil's dung." Even its more common English name, asafoetida, is derived from the Latin for fetid. Those unaccustomed to it can respond negatively to its strong aroma, a mix of sulfur and onions.


Hing comes from the resin of giant fennel plants that grow wild in Afghanistan and Iran. The resin can be kept pure, but in the States, you mostly find it ground to a powder and mixed with wheat. In The Book of Spice, author John O'Connell describes how Mughals from the Middle East first brought hing to India in the 16th century.

Many Indians use hing to add umami to an array of savory dishes. But for the uninitiated, hing can be a tough sell. Kate O'Donnell, author of The Everyday Ayurveda Cookbook, says that she only included hing as an optional spice. "For a Western palette, hing can be shocking," she says

I first encountered hing in one of our early cooking sessions. My father-in-law whipped its well-sealed white plastic bottle out of the cupboard, added a pinch to the pan, and put it back so quickly that I didn't notice the smell. I was most struck by how it bubbled and then dissolved in the hot ghee (clarified butter). And I was a bit skeptical that a pinch of anything could influence a giant pot of lentils liberally seasoned with three other spices.

Later, while experimenting on my own, I got my first full whiff of the spice. To me, the aroma is far from gag-inducing, but it takes a real leap of faith to add it to food. Once you make that leap, magical things happen.

When cooked, hing's pungent odor mellows to a more mild leek- and garlic-like flavor. Some still smell a hint of sulfur, but for many that quality fades entirely. My father-in-law says that hing has a balancing effect on a dish. "It smooths out the aroma of all the other spices and makes them all very pleasant," he says.

Vikram Sunderam, a James Beard Award winner and chef at the Washington, D.C., Indian restaurants Rasika West End and Rasika Penn Quarter, says that he adds hing to lentil or broccoli dishes. But he uses it judiciously.

"Hing is a very interesting spice, but it has to be used in the right quantity," he cautions. "Even a little bit too much overpowers the whole dish, makes it just taste bitter."

Some believe that hing helps with digestion and can ward off flatulence. Perhaps that's why many — including Sunderam — add it to legumes, broccoli and other potentially gas-inducing vegetables.

Some Indians also use it as a substitute for garlic and onions — ingredients discouraged by certain Eastern religions and Ayurvedic medicine.

That substitution makes sense to Gary Takeoka, a food chemist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Takeoka studied hing's volatiles — the chemical compounds that produce smells. "A major proportion of hing's volatiles are sulfur compounds," he explains. "Some of these are similar to the ones found in onions and garlic."

Riaz Haq said...

Like in other countries, culinary cultures fall along economic and social class lines in Pakistan. While the lower classes go to the cheap Pakistani restaurants and khokhas—roadside eateries, serving oily, spicy dishes, the middle and upper classes dine at more fashionable, pricey and exclusive places. The elite prefers a variety of Chinese, Thai, Italian, Mediterranean and American type high quality grill and steak houses. Major cities in Pakistan have very rapidly embraced a globalized, cosmopolitan food culture, offering a rich variety of cuisines.

https://www.arabnews.pk/node/1805416

We never thought the world would change so quickly with the globalization of markets, technologies, communications and intermixing of world cultures. Theoretically, the whole world is open for competition but what is actually sold and bought in the food industry has followed the familiar patterns of global domination. The power and influence of American popular culture, which besides music, film and sports, is reflected in fast-food chains, symbolizes hegemony. It means consumers have accepted everything of their own free will. There is a very broad body of people from every class and walk of life all over the world that wear jeans, t-shirts, and stand in queues to get a slice of pizza or a burger at outlets replicating American design, American colors and uniforms behind the counters.
Pakistan’s national cuisine is as varied as in any country, representing many regional, local and traditional dishes. However, the effects of commercialization and food chain culture can also be seen in the opening of specific food outlets in different cities. I believe it is one of the positive gains of global food chains opening up here. The other is the employment of young women as waiters and cash-register workers in at least three major cities—Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad.


Interestingly, local food businesses have very quickly adapted to the changing tastes of Pakistanis by offering their own brands of pizza, burgers and fried chicken. In small and major cities, there are hundreds of local fast-food outlets that offer cheaper, affordable alternatives to expensive foreign brands. In every market of Pakistan, a one man burger cart will hit you in the face displaying the colorful photograph of an American style burger.
Like in other countries, culinary cultures fall along economic and social class lines in Pakistan. While the lower classes go to the cheap Pakistani restaurants and khokhas—roadside eateries, serving oily, spicy dishes, the middle and upper classes dine at more fashionable, pricey and exclusive places. The elite prefers a variety of Chinese, Thai, Italian, Mediterranean and American type high quality grill and steak houses. Major cities in Pakistan have very rapidly embraced a globalized, cosmopolitan food culture, offering a rich variety of cuisines.
Another remarkable shift is reflected in the opening up of coffee houses in major cities. Pakistan is still largely a tea-drinking country with a special taste for doodh-patti—tea brewed in milk and sugar. Many decades back, only the elite would have coffee on their breakfast tables or academics in the offices. It is now becoming a popular hot drink, thanks to motorways and the common belief that high doses of caffeine keep you awake behind the wheel.
Present day urban elite food culture is transforming itself to exclusive clubs on the front yards of shopping centers, on rooftops, and in the special dining rooms of five-star hotels. It is the prohibitive cost of having a cup of coffee or a piece of pastry on a porcelain plate that keeps the common man away--not unusual in elite cultures and elite-driven economies like that of Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

With 1.32 billion birds, #Pakistan has the world's 5th largest #poultry population. #meat #eggs #protein https://www.statista.com/statistics/263961/top-countries-worldwide-by-chicken-stock-2007/

https://twitter.com/haqsmusings/status/1408522023186227202?s=20

Riaz Haq said...

Pulses: More than just a meat alternative
Beans, peas and lentils are often overlooked when it comes to food staples. In a world where the devastating environmental impact of mass meat production is becoming increasingly clear, could pulses provide a solution?

https://www.dw.com/en/pulses-more-than-just-a-meat-alternative/a-56513673

Pulses, a broad category of edible seeds that includes pantry staples like lentils, beans, peas and chickpeas, are one of the world's most important food crops.

This underrated legume has featured heavily in diets around the world for thousands of years. Pulses are the main source of protein for people who don't eat meat — whether by choice or by circumstance — they're good for the environment, nutritious and tasty.

In recent years, the United Nations has recognized their global significance and declared February 10 as World Pulses Day. Read on to learn more about this humble superfood.

Environmentally friendly meat alternative
Changing our diet, and how we produce what we eat, can have a huge and positive impact on the planet.

A recent key report on food and biodiversity loss linked global eating habits to around 30% of human-made emissions in terms of energy and fertilizer, making them a "key driver of climate change." It also highlighted the devastating impact of our food production on nature.

A big part of the problem is meat and other animal products. Though it might be a good source of protein, meat is terrible for the environment. Getting a kilogram of beef to your kitchen emits as much as 60 kilograms (130 pounds) of CO2-equivalent, according to a 2018 study published in Science. And with the world population set to surpass 10 billion in a little over 30 years, increasing demand for food — especially meat and monocrops like wheat, corn and soybeans — will further stress the climate, limited natural resources and biodiversity.

Pulses like peas and lentils, however, produce some 0.9 kg of CO2-equivalent for every kilo grown. And they provide a far higher protein yield per square kilometer than a herd of cattle or flock of chickens, meaning existing farmland can be used more efficiently and untouched forests can be spared.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted pulses as "a good alternative to meat," pointing out that they "can play a key role in future healthy and sustainable diets." In recent years, calls from environmental groups for people in the Western world to drastically reduce their meat consumption, has inspired a growing trend toward vegetarian and vegan diets.

In a September analysis, climate data provider Carbon Brief said "a global switch to veganism would deliver the largest emissions savings out of any dietary shift," preventing some 8 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually by 2050. Current food production is responsible for around 13.7 billion tons per year.

"It is now becoming clear that a plant-based diet is not just a crock," said Christina Ledermann, head of the German advocacy group Humans for Animal Rights. "The future of nutrition is plant-based, or there is no future."

Riaz Haq said...

Commercial production of kidney beans to start soon in Pakistan


https://www.dawn.com/news/1670834

ISLAMABAD: The first-ever production of kidney bean varieties at commercial level will commence soon as the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (Parc) will release six new varieties of common bean varieties in the country.

According to a Parc report made available to Dawn on Friday, the achievement is part of the promotion of common bean cultivation in Pakistan under the five-year project for the promotion of research for productivity enhancement in pulses launched in 2019. The project has been funded by the Public Sector Development Programme with an amount of Rs1,437 million.

The report says shuttle multiplication has been proposed for the promotion of kidney beans in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the spring season and upper regions in the kharif season.

Scientists engaged in the pulse project say Pakistan has become self-sufficient in moong bean as its production was recorded at 267,000 tonnes against the national requirement of 180,000 tonnes.

The major focus of the project is to achieve self-sufficiency in pulses production by increasing the yield of major pulse crops, including chickpea, lentil, moong, mash and kidney beans, by 30 per cent.

Under the umbrella project, till now 3,792 lines have been tested throughout the country in 25 different locations through national uniform yield trials to evaluate and select promising lines for varieties development.

As the country was facing acute shortage of quality seed of pulses, basic and pre-basic seed production has been carried out on about 1,107 acres through which 6,553 tonnes of seed has been produced and distributed among the farmers.

Parc officials say availability of quality seed of improved cultivars is the prime contributing factor towards achieving self-sufficiency in pulses. To ensure this, varietal trials have been conducted in different agro-climatic zones of the country and the seed of identified best varieties was distributed among the farmers.

Riaz Haq said...

World Pulses Day 2022: Legumes or pulses are seeds cultivated out of leguminous plants for food. Beans, peas and lentils are the most common and most consumed types of pulses. We Indians, consume pulses to a large extent in our daily diet. Moreover, pulses are consumed in various other forms across the world. February 10 is observed as World Pulses Day every year and is being celebrated by the United Nations since 2009. Read to know more about World Pulses Day.

HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF WORLD PULSES DAY
The United Nations learned the importance of crops in the year 2013. In 2016, they declared that year to be the International Year of pulses through their resolution A/RES/68/231. Then in 2019, they decided to dedicate the day to pulses to increase awareness and globally accesspulsestoWorldPulsesDay. The UN also hopes to double the cultivation of pulses by the year 2050.

Pulses hold protein values and are important to a healthy and nutritional diet. They play an important role in maintaining your health and weight. Legume crops help in increasing the feasibility of the agricultural production system. They also play a crucial role in the food chain security, degraded health, and climate change. The theme of the chosen year 2016 was ‘Nutritional Seeds for a Sustainable Future’. The theme for the year is selected by the UN, every year.

THE THEME OF PULSES DAY 2022
According to the UN, the theme ofWorldPulsesDay 2022 will be - ‘Pulsesto empower youth in achieving sustainable agri-food systems.’ The programme will focus on testimonies and perspectives or youth organisations’ representatives. As per the UN, pulses contribute to creating livelihood opportunities and equity which are essential for sustainable agrifood systems. Pulses also employ women from the rural areas and the youth in farming as well as the manufacturing sectors.

Riaz Haq said...

World Pulses Day 2022: Legumes or pulses are seeds cultivated out of leguminous plants for food. Beans, peas and lentils are the most common and most consumed types of pulses. We Indians, consume pulses to a large extent in our daily diet. Moreover, pulses are consumed in various other forms across the world. February 10 is observed as World Pulses Day every year and is being celebrated by the United Nations since 2009. Read to know more about World Pulses Day.

HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF WORLD PULSES DAY
The United Nations learned the importance of crops in the year 2013. In 2016, they declared that year to be the International Year of pulses through their resolution A/RES/68/231. Then in 2019, they decided to dedicate the day to pulses to increase awareness and globally accesspulsestoWorldPulsesDay. The UN also hopes to double the cultivation of pulses by the year 2050.

Pulses hold protein values and are important to a healthy and nutritional diet. They play an important role in maintaining your health and weight. Legume crops help in increasing the feasibility of the agricultural production system. They also play a crucial role in the food chain security, degraded health, and climate change. The theme of the chosen year 2016 was ‘Nutritional Seeds for a Sustainable Future’. The theme for the year is selected by the UN, every year.

THE THEME OF PULSES DAY 2022
According to the UN, the theme ofWorldPulsesDay 2022 will be - ‘Pulsesto empower youth in achieving sustainable agri-food systems.’ The programme will focus on testimonies and perspectives or youth organisations’ representatives. As per the UN, pulses contribute to creating livelihood opportunities and equity which are essential for sustainable agrifood systems. Pulses also employ women from the rural areas and the youth in farming as well as the manufacturing sectors.

Riaz Haq said...

World Pulses Day will be marked on February 10 across the globe including Pakistan to recognize the importance of pulses (chickpeas, dry beans, lentils, dry peas and lupins among others) as a global food.


https://nation.com.pk/07-Feb-2022/world-pulses-day-to-be-marked-on-feb-10

This celebration is recognition of the decisive role that pulses can play in achieving the comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred set of universal and transformative goals and targets of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action that seeks to strengthen universal peace.

Pulse crops have a lower carbon footprint than most foods because it required a small amount of fertilizer to grow.

They also have a low water footprint as they are adapted to semi-arid conditions and can tolerate drought stress. But it’s not just the sustainability factor: Pulses are inexpensive, easy to store, highly-nutritious, and their ability to enhance the soil microbiome has been key in improving farming techniques in low-income rural areas.World Pulses Day will provide an opportunity to raise awareness about the nutritional benefits of pulses as part of sustainable food production with the aim of enhancing food security and nutrition.

Riaz Haq said...

World Pulses Day will be marked on February 10 across the globe including Pakistan to recognize the importance of pulses (chickpeas, dry beans, lentils, dry peas and lupins among others) as a global food.


https://nation.com.pk/07-Feb-2022/world-pulses-day-to-be-marked-on-feb-10

This celebration is recognition of the decisive role that pulses can play in achieving the comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred set of universal and transformative goals and targets of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action that seeks to strengthen universal peace.

Pulse crops have a lower carbon footprint than most foods because it required a small amount of fertilizer to grow.

They also have a low water footprint as they are adapted to semi-arid conditions and can tolerate drought stress. But it’s not just the sustainability factor: Pulses are inexpensive, easy to store, highly-nutritious, and their ability to enhance the soil microbiome has been key in improving farming techniques in low-income rural areas.World Pulses Day will provide an opportunity to raise awareness about the nutritional benefits of pulses as part of sustainable food production with the aim of enhancing food security and nutrition.

Riaz Haq said...

Our total consumption of wheat and atta is about 125kg per capita per year. Our per person per day calorie intake has risen from about 2,078 in 1949-50 to 2,400 in 2001-02 and 2,580 in 2020-21

By Riaz Riazuddin former deputy governor of the State Bank of Pakistan.


https://www.dawn.com/news/1659441/consumption-habits-inflation

As households move to upper-income brackets, the share of spending on food consumption falls. This is known as Engel’s law. Empirical proof of this relationship is visible in the falling share of food from about 48pc in 2001-02 for the average household. This is an obvious indication that the real incomes of households have risen steadily since then, and inflation has not eaten up the entire rise in nominal incomes. Inflation seldom outpaces the rise in nominal incomes.

Coming back to eating habits, our main food spending is on milk. Of the total spending on food, about 25pc was spent on milk (fresh, packed and dry) in 2018-19, up from nearly 17pc in 2001-01. This is a good sign as milk is the most nourishing of all food items. This behaviour (largest spending on milk) holds worldwide. The direct consumption of milk by our households was about seven kilograms per month, or 84kg per year. Total milk consumption per capita is much higher because we also eat ice cream, halwa, jalebi, gulab jamun and whatnot bought from the market. The milk used in them is consumed indirectly. Our total per person per year consumption of milk was 168kg in 2018-19. This has risen from about 150kg in 2000-01. It was 107kg in 1949-50 showing considerable improvement since then.

Since milk is the single largest contributor in expenditure, its contribution to inflation should be very high. Thanks to milk price behaviour, it is seldom in the news as opposed to sugar and wheat, whose price trend, besides hurting the poor is also exploited for gaining political mileage. According to PBS, milk prices have risen from Rs82.50 per litre in October 2018 to Rs104.32 in October 2021. This is a three-year rise of 26.4pc, or per annum rise of 8.1pc. Another blessing related to milk is that the year-to-year variation in its prices is much lower than that of other food items. The three-year rise in CPI is about 30pc, or an average of 9.7pc per year till last month. Clearly, milk prices have contributed to containing inflation to a single digit during this period.

Next to milk is wheat and atta which constitute about 11.2pc of the monthly food expenditure — less than half of milk. Wheat and atta are our staple food and their direct consumption by the average household is 7kg per capita (84kg per capita per year). As we also eat naan from the tandoors, bread from bakeries etc, our indirect consumption of wheat and atta is 41kg per capita. Our total consumption of wheat and atta is about 125kg per capita per year. Our per person per day calorie intake has risen from about 2,078 in 1949-50 to 2,400 in 2001-02 and 2,580 in 2020-21. The per capita per day protein intake in grams increased from 63 to 67 to about 75 during these years. Does this indicate better health? To answer this, let us look at how we devour ghee and sugar. Also remember that each person requires a minimum of 2,100 calories and 60g of protein per day.

Undoubtedly, ghee, cooking oil and sugar have a special place in our culture. We are familiar with Urdu idioms mentioning ghee and shakkar. Two relate to our eating habits. We greet good news by saying ‘Aap kay munh may ghee shakkar’, which literally means that may your mouth be filled with ghee and sugar. We envy the fortune of others by saying ‘Panchon oonglian ghee mei’ (all five fingers immersed in ghee, or having the best of both worlds). These sayings reflect not only our eating trends, but also the inflation burden of the rising prices of these three items — ghee, cooking oil and sugar. Recall any wedding dinner. Ghee is floating in our plates.

Riaz Haq said...

Edible oil: How double whammy of price hike is frying consumers


https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/957838-edible-oil-how-double-whammy-of-price-hike-is-frying-consumers

During 2019, Pakistan imported 2.69 million tonnes of soybean and canola oilseed, valued at $1.10 billion. In addition to this, 2.55 million tonnes of palm oil and other byproducts were also imported during the same year, costing another $1.53 billion in the same year.

The import of oilseed swelled to 3.33 million tonnes in the 2021 calendar year with a price tag of $1.98 billion. Similarly, palm oil and other derivatives' imports during the same year ballooned to 2.98 million tonnes, costing $3.74 billion.

The ordeal of consumers because of the backbreaking inflation seems dying hard as prices are yet to peak, said market insiders. In the last couple of months of political instability alone, rupee has devalued to Rs193.70 or by 8.82 percent against dollar, which may further inflate the edible oil price by about Rs25/litre in the retail market in a fortnight or so.

The impact of recent three upward revisions in edible oil’s retail price is stated to be in addition to such cost escalation, according to market insiders.

Ban imposed by Indonesia on palm oil and other byproducts’ export, Ukraine-Russia war, and prolonged heatwave may also negatively contribute to the cost of edible oil, further straining the livelihoods of people in this part of the word.

In order to tame cooking oil prices, Pakistan needs to convert this crisis into an opportunity by incentivising cultivation of edible oil. Neighbouring India is doing the same and has succeeded in increasing domestic production.

It is a sheer lack of good governance that no specialised department exists in the public sector both at federal as well as provincial levels for the systematic promotion of oilseed crops in the country.

With Pakistan Oilseed Development Board’s (PODB) scope remaining drastically limited at national level and non-establishment of similar institutions at provincial levels following passage of 18th Amendment, all development work on edible oil sector came to a standstill.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Economic Survey: Health & Nutrition 2021-22

https://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_22/PES11-HEALTH.pdf

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in Pakistan has declined to 54.2 deaths per 1,000 live births
in 2020 from 55.7 in 2019, while Neonatal Mortality Rate declined to 40.4 deaths per
1,000 live births in 2020 from 41.2 in 2019. Percentage of birth attended by skilled
health personnel increased to 69.3 percent in 2020 from 68 percent in 2019 (DHS & UNICEF). Maternal Mortality Ratio fell to 186 maternal deaths per 100,000 births in
2020, from 189 in 2019 (Table 11.1).
With a population growing at 2 percent per annum, Pakistan’s contraceptive prevalence
rate in 2020 decreased to 33 percent from 34 percent in 2019 (Trading Economics).
Pakistan’s tuberculosis incidence is 259 per 100,000 population and HIV prevalence rate
is 0.12 per 1,000 population in 2020.


Table 11.1: Health Indicators of Pakistan
2019 2020
Maternal Mortality Ratio (Per 100,000 Births)* 189 186
Neonatal Mortality Rate (Per 1,000 Live Births) 41.2 40.4
Mortality Rate, Infant (Per 1,000 Live Births) 55.7 54.2
Under-5 Mortality Rate (Per 1,000) 67.3 65.2
Incidence of Tuberculosis (Per 100,000 People) 263 259
Incidence of HIV (Per 1,000 Uninfected Population) 0.12 0.12
Life Expectancy at Birth, (Years) 67.3 67.4
Births Attended By Skilled Health Staff (% of Total)** 68.0 (2015) 69.3 (2018)
Contraceptive Prevalence, Any Methods (% of Women Ages 15-49) 34.0 33
Source: WDI, UNICEF, Trading Economics & Our World in data
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Food and nutrition

Calories/day 2019-20 2457 2020-21 2786 2021-22 2735

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Table 11.9: Availability of Major Food Items per annum (Kg per capita)
Food Items 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 (P)**
Cereals 139.9 170.8 164.7
Pulses 7.8 7.6 7.3
Sugar 23.3 28.5 28.3
Milk (Liter) 168.7 171.8 168.8
Meat (Beef, Mutton, Chicken) 22.0 22.9 22.5
Fish 2.9 2.9 2.9
Eggs (Dozen) 7.9 8.2 8.1
Edible Oil/ Ghee 14.8 15.1 14.5
Fruits & Vegetables 53.6 52.4 68.3
Calories/day 2457 2786 2735
Source: M/o PD&SI (Nutrition Section)

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan #poultry industry growing 10-12% a year. 15,000 poultry farms throughout the country with capacities ranging from 5,000 to 500,000 broilers. The industry produces 1.3 million tons of #chicken meat annually. #food #protein #calories https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/06/06/poultry-industry-growing-fast-in-pakistan-ppa/ via @Profitpk

Poultry is one of the fastest-growing industries in Pakistan with investments of about Rs1.1 trillion.

According to the Pakistan Poultry Association (PPA) report, the industry is the largest agro-based segment, generating employment and income for about 1.5 million people directly and indirectly.

The sector is growing at a fast pace of 10-12% per annum. At present, around Rs190 billion worth of agriculture products are being used by the poultry industry, speeding up the growth in the agriculture sector.

There are estimated 15,000 poultry farms throughout the country with their capacity ranging from 5,000 to 500,000 broilers. Pakistan’s poultry industry produces 1,245 million kilograms of chicken meat annually.

Ali Hasnain, a supervisor of the poultry sector, said that Pakistan’s poultry industry was no less than the international standards. “The poultry industry meets 50% of the total demand for meat in the country, and the rest is met by other meat products like beef, mutton and fish.”

“With the introduction of advanced technologies, more investments are coming around to cater to market needs and earn handsome revenues,” said Ali Hasnain, adding the poultry industry still had a lot of potential to contribute to the economy.

As per the PPA report, meat consumption per capita in Pakistan is less than the developed countries. The consumption of meat and eggs per capita is 6.2 kilograms and 56 eggs annually. In the developed world, the per capita meat consumption is 40 kilograms and 300 eggs annually.

According to the World Health Organisation, a person needs 27 grams of animal protein per day, while most people in Pakistan only consume 17 grams.

To meet the international standards of meat consumption, the supply and production need to be increased and prices need to be brought down so that consumers can get the required meat and egg consumption levels. An increase in production will certainly require more investments in the industry.

To boost production and bring down product rates, imports of poultry-related equipment should be exempted from duties and taxes.

In addition, as growers increasingly need land to establish sheds, the government should provide state land to investors at nominal rates to generate investments and more production.

Haniful Hassan, owner of a poultry farm, said that the current increase in prices of chicken was due to rise in prices of poultry feed. “The price of a feedbag has risen by 900 per bag in the last five months. We want the government to bring down the poultry feed rates to offset the price spiral,” he added.

Haniful Hassan called for establishing poultry research institutes, production directorates and a federal poultry board to provide research and training to farmers.

The government should also ensure easy availability of loans to people related to the industry.

Riaz Haq said...

Al-Shaheer Corporation Limited (ASC), a major meat exporter, on Tuesday announced that it has become the first local company to sign a business relationship agreement with McDonald's Pakistan for the supply of beef products.

The company, in a notice sent to the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), said the beef products would be supplied through its frozen food facility located in Lahore.

“It is our great pleasure to announce that ASC is the first-ever Pakistani company to enter into a business relationship agreement with McDonald's Pakistan for the supply of beef products,” it said in the PSX notice.

https://www.brecorder.com/news/amp/40197249