Thursday, January 28, 2010

Creative Financing of Pakistan's Energy Projects

Cash poor and energy-starved Pakistan should consider tapping into the London-based global carbon trading market to fund its renewable energy projects. The carbon market is about $6 billion now, and it is projected to exceed 50 billion dollars after the US joins carbon trading. Here is how I understand it:

Let's take the example of a hypothetical big European company XYZ faced with the problem of large carbon emissions that must be reduced or offset by one million ton under the Kyoto protocol. To satisfy the international treaty requirements, XYZ company has the option of either installing carbon-capture equipment to reduce its emissions by a million ton, or retrofit the plant to cut its carbon emissions or buy carbon offsets from a carbon trader for a project in a developing country like Pakistan that offsets its emissions by a million ton. It is a business decision that often leads companies such as XYZ to fund cost-effective carbon offsets in developing nations by buying carbon credits on the open market. Such carbon offset projects could vary from planting mango orchards in Pakistan to absorb a million ton of carbon, or it could be a hydroelectric dam or a wind farm or solar electricity project that replaces a planned fossil fuel project.

This is not just a fantasy. The carbon offset market is real. Major investment bankers, including Goldman Sachs and Citibank, are already heavily involved in the business through their carbon trading desks in London. And new players, such as Eco securities, are being formed to take advantage of this new opportunity.

The industry to generate and verify carbon offsets has seen explosive growth in recent years largely because of the Kyoto treaty, under which nations agreed to impose limits on carbon emissions. The treaty allows United Nations regulated companies to purchase credits produced from these offset projects to meet a portion of their emissions-reductions targets set by the international program. More than 300 million credits, each representing the equivalent of one metric ton of carbon dioxide, have so far been created, and these credits are traded on commodities markets. In February, 2010 issue of Harper magazine, Mark Shapiro, of Berkeley, Calif.’s Center for Investigative Reporting, says up to 2 billion new credits could be drawn from offset projects if a cap-and-trade program similar to the proposals now before U.S. Congress were to become reality. Though the carbon price is determined by market and it is always changing, the current price is about $20 per metric ton. At this price, the expected 2 billion new credits would create an additional $40 billion global carbon trading market.

There are successful examples of the use of trading to cut acid rain from sulfur emissions in the United States. The program allows polluters to figure out their own way to cut emissions rather than mandating a particular kind of technology to reduce emissions like a scrubber on a power plant, rather than forcing them to stop burning coal. It gives the companies a yearly target.

The proposed U.S. House of Representatives bill cuts carbon emissions by 17 percent in the United States by 2020, and it's up to the corporations to figure out how to do it. They can do it by buying offsets from other companies, or by shutting down coal plants, or by efficiency measures, etc.

Carbon credits trading reinforces the idea that pollution in one part of the world affects all of the inhabitants of the planet. And any measures taken in one part of the world, such as planting of trees or building renewable energy projects instead of fossil fuel based plants, help the entire globe. This realization is expected to help transfer billions of dollars in funds from the rich to the poor nations to deal with the common threat of the global climate change. But these funds will only help those who proactively seek them, and build renewable projects to effectively cut global carbon emissions.

As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, Pakistan is eligible to benefit from any project under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and exploring carbon credit potential in different industries. Pakistan's ministry of environment is the Designated National Authority for CDM tasked with raising awareness and participation by Pakistani companies in CDM. At least one Pakistani company, Pak-Arab Fertilizers (Pvt.) Ltd., Multan, has earned $ 13 million through the sale of CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) in 2008, the first year of the launch of CDM. The total cost of the project is $18 million, according to a report published in The Nation newspaper.

Several cities, including Islamabad, are launching carbon credit projects such as greenhouse gas emission reduction s from sources ranging from landfills to vehicles. Seoul City in Korea will begin test-operating a carbon emission trading system in April in a bid to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Malaysia is planning carbon-neutral cities. Asia is the center of a lot of activity with CDM projects registered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

In neighboring India, Delhi Metro became the first rail network in the world to get a UN certificate for cutting over 90,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere. The certification report, given by Germany-based validation organization TUV NORD which conducted an audit on behalf of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), found that the DMRC stopped the emission of 90,004 tonnes of carbon dioxide from 2004 to 2007 by adopting regenerative braking systems in the metro trains. Media reports indicate that India is emerging as the one of the most active seller of carbon credits worldwide, with many of the country's firms investing in green projects. India currently has close to 500 projects registered with the United Nations, second only to China's 680. However, in terms of CERs, India's share is just 11.63 per cent, while China's is 58.75 per cent. The Indian government has approved more than 1,455 CDM projects which can potentially make Rs. 28,000-30,000 crore in export earnings, according to a Rediff report. With only a few dozen CDM projects approved to date, Pakistan is significantly behind India and China in taking advantage of the opportunity offered by Kyoto.

A number of consulting companies, such as Carbon Services and Carbon Asset Management in Pakistan, are claiming to guide clients through the process of selling carbon credits to set up clean energy projects. There have been some allegations that middlemen are ending up with huge chunks of the proceeds from carbon credit sales.

Carbon services has arranged seminars with Pakistan's Ministry of Environment to educate businesses about what CDM is, what projects are being done and what can be done within their countries, according to a report in Computerworld. "We try and bring in examples from India, China, Brazil etc about what their industries have done and disseminate that information to local industries," Omer Malik of Carbon Services told Rabia Garib of Computerworld. "The Ministry of Environment's department that looks after this is Designation National Authorities (DNA) is extremely active and very proactive towards promoting CDM in Pakistan"

This is an opportunity for Pakistani government, businessmen and entrepreneurs to seriously pursue creative ways of financing renewable energy projects in Pakistan, including sales of carbon credits, to effectively deal with the current crippling energy crisis in the country. It is also an opportunity to help reduce the impact of climate change on Pakistan. At 8 feet below sea level, Pakistan's financial capital Karachi shows up on the list of world's mega-cities threatened by global warming. Other South Asian cities likely to come under rising sea water in the next 100 years include Mumbai, Kolkata and Dhaka. And it's not just the big cities in South Asia that will feel the brunt of the climate change. The rural folks in India are already seeing rising crop failures, increasing poverty and frequent farmer suicides.

Addressing a regional conference in Islamabad last year, Dr Rajendra Kumar Pachauri, chairman of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), said Pakistan was witnessing severe pressures on natural resources and environment.

He said: “Climatic changes are likely to exacerbate this trend. Water supply, already a serious concern in many parts of the country, will decline dramatically, affecting food production. Export industries such as fisheries will also be affected, while coastal areas risk being inundated, flooding the homes of millions of people living in low-lying areas.”

“The fact that global warming was unequivocal and there is no scope for scientific questioning, Pakistan faces potential environmental catastrophe,” said Dr Pachauri, who has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (on behalf of the IPCC) along with former US vice-president Al Gore.

Pakistan's participation in the carbon market is a win-win for Pakistan and the buyers of carbon credits in the West. It helps Pakistan deal with its energy and climate crises, and helps the western companies meet their goals of cutting global carbon emissions. The best way to make it happen is for the government, educational institutions and industry groups to educate the candidates about going through the United Nations CDM process set up under the Kyoto Protocol.

Related Links:

Going Through the CDM Process

Pakistan's Energy Crisis

Renewable Energy for Pakistan

Pakistan Inks Hydroelectric Power Deals

Carbon Offsets Under Fire

The Politics of Climate Change

Cap and Trade and The New Carbon Economy

Electric Power Crisis Worsens in Pakistan

Light a Candle, Don't Curse Darkness

Social Entrepreneurs Target India and Pakistan

Grameen Shakti Solar For Pakistan

Climate Change Worsens Poverty in India

Carbon Trading: Opportunity For Pakistan

Pakistani Entrepreneurs Survive Downturn

Water Scarcity in Pakistan

Factor AG and Carbon Services Pakistan Presentation


Khurram Hameed said...

is it feasible in pakistan to use windmills as alternate source of energy and can they be built indigenously i.e to build themselves

Riaz Haq said...

Khurram: "is it feasible in pakistan to use windmills as alternate source of energy and can they be built indigenously i.e to build themselves"

Absolutely! India's Suzlon is a good example. The founder Tulsi Tanti started out in textile and then went into windmill business in 1995.

Pakistani entrepreneurs can start small with manufacturing parts of small wind turbines and then grow into vertically integrated companies.

Suzlon manufactures blades, generators, panels, and towers in-house, as well as gearboxes through its partial ownership of Hansen Transmissions and state-of-the-art large or offshore turbines through its subsidiary REpower. The company is integrated downstream and delivers turnkey projects through its project management and installation consultancy, and operations & maintenance services. Suzlon is a multinational company with offices, R&D and technology centers, manufacturing facilities and service support centers spread across the globe.

The origin of Suzlon Energy Limited can be traced back to 1995, when its founder Tulsi Tanti incorporated the company and entered renewable energy segment. Suzlon started its journey with a small project to supply wind turbine generators for a 3.34 MW windfarm project in Gujarat, India. Since then, Suzlon has not looked back and today it ranks as the world's 5th leading, and India's and Asia's leading manufacturer of wind turbines, with over 2,000 MW of wind turbine capacity supplied in India and across the world.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Dawn report on how India got carbon credits for projects violating Indus Water treaty:

ISLAMABAD: Intelligence agencies seized on Friday the record of at least two federal ministries to investigate an alleged institutional lapse in raising objections over Indian aggression on the country’s water rights and securing international carbon credits on hydropower projects disputed by Pakistan.

According to sources, the agencies came into action after receiving reports that the ministries of water and power and environment had absolved themselves of negligence in the matter. They said arrests of some officials could not be ruled out.

While inter-ministerial correspondence over the lapse continued for over nine months, the crucial objections over adverse environmental impact of the projects nearing completion on the Indian side had not yet been officially taken up with New Delhi, the sources said.

They said the ministry of water and power had said it was not responsible for the lapse because it was the job of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency to conduct an environmental impact assessment.

The ministry said it had no role in ratification of trans-boundary impact assessments, whose documents had not been shared with it.

On the other hand, the environment ministry washed its hand of the matter, too.

It said that since the Indian projects were of a strategic nature, it could not have intervened unless its attention had been drawn to the issue and professional advice sought.

The sources said the intelligence agencies had also taken away the record of the ‘Manual of responsibilities — Indus Water Treaty 1960’ issued by the office of the commissioner for Permanent Indus Commission in 1971.

The 72-page manual defines the responsibilities of the ministries of defence, interior and Kashmir affairs, industries and natural resources, the Met department, provincial governments, the railways and the Water and Power Development Authority. The names of several ministries have since been changed and some new institutions created.

Following a Dawn report in July last year, the prime minister’s office asked the ministries of water and power, foreign affairs and environment how India had secured carbon credits from the United Nations for the Chutak and Nimoo-Bazgo hydropower projects being built in violation of the treaty.

These ministries were taken by surprise over India’s success in getting carbon credits without clearance by Pakistan of cross-border environmental impact assessment reports of the projects despite Islamabad’s representative heading a forum of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that approved such credits.

The National Assembly’s climate change committee also got briefings from officials of the ministries of water and power and foreign affairs and urged the prime minister to ascertain “how this criminal negligence took place”.

Water and Power Secretary Javed Iqbal ordered an inquiry, led by a joint secretary, to establish how officials of the ministry and Pakistan’s permanent Indus water commissioner had delayed pursuing technical objections over not only these two projects but also over a number of others being built by India. These projects include the Kishanganga hydropower plan, which has now been taken up with the international court of arbitration.

Under the UNFCCC mechanism, carbon credit cannot be granted for a project having a cross-boundary environmental impact unless cleared by the countries concerned.

Officials said the main concern was that how India secured the credits in disregard of Pakistan’s objections over the projects at the Permanent Indus Water Commission and whether some officials had knowingly or unknowingly allowed trans-boundary EIAs.

William Haye said...

Finally it´s beginning to take hold: DGKC eligible to apply for carbon credits-tradable certificates:

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Daily Times report on ecology workshop in Islamabad:

Five-day International Training Workshop on ‘Modern Research Techniques in Ecology’ will start here from Monday (tomorrow).

Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH), Pakistan Science Foundation in collaboration with Department of Animal Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam University (QAU) Islamabad and Snow Leopard Foundation, Pakistan has organised this workshop to build capacity of the participants in designing ecological studies and analysis of simple to complex ecological data and develop different statistical models.

The workshop will provide hands on training on modern data collection techniques and develop expertise in data analysis using statistical software ‘R-Programme’ which is widely used by ecologists. The workshop will also provide an opportunity to researchers to interact with the foreign scientists and benefit from their vast experience in wildlife conservation practices.

Resource persons of the workshop include Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway’s Dr Richard Bischof, Snow Leopard Trust, USA, Science and Conservation Director Dr Charudutt Mishra, University of Siena, Italy’s Prof Sandro Lovari, Snow Leopard Programs, Panthera, USA Executive Director Dr Tom McCarthy, Oryx-The International Journal of Conservation, Fauna and Flora International, Cambridge, UK Editor Dr Martin Fisher, QAU Department of Animal Sciences Dr Muhammad Ali Nawaz and PMNH Zoological Sciences Division Director Dr Muhammad Rafiq.

Ecological research in Pakistan remained an ignored field. During last couple of decades, life sciences departments of universities have predominantly focused on research in the fields like microbiology, molecular biology, genetics and physiology. The disciplines of ecology and taxonomy were considered old fashioned and least important. However, the situation is now being realised by the academia and research and conservation organisations, and many of them have a desire to develop capacities in ecological research. As limited expertise in this field is available in the country, international collaboration and involvement of researchers from the technologically advanced countries is very much required which can help in capacity building for research-based conservation.\04\15\story_15-4-2012_pg5_10

S A Rehman said...

Suzlon is a good example in entreprenuership but they do not produce international quality blades and turbines. They do compromised engineering as their blades have cracked. Even in project development they have very poor records.5

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a report on Pakistan's first CDM energy project:

BONG, Pakistan (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Pakistan has completed its first project under the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with a hydropower scheme that the government hopes will help tackle the country’s electricity deficit while acting as a trailblazer to attract foreign investment.

The 84-megawatt New Bong Escape project has been built in Mirpur district in Pakistan-administered Kashmir (known as Azad Jammu Kashmir or AJK), 100 km (63 miles) south of Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad.

The project uses “run of river” construction, with a semi-submerged powerhouse containing four sets of turbines and generators rather than a dam. It is located about 8 km (5 miles) downstream from the Mangla Dam, a major reservoir and itself a 1,000 MW hydropower generator, which was commissioned in 1967.

The new plant, co-funded by the Asian Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank, was the country’s first hydropower scheme to be registered with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a CDM project, in January 2009. The $217 million project was completed and began power generation in March.

According to Larib Energy Limited, the project developer, it will reduce Pakistan’s carbon dioxide emissions by 219,000 tonnes annually by supplanting fossil fuel-fired power plants.


But people who live near the plant complain that they have seen no economic benefit from its construction, and that the local environment is now in worse shape than previously.

“Locals were denied jobs during the construction and ... threatened by company officials for demanding jobs,” charged Tahir Choudhary, 42, a farmer who lives in Lahri Choudharian, a village close to the scheme.

Residents say that a river downstream from the Mangla reservoir used to flow past the corner of their village and carry away sewage, but it was diverted for the power project, leaving the riverbed dry.