Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Proliferation of Cyber Hacking Tools in Pakistan

Many intelligence agencies are turning to the use of smartphone malware and spyware for the purpose of hacking and surveillance. The list of such agencies includes but not limited to US CIA, NSA, Mossad, RAW, MI6, ISI and others. Global proliferation of cyber hacking tools appears to have been accelerated with the US CIA's loss of control of its hacking tools including spyware, malware, viruses and trojans.

Stealth Mango and Tangelo:

Lookout, an American mobile security firm based in San Francisco, has recently published a report claiming that a "group or individuals that are believed to belong to the Pakistani military "has developed and released a "set of custom Android and iOS surveillanceware tools we’re respectively calling Stealth Mango and Tangelo".  The report says: "These tools have been part of a highly targeted intelligence gathering campaign we believe is operated by members of the Pakistani military". The countries affected by it include Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates, according to Lookout report.

Mango and Tangelo Spyware Targets. Source: Lookout


The targets in Pakistan include members of the foreign diplomatic corps who have visited conflict zones, particularly parts of Balochistan, and Pakistani officials involved in internal corruption investigations.

The goal of the Lookout report is to sell their security software as obvious from their concluding summary below:

"Stealth Mango and Tangelo is yet another example among the numerous campaigns we have uncovered (Dark Caracal, ViperRAT, FrozenCell, etc.) where threat actors are developing in-house custom surveillanceware. The actor behind Stealth Mango has stolen a significant amount of sensitive data from compromised devices without the need to resort to exploits of any kind. The actors that are developing this surveillanceware are also setting up their own command and control infrastructure and in some cases encountering some operational security missteps, enabling researchers to discover who the targets are and details about the actors operating it that otherwise are not as easily obtained. Relevant data has already been shared with the appropriate authorities. Lookout customers are protected against Stealth Mango and Tangelo and have been for several months since the beginning of the investigation."

Amnesty International Allegations:

Amnesty International has alleged that attackers are using fake online identities and social media profiles to "ensnare Pakistani human rights defenders online and mark them out for surveillance and cybercrime".  The report titled "Human Rights Under Surveillance: Digital Threats against Human Rights Defenders in Pakistan" claims that Diep Saeeda, a Lahore-based human rights activist, has been targeted by a "network of individuals and companies based in Pakistan that are behind the creation of some of the tools seen in surveillance operations used to target individuals in Pakistan".

Amnesty says that "over the course of several months, Amnesty International used digital forensic techniques and malware analysis to identify the infrastructure and web pages connected to online attacks on human rights activists in Pakistan".  "Amnesty International’s Technology and Human Rights team has been able to trace these attacks to a group of individuals based in Pakistan".

Proliferation of Hacking Tools:

In 2017, Wikileaks revealed that the American intelligence agency CIA has "lost control of the majority of its hacking arsenal including malware, viruses, trojans, weaponized "zero day" exploits, malware remote control systems and associated documentation." The Wikileaks noted that that "the CIA made these systems unclassified".

Wikileaks said: "In what is surely one of the most astounding intelligence own goals in living memory, the CIA structured its classification regime such that for the most market valuable part of "Vault 7" — the CIA's weaponized malware (implants + zero days), Listening Posts (LP), and Command and Control (C2) systems — the agency has little legal recourse".

FBI agents have since arrested 29-year-old former CIA software engineer Joshua A. Schulte as a prime suspect in the release of the CIA documents via Wikileaks, according to New York Times.

It appears that the CIA's "hacking arsenal" is now being modified and used by many state and non-state actors to carry out hacking and surveillance of their targets around the world. The proliferation of cyber hacking tools appears to be a lot easier than the proliferation of the nuclear weapons technology.

Summary:

A report by American mobile security software vendor Lookout claims that individuals and groups  connected to the Pakistani military are using spyware and malware tools on targets in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and UAE. Amnesty International alleges that Pakistan intelligence agencies are "network of individuals and companies based in Pakistan that are behind the creation of some of the tools seen in surveillance operations used to target individuals in Pakistan".

Many intelligence agencies are turning to the use of smartphone malware and spyware for the purpose of hacking and surveillance. The list of such agencies includes but not limited to US CIA, NSA, Mossad, RAW, MI6, ISI and others. Global proliferation of cyber hacking tools appears to have been accelerated when the US CIA  lost control of its hacking tools including malware, viruses and trojans.

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10 comments:

Habibullah said...

Cyber technology has brought a new era of Intelligence gathering and spying.Every country has to be ready to tackle it successfully for its own safety !

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s first-ever Cyber Security Centre launched
Aims to develop tools and technologies to protect cyberspace, sensitive data and local economy from the cyber-attacks

https://gulfnews.com/news/asia/pakistan/pakistan-s-first-ever-cyber-security-centre-launched-1.2225435

Pakistan government’s Cyber Security Centre has been inaugurated at Air University in Islamabad to deal with cyber security challenges in the digital age.

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Faaiz Amir informed that Air University is also commencing a four year BS cyber security programme, which is designed to develop modern cyber security skills and apply them to manage computers, systems, and networks from cyber-attacks. The programme would increase the awareness and knowledge about cyber security in Pakistani students, he added.


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Cyber security encompasses technologies, processes and controls that are designed to protect systems, networks and data from cyber attacks. Pakistan’s Cyber Security Centre aims to develop advanced tools and research technologies to protect Pakistan’s cyberspace, sensitive data, and local economy from the cyber-attacks.
The headquarter of the National Centre for Cyber Security will be based at Air University Islamabad with labs at different universities of Pakistan including Bahria University Islamabad, National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Information Technology University Lahore (ITU), Lahore University of Managment Sciences (LUMS), University of Peshawar, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, University of Nowshera, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), NED University Karachi, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore and University of Engineering and Technology Taxila.
Cyber-attackspose an enormous threat to the national economy, defence and security, National Security Adviser, Nasser Khan Janjua, earlier said.
After repeated calls from experts to secure the cyber space, Pakistan government has finally launched the centre to protect the cyberspace, sensitive data, and local economy from the cyber-attacks.
Last week, country’s National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA) also established a cyber security wing on modern lines to evolve cyber security strategies and to meet emerging cyber terrorism threats.

Riaz Haq said...

https://gpinvestigations.pri.org/how-north-korean-hackers-became-the-worlds-greatest-bank-robbers-492a323732a6

How North Korean hackers became the world’s greatest bank robbers
Patrick Winn May 16
Asia correspondent for PRI and GlobalPost Investigations• RFK Award Winner • Author of HELLO, SHADOWLANDS, available on

The Reconnaissance General Bureau, North Korea’s equivalent to the CIA, has trained up the world’s greatest bank-robbing crews. In just the past few years, RGB hackers have struck more than 100 banks and cryptocurrency exchanges around the world, pilfering more than $650 million. That we know of.

It was among the greatest heists against a United States bank in history and the thieves never even set foot on American soil.

Nor did they target some ordinary bank. They struck an account managed by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, an institution renowned for its security.

In vaults 80 feet below the streets of Manhattan, the bank holds the world’s largest repository of gold. Many of these gold bars belong to foreign governments, which feel safer storing their gold inside well-defended bunkers in America than at home.

By the same token, overseas governments also store cash with the Fed. But this is cash in the 21st-century sense: all ones and zeroes, not smudgy bills. The bank holds vast foreign wealth on humming servers wired up to the internet.

That’s what the thieves went after in February 2016: nearly $1 billion, sitting in a Fed-run account. This particular account happened to belong to Bangladesh. Having already hacked into the servers of the Bangladesh Central Bank, the criminals waited until a Friday — a day off in many Muslim-majority nations, Bangladesh included.

Then they started draining the account.

Posing as Bangladesh Central Bank staff, the hackers sent a flurry of phony transfer requests to the Fed totaling nearly $1 billion. The Fed started zapping cash into accounts managed by the thieves overseas, most of them in the Philippines. Much of the money was quickly pulled out as cash or laundered through casinos.

From there, the trail goes cold.

The hackers didn’t get the full billion they desired. Most of the bogus requests were caught and canceled by suspicious personnel. But they did end up with an amazing score: $81 million.

The culprits of this heist are loyal to one of the most impressive organized crime syndicates in the world. They don’t work for the Triads, nor the Sinaloa Cartel, nor Sicily’s Cosa Nostra. They are agents of the Reconnaissance General Bureau (or RGB), which is headquartered in Pyongyang. This is North Korea’s equivalent to the CIA.

Like the CIA, North Korea’s RGB is steeped in clandestine overseas plots: assassinations, abductions and lots of spying. But it is perhaps better understood as a mash-up between the CIA, the KGB and the Yakuza.

What distinguishes the bureau is its entrepreneurial streak — one with a distinctly criminal bent.

For decades, North Korea has been beleaguered by Western sanctions and barred from global markets. This has prodded the regime to seek revenue in darker realms that are beyond the law. These black-market enterprises have included heroin production, printing bogus $100 bills and counterfeiting name-brand cigarettes.

But all of those rackets have now been totally eclipsed by hacking. The bureau has trained up the world’s greatest bank-robbing crews, a constellation of hacking units that pull massive online heists.

These thieves also have one distinct advantage over other syndicates: They are absolutely confident that they’ll never be charged. So it goes when your own country sponsors your criminal mischief.

This is a new phenomenon, according to US intelligence officials. “A nation state robbing banks … that’s a big deal. This is different,” says Richard Ledgett. He was, until his recent retirement, the deputy director of the National Security Agency.

Riaz Haq said...

Afghan diplomats in Pakistan targeted by 'state-backed hackers'
By Secunder Kermani
BBC News, Islamabad

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44250769

Afghan diplomats in Pakistan have been warned they are believed to be victims of "government-backed" digital attacks trying to steal their email passwords.

Afghan embassy sources told the BBC two staff members and a generic account received alerts from Google this month.

Last week Amnesty International detailed attempts to install malware on computers and phones of activists critical of Pakistan's military.

The army did not comment on allegations intelligence services were to blame.

After the Google warning alerts were sent out, another Afghan diplomat's email account was hacked and made to send out emails, without his knowledge, containing suspicious attachments.

The emails purported to contain photographs of rallies by protesters known as the Pashtun Protection Movement (PTM). In fact the attachments appear to contain malicious files, although it was not possible to download and examine them.

The PTM movement has accused the Pakistani military of committing human rights abuses in the country's fight against terrorism. Protests have been non-violent but controversial due to their unusually direct criticism of the Pakistani intelligence services.

Why were the emails sent?
Supporters of the Pakistani military have accused the PTM of working on behalf of the Afghan intelligence services - the two countries regularly accuse each other of working to undermine the other's security.

A source in the Afghan embassy told the BBC he was concerned that recipients of the emails sent out from the diplomat's account could believe the Afghan embassy was linked to the movement.

The email was sent to addresses publicly linked to a number of political figures in Pakistan. They include a former information minister, and a former law minister.

It was also sent to a former senator from a Pashtun nationalist party, Bushra Gohar. Ms Gohar told the BBC: "I know for a fact that all my accounts are being observed… this is condemnable."

She added: "Parliament needs to form a committee and look into what is going on."

Have there been other cyber-attacks?
An employee of the Afghan embassy and a former member of staff were also both targeted by a fake Facebook profile linked to cyber-attacks.

A report by Amnesty International released last week revealed that the profile, "Sana Halimi", had repeatedly sent malware to a human rights activist in Lahore.

One of the Afghan embassy staff members befriended by "Sana Halimi" told colleagues "she" had engaged him in conversation pretending to be an Afghan woman from the city of Herat.

Riaz Haq said...

fghan diplomats in Pakistan targeted by 'state-backed hackers'
By Secunder Kermani
BBC News, Islamabad

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44250769


The Facebook account also befriended a number of other human rights activists. One told the BBC it had messaged him in a "flirtatious" manner.

In a report released last week, mobile security company Lookout documented "Sana Halimi" sending out malware via Facebook Messenger on at least two occasions.

The incidents form part of an investigation they carried out into the successful hacking of devices by a team they describe as "likely" being run by the Pakistani military. Their report examined around 30GB of stolen data, a significant part of which appeared to have been taken from Afghan officials.

Who was 'Sana Halimi'?
The BBC has learnt that the pictures of "Sana Halimi" were in fact stolen from the social media accounts of a 21-year-old chef in Lahore called Salwa Gardezi with no connection to Afghanistan.

Ms Gardezi is a close relative of a prominent political commentator, Ayesha Siddiqa, known for her work critiquing the Pakistani military. It is not clear if her photographs were used because of this connection.


Ms Gardezi said she had only realised her pictures had been copied from her Facebook and Instagram accounts after a BBC article on the malware attacks last week. She told the BBC it was "shocking" her images had been used in this way, and that she had "no connection" to political work at all.

She added that she is planning to lodge a complaint with Pakistan's Federal Investigations Agency as she is concerned she could wrongly be mistaken as being linked to the cyber attackers.

"I want to clear my image," she said.

Riaz Haq said...

Journalist Warns Cyber Attacks Present A 'Perfect Weapon' Against Global Order

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/19/621338178/journalist-warns-cyber-attacks-present-a-perfect-weapon-against-global-order

DAVIES: A cyber Pearl Harbor some people would say.

SANGER: Yes, Dave, exactly. That's the concept of a cyber Pearl Harbor, which is something we don't see coming. And that's the reason that people get so unhappy when they read headlines - and I've written many of these stories - that the Russians or the Iranians or someone have placed implants in our utility grid, our other computer systems, so that they would be able to go turn off computer systems at any moment. And we know right now, for example, that the Department of Homeland Security has warned of a very extensive amount of malware, which is essentially what an implant is, that's in the American utility grid. The problem here is we don't see this the same way when someone's doing it to us than when we're doing it to someone, right?

So we hear that the Russians have put implants in our grid, and we say, oh, my goodness, somebody is getting ready to go turn off the power at any moment of conflict. When we do the same to other countries - and believe me; the National Security Agency and its military sidekick, the United States Cyber Command, does put these implants in other foreign systems and probably has tens if not hundreds of thousands of them in - we say, well, we're just preparing the battlefield. We're using them for monitoring. But the fact of the matter is it's sort of like the port that a doctor puts in your body if you're being treated for cancer or something like that. The doctor can use it to monitor what's going on, but he can also use it to inject something if they decide to treat you. And that's the problem with the cyber age. You never know what that implant is there for.

DAVIES: Right. I mean, obviously, to conduct the kind of disabling cyberattack that would shut down a lot of a country's infrastructure, you have to have done a lot of work beforehand. I want to be clear about this. Are we saying that we know that there are implants in our power grid which would enable the Russians or someone else to take it down?

SANGER: We know that there are implants in our power grid. Interesting question is, if somebody made use of it, how good would it be at taking it down? And that's why for the electric utility industry and for the financial industry, they've invested a huge amount in redundancy and resilience so that if you lose some set of power plants, you could contain it, route around it and be able to pick up and go on. And you just don't know until things happen how well your adversary has wired your system to take everything down. And as you said, this takes a lot of time. The United States spent years getting inside the Iranian centrifuges at Natanz and even then had to keep working on the software to improve it. The North Koreans, when they went into Sony Pictures in 2014 in retaliation for the release of a really terrible movie called "The Interview" that envisioned the assassination of Kim Jong Un, the same friendly Kim Jong Un we all saw in Singapore the other day - when the North Koreans went in, they went in in early September of 2014. They didn't strike until around Thanksgiving because it took all that time just to map out the interconnections of the electrical system, of the computer system, and when they did strike, it was devastating. They took out 70 percent of Sony's computer servers and hard drives.

Riaz Haq said...

Journalist Warns Cyber Attacks Present A 'Perfect Weapon' Against Global Order

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/19/621338178/journalist-warns-cyber-attacks-present-a-perfect-weapon-against-global-order


DAVIES: This is FRESH AIR. And we're speaking with New York Times national security correspondent David Sanger. His new book is "The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage And Fear In The Cyber Age."

You write about how active China has been in using cyberweapons to gather information about U.S. activities. And it's fascinating that our own intelligence services, the National Security Agency, has been using Chinese equipment to get into - to implant our stuff into their equipment. So when it's shipped all around the world, we can find out about people all over the world. And you have a fascinating description of meeting with a private cyber investigator, Kevin Mandia, who looked into Chinese hacking. Tell us about that.

SANGER: Well, the remarkable thing about the Chinese is that they've operated differently than the Russians, the Iranians and the North Koreans. By and large, they have not done destructive hacks. So far, they haven't tried to get in our voting system the way the Russians did. They haven't tried to go blow up computer systems the way the North Koreans did. But they have done the most extensive cyber espionage programs. And the great example here was the Office of Personnel Management. OPM could be the world's most boring federal bureaucracy. It's literally the record-keeper for all of the U.S. government.

And when people would go off to get their security clearances, they would fill out these very lengthy forms that the government wonderfully calls the SF86. And this is more, Dave, than just your name and Social Security number and a couple of credit card numbers. This is the list of every foreigner you ever knew. This is the list of your kids, your parents, your spouse. This is listing everybody with whom you've ever had a relationship - both a licit or an illicit relationship. So it's a blackmailer's dream, as you can imagine. It's all of your medical history. It's all of your financial history.

And how well was this protected by the U.S. government? The Office of Personnel Management, following a mandate from Congress not to get too many expensive cloud services if they could use unused government computer space, took most of this data and put it in the Department of the Interior's computer systems, where they had the same great protections we have on, say, bison migration in Yellowstone. And the Chinese came in. They figured out where the data was located. They discovered that it was unencrypted. I mean, when you talk to your bank over your iPhone, it's an encrypted conversation. This data was unencrypted. They sucked it all up, usually at night. They encrypted it and sent it back to China. And by the time the U.S. government figured this out - and Kevin Mandia was among those who helped everybody figure this out - the U.S. government had lost 21 million files, more than 5 million fingerprints.

Riaz Haq said...

Journalist Warns Cyber Attacks Present A 'Perfect Weapon' Against Global Order

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/19/621338178/journalist-warns-cyber-attacks-present-a-perfect-weapon-against-global-order

DAVIES: And tell us about this private cyber investigator Kevin Mandia. There was this building in China where a lot of this activity was going on - and the level of information he was able to get.

SANGER: So the building is near the Shanghai airport. And it's a big, bland, white office tower. And it is the home of Unit 61398, which is a PLA cyber unit.

DAVIES: People Liberation Army - the Chinese Army.

SANGER: The People's Liberation Army Cyber Unit. And the way that people began to understand what was happening was - Mr. Mandia, who ran a company called Mandiant that's since been merged up with FireEye, which he now runs, began to track the attacks that this unit was doing to steal intellectual property in the United States whether it was, you know, F-35 designs or other industrial designs and then turn them over to state-run Chinese firms. The hackers who would come in would sit at their computer terminals, and, unbeknownst to them, Mandiant would turn the cameras on those computers back on. So you could see them working.

And they would come in at like 8:30 in the morning. They would check sports scores. They would send a few notes to their girlfriends. A couple of them would look at a little bit of porn. You know, they would be reading newspaper articles. 9 o'clock would come. They'd start hacking into American sites. Lunchtime, they're back to sending notes to the girlfriends. They're back to checking their sports scores. I mean, it was such an interesting picture of the life of a young Chinese hacker.

DAVIES: David Sanger is a national security correspondent for The New York Times. His book about cyberwarfare is called "The Perfect Weapon." After a break, he'll take us inside the Russian hack of the Democratic National Committee, and we'll talk about President Trump's initiative to curb North Korea's nuclear program. Also, rock critic Ken Tucker reviews Father John Misty's new album. I'm Dave Davies. And this is FRESH AIR.

Riaz Haq said...

#Turkey's STM will organize training in #cybersecurity and #infornation #tech at #Pakistan Air #University; organize international conferences; give consultancy to research projects and support infrastructure for National Cyber Security Center at Air Uni. https://www.armyrecognition.com/ideas_2018_news_official_show_daily/ideas_2018_stm_signs_dou_for_pakistan_cyber_security.html

At IDEAS 2018, a Document of Understanding (DoU) was signed by STM and Pakistan Air University under the leadership of the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) of the Presidency of Rebuplic of Turkey. With this agreement, STM will provide significant solutions in integrated cyber security, big data and IT domains.

STM SavunmaTeknolojileriMühendislikveTicaret A.Ş. expands its business in Pakistan. Following the cooperation in naval programs under the leadership of the Presidency of Defence Industries, it now moves to different areas.

The signing ceremony was held with the participation of Mustafa Murat Şeker, SSB Vice President; Murat İkinci, STM General Manager; Air Vice Marshal Faaiz Amir, Vice Chancellor of Pakistan Air University; and officials. The agreement will increase the cyber security capabilities of Pakistan Air University, which sets up cyber security strategies of Pakistan and is responsible for the establishment of Pakistan’s National Center of Cyber Security (NCCS).

STM will organize special training and internship programs in cyber security and IT for Pakistan Air University students and faculty; organize international conferences and workshops; give consultancy to research projects in graduate programs; and support the infrastructure for the establishment of the National Cyber Security Center (NCCS) at the university. This agreement aims to increase the national cyber security capabilities of the friendly country Pakistan thanks to STM's integrated cyber security efforts and capabilities.

Riaz Haq said...

#Israeli #Cybersecurity Firm NSO Accused Of Helping #Saudis Spy On #Khashoggi. #Israel is actually involved in NSO in that Israeli government officials have to give the OK to let it sell its products abroad. This company has faced a lot of controversy. https://n.pr/2ANSZea

DANIEL ESTRIN, BYLINE: Hi.

MARTIN: Tell us more about these allegations, and what do we know about the Saudi dissident making them?

ESTRIN: His name is Omar Abdulaziz. He tells a very compelling story. He's a social media activist. He's a critic of the Saudi royal family. He lives in Montreal. And in his lawsuit, he says Saudi officials in Canada met him in May, told him Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was unhappy with his activism. They asked him to come to the Saudi consulate for further discussion, and he declined. And he says that he and Jamal Khashoggi started working together on an initiative to organize a group of Twitter activists against the Saudi regime. And then this dissident got a text message with a link, supposedly a DHL package delivery, and he clicked on the link and later, a Canadian group, Citizen Lab, said it believed that he fell victim to a cellphone spyware from an Israeli-based company, NSO. He spoke with NPR's Shannon Van Sant, and he said he thinks the Saudis intercepted his Whatsapp text messages with Khashoggi, and that was a deciding factor that led to his death. Here's what he said.

OMAR ABDULAZIZ: For sure, the conversations between us played a major role in what happened to Jamal. And they found out what we were working on and what are these projects and why Jamal was behind them.

MARTIN: What do we know about this company that makes the spyware?

ESTRIN: NSO is its name. It's a very secretive company. It doesn't have a website. It was founded by three Israelis. Their first names form the initials NSO. And there are Israeli reports that the company recently sold its spyware technology to Saudi officials. The company defends itself. It says its products are only sold to governments and to law enforcement to fight terrorism and crime, but Israel is actually involved in this company in that Israeli government officials have to give the OK to let it sell its products abroad. This company has faced a lot of controversy. Mexican human rights activists and others say Mexican government officials hacked into their phones using this company's spyware - same accusations from a human rights activist in the United Arab Emirates. Amnesty International also says the software was used against one of its employees, and Amnesty is accusing Israel of allowing the spyware to be sold to regimes that violate human rights.

MARTIN: Well, considering the company's connections to the Israeli government, is the suit likely to go anywhere?

ESTRIN: It seems like it's more of a symbolic lawsuit, Rachel, to draw public attention to this issue. I think it's going to be hard to prove these claims in court, and the Israeli Defense Ministry has constantly defended its vetting of NSO technology sales abroad. And I should add that Israel is not the only place in the world where companies are developing spyware technology, but it is - Israel is a big player in the field.

MARTIN: And presumably, Saudi officials aren't weighing in on whether or not they actually bought this technology, confirming any connection.

ESTRIN: They're not, and it's very interesting. Saudi and Israeli ties are kind of under the radar, but this may be an example of some of those ties.