|Actual vs Potential Hydropower in South Asia. Source: Economist Magazine|
The two dams, called Bunji and Diamer-Bhasha projects, will have the capacity to generate 7,100MW and 4,500MW of electricity respectively. China will provide $27 billion to fund the construction of the two dams, according to media reports.
Pakistan's Hydropower Potential:
Pakistan has the potential to generate 59,000MW of hydropower, according to studies conducted by the nation's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Currently, it's generating only 6,600MW of hydroelectric power, about 11% of the estimated potential. Media reports indicate that China is prepared to finance and build another 40,000MW capacity as part of the development of the Northern Indus Cascade region which begins in Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan and runs through to Tarbela, the site of Pakistan’s biggest dam, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.
Diamer-Bhasha Water Storage:
Diamer-Bhasha project is located on Indus River, about 200 miles upstream from the existing Tarbela Dam, 100 miles downstream from the Northern Area capital Gilgit in Gilgit-Baltistan region. It will generate 4,500 MW of electricity and its reservoir will hold so much water that it could have averted recent devastating floods that affected large parts of Pakistan. It would also provide enough electricity to end Pakistan's crippling shortages, according to a report in the Guardian newspaper. The Diamer-Bhasha reservoir would be 50 miles long, holding 8.5 MAF (million acre feet) of water.
Response to Climate Change:
Pakistan has made only a small contribution to climate change through carbon emissions. And yet, it counts among the dozen or so nations considered most vulnerable to its damaging effects. These include rising temperatures, recurring cycles of floods and droughts and resulting disruption in food production.
One of the ways Pakistan can help reduce carbon emissions is by realizing its full hydroelectric potential by building more dams. The development of the Northern Indus Cascade region to generate 40,000MW of hydropower is a significant part of this effort.
Prerequisite for Economic Development:
Availability of abundant and cheap electricity has historically preceded rapid economic development in America, Europe and East Asia. Pakistan has an opportunity to meet this prerequisite by generating large amounts of clean renewable hydropower to meet its hunger for energy required for rapid economic growth in all sectors of the economy ranging from agriculture to manufacturing and services.
Pakistan is endowed with significant amount of water and power resources that can be harnessed to enable rapid economic growth in all sectors of its economy. It appears that the Chinese investment, as part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, is now putting this goal within reach. Tens of thousands of megawatts of added electricity and millions of acre feet of additional water will hopefully transform Pakistan's economy and bring prosperity to its people.
Here's a video on the subject:
Recurring Cycles of Drought and Floods in Pakistan
Pakistan's Response to Climate Change
Renewable Energy for Pakistan
LNG Imports in Pakistan
Growing Water Scarcity in Pakistan
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
Ownership of Appliances and Vehicles in Pakistan
Your comment re. Diamler Bhasha, "... its reservoir will hold so much water that it could have averted recent devastating floods that affected large parts of Pakistan ..." carries the old fakeness being pushed to Sindhis for Kalabagh dam.
The main reason for flooding in plains of Sindh and Punjab are the heavy rains in their plains, not in the mountains upstream of the dam sites. The Indus river bed is so vast that it can carry 24 inches of rain per hour if the rains are in the mountains alone. If there are rains both in the mountains and the plains, the dams are already full and will not even block the upstream water. Therefore, the dam will have no significant effect on flooding prevention. So the flooding prevention fakeness is bullshit. You should have known that.
Spending over $7 billion on construction alone for a dam like Diamer Bhasha is stupid too. According to US NREL cost report by Black & Veath, a 7,000 MW fossil fuel combined cycle plant costs nearly $5 billion. So this bullshit about capital cost saving is fake too.
According to US EIA, the ratio of typical hydro-electricity O&M incl. fuel cost against gas turbine electricity is 8.37 to 2.34, in gas turbine's favor. The issue with large dams' power is the maintenance of the fucking dam from cracking, silting, and the hydraulic turbines' massive blade damage and repair costs coming out of high speed silt and rocks gushing in with water. A single blade of a turbine can cost nearly $5 million to repair (remove, transport to Europe or US, repair, re-transport, and reinstall). So operating cost saving is a fucking bullshit too
Shams: "Spending over $7 billion on construction alone for a dam like Diamer Bhasha is stupid too. According to US NREL cost report by Black & Veath, a 7,000 MW fossil fuel combined cycle plant costs nearly $5 billion. So this bullshit about capital cost saving is fake too. "
Here's an interesting analysis of thermal vs hydro power done by an Indian:
Hydro Power Vs Thermal Power: A Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis Adesh Sharma, AIPL (Power Sector), India Abstract: This study seeks to trace the importance of Hydroelectric Power (HEP) vis-à-vis coal based Thermal power (TP), and establish a case for HEP plant by way of a comparative costbenefit analysis which proves that HEP is in fact cheaper than TP for a mega power plant (1000 MW) even if other factors like social and environmental benefits are not considered. While the analysis is neutral between various technologies for harnessing TP and HEP, it assumes real-time plant load factors (PLFs) of 85% and 45% for TP and HEP plants, respectively. Furthermore, it also tries to provide a brief analysis on the comparative CER earning potential from both HEP and TP (by employing supercritical technology)
Need and Importance of Hydroelectric Power
The need and importance of HEP can be attributed to the following advantages:
• It is a renewable source of energy, and non-polluting in nature.
• Fuel cost of HEP plant is inflation-free and reduces with time, thereby bringing down the
overall per unit cost.
• HEP plants have a long useful life, extending to 50-100 years, as compared to the 25 year
life-span of a TP plant.
HEP plants can be started or stopped instantaneously, providing for load variation
management, and improved reliability of the power system.
• HEP is considered as the best choice for serving peak load.
• It helps in conservation of scarcely available fossil fuels.
• Storage type HEP plants can be used for multiple purposes like flood control, irrigation,
provision of drinking and industrial water etc.
• HEP plants are usually set in remote/backward areas, thereby leading to their economic
Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Power Plants
In spite of the factors mentioned above, developing HEP does carry certain disadvantages:
• A variety of geological changes occur due to the construction of a dam on the river,
especially in the downstream area.
• Various plant and animal ecosystems gets adversely affected due to their submergence in
the water reservoir formed by the dam.
• The soil quality in downstream river declines.
• HEP plants are severely impacted by droughts. If water is not available, the plant would
not be able to produce electricity.
• Fish population gets affected if fish cannot migrate to the spawning grounds upstream
past impoundment dams, or if they cannot migrate downstream to the ocean.
However, such occurrences happen rarely and their impact is very low, as compared to the huge
benefits arising out of a HEP project development.
Conclusion It can thus be concluded that the benefits scored by hydroelectric power plants over thermal power plants have environmental benefits - on account of HEP being a renewable and sustainable source of energy, financial benefits - due to low cost of generation, the developers will have an advantage especially since merchant power sales is allowed in open market, coupled with a reasonable return on equity of 16%, and social benefits – like development of local area, provision of electricity, along with other bundled benefits like irrigation facilities, tourism, along with rise in demand for other industries’ products like cement, iron and steel, transport, etc.. and assisting in the creation of a low carbon self sustainable economy.
Hope this won't end up the way Iran has ended up, which like Pakistan has over exploited surface water.:
"Dam building, once considered a sign of progress, dried up the nation's rivers and other waterways through poorly conceived projects."
Iran's water crisis reaches critical levels
Water crisis in Iran: A desperate call for action
Iran’s water crisis the product of decades of bad planning
Mayraj: "Hope this won't end up the way Iran has ended up, which like Pakistan has over exploited surface water.:
"Dam building, once considered a sign of progress, dried up the nation's rivers and other waterways through poorly conceived projects."
My understanding is that Iran's problem is caused mainly by excessive surface evaporation from lakes built in hot desert areas of the country.
The most efficient way of storing rain water in underground. This can be done in sandy permeable soil to raise ground water level by building recharge dams using undulations in natural terrain. Since the rate of rain is greater than the rate of infiltration into the soil, the surplus water primarily runs off to a lower point of elevation, eventually the sea. The recharge dams prevent the surface run-off water from going into points of lower elevation, infiltrating the soil and replenishing the ground water reserves. This is very effectively done in Oman while neighboring Yemen with similar terrain is facing the worst water scarcity. In Pakistan, this aspect has never been taken up, focusing only on dams, which result in high evaporation and extremely expensive too. The focus on dams is probably because the high investment attracts bankers as well as contractors, and thus the rulers. Pakistan has many such areas where underground water storage can be feasibly; Thar being one such area and probably Balochistan coast too where I've seen some such primitive type of embankments (built by villagers) in the Pasni area.
Only a leadership committed to developing the country can promote this mechanism; the likes of Nawaz and Zardari are only interested in big projects where they can siphon off money.
پہلی بات تو یہ کہ بونجی ڈیم نہیں ہے بلکہ رن آف دا ریور ہاڈرو پراجیکٹ ہے ۔
ان دونوں میں صرف بھا شا ہی ڈیم ہے ۔
دوسری بات یہ کہ بونجی کا ایسٹیمیٹ ۷ ارب ڈالر اور بھاشا کا ۱۴ ارب ڈالر ہے۔
اس طرح ان دونوں پراجیکٹس پر ٹوٹل خرچ ۲۱ ارب ڈالر آئے گا نا کہ ۲۷ ارب۔
ویسے بھی بھاشا پر ہم تھوڑا بہت پہلے ہی خرچ کر چکے ہیں اس لئے ۲۰ ارب کی فنانسنگ کی ضرورت ہے۔
Over 92% work completed on 969MW Neelum-Jhelum project
Over 92 percent work has already been completed on the ongoing 969 megawatts Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower Project (NJHP) and its first unit will start supplying power to the national grid system in February 2018.
Official sources Tuesday told the state-run news agency in Islamabad that 2nd unit would start generating in March followed by third and fourth unit in April.
They said excavation of about 68-kilometer long tunnels system of the project has also been completed on May 5.
With this significant development, the water way system of the project would enter in the final phase which is scheduled to be completed in seven months and the tunnels would be ready to divert water from the dam site to Power House, they said.
They said impounding of the reservoir would commence during October this year.
The sources said 100 per cent work on excavation for instalment of turbines has also been completed.
Construction work on the project which started in 2008 remained slow due to certain reasons including financial constraints and redesigning of the project. However, most of the bottlenecks were removed during the present regime, they said.
They said work on the project is being carried out in full swing and upon completion, the NJHP would contribute 5.15 billion units of cheap electricity to the national grid.
The annual benefits accruing from the project have been estimated at Rs 45 billion.
The NJHP is located in the vicinity of Muzaffarabad. It envisages the diversion of Neelum River water through a tunnel out-falling into Jhelum River.
The intake Neelum-Jhelum is at Nauseri 41 km east of Muzaffarabad and has installed capacity of 969 megawatts.
This is an important project for generation of low-cost and the government is exploring all possible avenues to solve the energy crisis.
Around 4,243 kanals of land has been acquired for the project. Out of the total land, Azad Jammu & Kashmir authorities provided 719 kanals while the remaining 3,524 kanals are acquired from private land owners.
#Ramadan #power outages in #Pakistan pile pressure on PM #NawazSharif. #loadshedding #electricity https://www.ft.com/content/bee89ccc-4458-11e7-8519-9f94ee97d996 … via @FT
Nawaz Sharif has ordered power companies not to cut electricity supplies in the hours before or after the daily Ramadan fast, as outages in the first few days of the Muslim holy month threaten to embroil Pakistan’s prime minister in a political crisis.
As the fasting period began on Sunday, residents of Karachi, the country’s largest city, were unexpectedly plunged into darkness. The national distribution company blamed a line fault that caused two power stations to fail.
But the outage has highlighted the fragility of Pakistan’s electricity network — a problem that threatens to undermine the country’s economic recovery and which is set to become a significant political issue in the run-up to next year’s general election.
Recent power cuts have already prompted widespread protests, during which two people reportedly died.
“These power cuts in Ramadan will severely undermine the government’s reputation further,” said Hasan Askari Rizvi, a political commentator. “If the government fails to manage the electricity situation, the risks for Nawaz Sharif will mount.”
Pakistan has endured an energy shortfall for years, but this summer the gap between supply and demand at peak hours has reached six gigawatts — equivalent to the output of 12 medium-sized coal-fired power stations.
Ministers hope that $35bn of Chinese investment in the country’s power sector, part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, will help close the gap.
Unscheduled cuts during Ramadan have particularly angered residents. During the month, Muslims fast during daylight hours, putting extra importance on having power to cook just before dawn and just after dusk.
Usually the government keeps the lights on during religious festivals by paying independent companies to restart expensive mothballed power plants. But it has not done so this year because Ramadan has fallen close to the end of the financial year and the government does not want to exacerbate the fiscal deficit just before it reports its final figures, according to analysts.
The power crisis threatens to undermine Pakistan’s improving economic growth, which has been boosted by a few years of relative political stability. Figures released last week alongside the budget show annual output growth for the year to the end of June are projected to exceed 5 per cent for the first time in a decade.
The other factor that might threaten economic stability is Pakistan’s increasing current account deficit, which is depleting its stock of foreign currency, analysts warn.
Last week’s data show that alongside faster growth, the current account deficit is projected to more than treble from $2.5bn in the last fiscal year to $8.3bn this yearas Pakistan begins to pay Chinese companies for work carried out as part of the CPEC project.
Abid Hasan, a former World Bank economist who has worked in Pakistan, said: “The higher current account deficit will eventually turn into a crisis. This situation has to be managed before it gets out of control.”
But the solutions — whether allowing the rupee to devalue to boost exports or making people pay their electricity bills — are politically unpalatable just a year away from a general election, say officials and analysts. “Reforming Pakistan is tough business,” said one western diplomat.
THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE > PAKISTAN > GILGIT BALTISTAN
Pakistan eyes 2018 start for China-funded Diamer-Bhasha dam
By Reuters Published: June 13, 2017
Pakistan expects China to fund a long-delayed Indus river mega dam project in Gilgit-Baltistan with work beginning next year, Federal Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal said in an interview with Reuters.
Pakistan has been keen for years to build a cascade of mega dams along the Indus flowing down from the Himalayas, but has struggled to raise money from international institutions amid opposition from its nuclear-armed neighbour India.
Those ambitions have been revived by China’s Belt and Road infrastructure plans for Pakistan, a key cog in Beijing’s creation of a modern-day Silk Road network of trade routes connecting Asia with Europe and Africa.
The $12-$14 billion Diamer-Bhasha dam should generate 4,500MW of electricity, and a vast new reservoir would regulate the flow of water to farmland that is vulnerable to increasingly erratic weather patterns.
Iqbal, the Islamabad lead on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), said a Chinese company from a Beijing-picked shortlist and a local partner would build the dam over a 10-year period, and work should begin in the next financial year, which begins in July.
“This water reservoir is most critical for food security in Pakistan, so is a very high priority project for Pakistan,” Iqbal told Reuters in an interview late on Monday at his ministerial home in Islamabad.
China and Pakistan signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in December for Beijing to help fund and develop Pakistan’s Indus Basin dams, though no timelines have been released. Pakistan estimates there is 40,000MW of hydro potential.
The Diamer-Bhasha dam and reservoir would displace more than 4,200 families in nearby areas and submerge a large section of the Karakoram Highway to China, Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority estimates.
The federal minister also said Pakistani and Chinese engineers were also surveying other projects, including the 7,100MW Bunji hydro power project that would be the first in the cascade that stretches down to the Tarbela Dam near Islamabad.
India’s foreign ministry and ministry for water resources did not respond to requests for comment.
Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Project
The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power project, with a cost of 404.32 billion rupees (US$ 4.03 billion). The project (under construction since 2008) is designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in Azad Kashmir, 22 km south of Muzaffarabad and will have an installed capacity of 968 Mega-Watts. Construction on the project began in 2008, a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. The first generator is scheduled to be commissioned in July 2017 and the entire project is expected to be completed and start its operations in December 2017.
Design and operations;
The Neelum–Jhelum Dam is a 47 m (154 ft) high and 125 m (410 ft) long gravity dam.
It will withhold a pondage (reservoir) with 8,000,000 m3 (6,486 acre·ft) capacity of which 2,800,000 m3 (2,270 acre·ft) is peak storage. The dam has the capacity to divert up to 280 m3/s (9,888 cu ft/s) of the Neelum River, into a 28.5 km long head-race tunnel, the first 15.1 km of the head-race is two tunnels which later meet into one.
The tunnel passes 380 m (1,247 ft) below the Jhelum River and through its bend. At the terminus of the tunnel, the water reaches the surge chamber which contains a 341 m (1,119 ft) tall surge shaft (to prevent water hammer) and 820 m (2,690 ft) long surge tunnel.
From the surge chamber, the water is split into four different penstocks which feed each of the four 242 MW Francis turbine-generators in the underground power house.
After being used to generate electricity, the water is discharged back into the Jhelum River through a 3.5 km long tail-race tunnel. The drop in elevation between the dam and power station afford an average hydraulic head of 420 m (1,378 ft).
Decision by ICA;
Hague’s Permanent Court of Arbitration;
In 2010, Pakistan appealed to the Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration, complaining that the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant violates the “Indus River Treaty” by increasing the catchment of the Jhelum River and depriving Pakistan of its water rights. In June 2011, the CoA visited both the Kishanganga and Neelum–Jhelum Projects. In August 2011, they ordered India to submit more technical data on the project. India had previously reduced the height of the dam from 98 m (322 ft) to 37 m (121 ft).
The court asked India in September 2011 to stop constructing any permanent works that would inhibit restoration of the river. With the ruling of International Court of Arbitration, India was not allowed to construct the dam (Reservoir), so, they continued work on the tunnel and power plant. In February 2013 the Hague ruled that India could divert a minimum of water for the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant. The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant is an $864 million dam which is part of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. It is located 5 km (3 mi) north of Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir, and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW. Construction on the project began in 2007 and is expected to get complete in 2018.
Pakistan’s energy sector improvement includes rehab for 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project
Pakistan and French Agency for Development (AFD) on July 20 signed €165 million (US$192 million) in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.
The agreements also include financing for the power transmission enhancement investment program, Tranche 4, which covers investment to improve electricity distribution efficiency.
The agreements were signed in Islamabad, Pakistan, by Secretary, Economic Affairs Division, Shahid Mahmood; Ambassador of France, Martine Dorance; and Country Director French AFD, Jacky Amprou.
The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.
In January, HydroWorld.com reported Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority announced it was moving forward with modernization of the Mangla project to increase the facility’s generating output by 310 MW at an estimated cost of $769 million.
Pakistan said this latest round of financing for the specified projects is a continuation of implementing the country’s National Power Policy 2013.
Pakistan’s National Power Policy 2013 is designed solidify the country’s energy security by increasing electricity generation to 26.8 GW, reduce average electricity rates by more than 30%, achieve zero load shedding, encourage huge public and private investment and import electricity from India, Iran and Central Asian states, according to the government.
In June, AFD co-financed about $100 million of a $400 million program as part of Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) support of Pakistan’s efforts to provide a more reliable and secure energy sector.
According to ADB, its $300 million in assistance to Pakistan is the third such loan under the Sustainable Energy Sector Reform program, bringing ADB’s total financing to $1 billion since 2014.
Last month, the first generating unit at Pakistan's 147-MW Patrind hydroelectric plant began generating power and was connected to the national grid, according to a statement from National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC). NTDC operates transmission lines for Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.
Patrind is located on the Kunhar River and is being developed by a consortium called Star Hydro Power Ltd, which includes the Korea Water Resources Corp. and the Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co.
In May, China and Pakistan signed a $50 billion memorandum of understanding to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.
#Pakistan signs deal to construct US$698.3 million Sharmai #hydropower project - HydroWorld #energy #KPK #China
Pakistan is moving forward with hydropower development in its northwestern-most province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), located in the district of Dir near Afghanistan’s eastern border, according the government of KP.
KP made the announcement on July 23 after Pakistan Chief Minister Pervez Khattak signed an agreement between Pakhtunkhwa Energy Development Organization (PEDO) and a consortium of Sinohydro and Lahore-based Sapphire Electric Co. for construction of the 150-MW Sharmai hydropower project.
PEDO Chief Executive Officer, Akbar Ayub, said the project is expected to be completed in five years at an estimated cost of US$698.3 million. But, he did not provide any information on the project’s start date.
Information from KP indicates the Sharmai hydro project will include a dam and reservoir, and the powerhouse will be located near Darora village and on the confluence of Usherai Khwar Stream and Panjkora River.
Additional technical information for the project includes the following:
Net head – 196.6 m;
Annual energy generation – 682 GWh;
Reservoir capacity – 32.2 million cubic meters;
Length of power tunnel – 7.8 km; and
Catchment area – 1,950 km2.
The Sharmai hydro project continues the country’s recent trend towards massive planned infrastructure improvements.
Pakistan and French Agency for Development on July 20 signed US$192 million in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.
The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.
Earlier this year, China and Pakistan signed a US$50 billion memorandum of understanding on May 13 to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.
In 2016, HydroWorld.com reported KP's hydroelectric power development fund approved the 84-MW Matiltan, 69-MW Daral Khwar, 69-MW Lawi, 40.8-MW Koto and 10.2-MW Jabori plants – all of which are currently in development. In addition, feasibility studies are being conducted for the 446-MW Kari Mushkar, 410-MW Tor Camp Godobar and 110-MW Gabral Kalam.
Ayub also said seven additional hydropower projects with a total combined installed capacity of 668 MW would be initiated through private sector that would bring $2 billion investment in the province, according to government information.
Pakistan's $100B deal with China: What does it amount to?
By Nadia Naviwala
Early last year, the Pakistani government sent USAID officials in Islamabad a mystifying letter via snail mail: please stop doing feasibility studies for Diamer Basha Dam
When USAID got the letter in 2016, they suspected that Pakistan had found funding with the Chinese. They were right.
In May 2017 Pakistan and China signed a $50 billion agreement that included full funding for Diamer Basha and four other dams.
Although enormous, the new agreement hardly merited coverage in Pakistan. China already captured headlines and public imagination in 2013 when the two countries signed memorandums of understanding worth $46 billion to build the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. CPEC has since quietly grown to a $62 billion investment.
The latest $50 billion in memorandums now brings Chinese loans and investments in Pakistan to well over $100 billion. A senior member of the CPEC team at Pakistan’s Ministry for Planning, Development, and Reform predicts that figure will ultimately grow to $150 billion. If the dams face cost overruns — which are 96 percent on average — then that will be a conservative estimate.
roads and rail are actually a small part of Chinese money in Pakistan — less than $11 billion of the original $46 billion agreement. It’s small because, contrary to popular perceptions, much of the CPEC route is actually financed by Pakistan.
“Much of the roads being built are being built by our money,” says Miftah Ismail, who was Pakistan’s minister for investment until late last month, when the cabinet was dissolved because the Supreme Court voted to remove the prime minister on grounds of corruption.
What Ismail estimates Pakistan will take on in Chinese projects this year — $4 billion in loans and investments — equals what the Pakistani federal and provincial governments have allocated for roads and highways in their own annual budgets.
China is also financing the expansion and improvement of Pakistan’s neglected railway system, doubling its speed from 60 to 120 kilometers per hour.
CPEC roads will connect landlocked Xinjiang province in western China through a new port city that it is building on Pakistan’s coast, Gwadar. China needs these roads to transport goods out, but it is hard to think of what will go in the other direction. China’s exports to Pakistan account for two-thirds of Pakistan’s trade deficit.
#China racing ahead on 720MW Karot #hydropower plant project in #Pakistan. #CPEC http://sc.mp/oFjuJA via @SCMP_News
Construction of the 720MW Karot power station on the Jhelum river began in December and looked set to finish nine months ahead of its December 2021 completion date, a first for a Pakistan hydro-project, said Qin Guobin, chief executive officer of the state-owned China Three Gorges South Asia Investment Ltd.
The company has put in place an aggressive strategy to cut the project’s financing costs.
“For us, Pakistan is a strategic market,” Qin said at the site. “If we managed to complete it earlier we can save financing costs and make it more competitive.”
Pakistan’s energy demand is expected to grow by 6 per cent to 35,000MW by 2024 as its population of more than 200 million people grows along with the economy. For more than a decade, it has been struggling to overcome daily power shortages that have left industry and residents in the dark.
China has stepped in to meet some of those shortages, financing projects worth more than US$50 billion in an economic corridor that runs through Pakistan. The route is part of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s “Belt and Road Initiative” to connect Asia with Europe and Africa with a web of ports, railways and motorways links for trade.
Three Gorges’ focus in Pakistan is clean energy and it has a US$6 billion portfolio in three hydro and three solar power plants. The Karot project is in the Pakistan-administrated part of Kashmir, which India and Pakistan both claim and have fought two wars over since independence in 1947.
World Bank report: Hydro important part of private infrastructure development in Pakistan
A recent report on private investment in infrastructure development, released by the World Bank Group, offers some insights into hydro, including the fact that investments in two hydropower plants in Pakistan helped boost that country into the top five.
The January-June 2017 Private Participation in Infrastructure Half Year Update cites investments in hydropower in Pakistan worth US$1.9 billion and US$1.7 billion and says the country was a new entrant to the list of top five countries for private participation in infrastructure. Other countries in the top five are Indonesia, Jordan, Brazil and China.
In Pakistan, the US$1.9 billion investment is for the 870-MW Suki Kinari Hydropower Plant. Suki Kinara is on the Kunhar River in the Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is expected to be completed by 2021.
The US$1.7 billion investment is for the 720-MW Karot Hydropower Plant. The Karot project, on the Jhelum River east of Islamabad, is being developed under Pakistan’s Power Policy of 2002. The first units are expected to go on line in 2020.
A section of the report discusses the energy sector, which was “the most dominant sector for H1 [first half] 2017 investment, accounting for three-quarters of global investments.” The report indicates that, by capacity, hydro projects led the way with cumulative capacity of 1.9 GW.
Of all the private participation in the energy sector in the first half of 2017, 85% was in renewables, and 15% of that 83% was hydropower.
JANUARY – JUNE
in Infrastructure (PPI)
HALF YEAR UPDATE
Indonesia was the destination for the highest amount of PPI investment, while Pakistan and
Jordan were new entrants to the top five countries, joining Indonesia, Brazil, and China.
Indonesia, Pakistan, and Jordan are amongst the top five highest PPI-investment countries because
of a few multibillion-dollar power projects. Indonesia saw investments in US$ 4.2 billion and US$2.2
billion coal fired power plants, Jordan had a US$2.1 billion investment in an oil shale-fired power
plant, and Pakistan had investments in two hydropower plants worth US$1.9 billion and US$1.7 billion.
As rains grow erratic, Pakistan taps irrigation to protect Punjab crops
System aims to capture floodwater and monsoon runoff to boost food production in climate change-hit region
LAHORE, Pakistan, Nov 24 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Most of Tajammul Abbas's 17 acres of farmland produces nothing but fodder for his buffalo and three goats. His land, and that around him in Punjab province, depends on rain to grow crops and rainfall has become much more uncertain as climate change takes hold, leading to lost harvests.
But things are now looking more promising for him and for about 384,000 other people living in the Pind Dadan Khan-Khushab area, three hours drive from Lahore, Punjab's capital, after the government on Friday announced plans to build an irrigation system for the area.
The effort is expected to convert 68,000 hectares of minimally productive farmland to full production, using water from the Jhelum River.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Friday approved a $275 million loan for the project, which is supported by the Indus River System Authority (IRSA), a government agency that oversees water sharing between provinces.
"Having a sufficient and effective irrigation system is fundamental in the development of Pakistan's agriculture sector, a significant driver of the country's economy," said Ryutaro Takaku, a water specialist at the bank's Central and West Asia Department.
The project "will help increase agricultural production and improve food security in Pakistan", he noted in a press release.
Officials said the irrigation project will involve building a 117-kilometre canal to carry water diverted from the Jhelum River, 97 kilometres of secondary canals, and a range of other structures – some of which may require those now living on the land to relocate.
The system aims to catch floodwater and monsoon runoff at heavy rainfall times of the year and channel it into the irrigation network.
"There are about 128 structures that would need to be dismantled and land will have to be bought from people for the irrigation system. But there is no other option," said Muhammad Javed Iqbal Goraya, a water expert with South Asian Conservation Network, a non-governmental organization.
In an area with poor rainfall, "irrigation (is) essential for crop production. The irrigation network will help the farmers in the area to adapt to climate changes and have more crops," he said.
The area, if irrigated, could grow wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize, and other crops, said Goraya.
The project will introduce advanced technologies such as laser land leveling and high-efficiency irrigation, according to the ADB press release. About 6,000 farmers also will have the opportunity to learn climate-smart agriculture practices and more profitable farm management, the release said.
Goraya said that managing the new water resource and existing water with care will be key to ensuring the sustainability of agriculture in the area.
The project envisions 485 water user associations being formed to have a say in planning, designing and constructing the new irrigation system.
"Such associations and committees have been very helpful in some other areas of the country in managing watercourses and collecting water charges from users," Goraya said.
Here is an official source directly from China government site (Chinese is original, English is from google translate so it may not be very accurate but I tried):
Nur Bekri accompanying Pakistani PM on Project report on BaSha Dam
May 13, the Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Director of the National Energy Administration (NEA), Nur Bekri, accompanied Pakistan's Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, attended a briefing on Basha Dam Project presented Chinese energy firms and research institutes. Both sides exchanged in-depth talks on the project.
During the meeting, under the witness of Nawaz Sharif and Nur Bekri, the Deputy Director of the NEA, Li Fanrong, signed with Ministry of Water and Power, Yousuf Naseem Khokhar, on "Agreement between NEA and MWP on Adjustment of CPEC Energy Items" and "MOU between NEA and MWP on Basha Project and Northern Pakistan Hydropower Research & Planning"
Pakistan's total dam capacity of 28.81 cubic kilometer or 22.5 million acre feet (MAF). It has remained flat since 1980.
Pakistan will double its water storage capacity to at least 28 million acre feet (MAF) of water from existing 14 MAF increasing the storage capacity from 10 to 20 percent of total water flows, reveals the draft document of National Water Policy (NWP) prepared during last 7 decades and tabled in Common Council of Interests (CCI) that met with Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi in the chair here on Tuesday.
Though the CCI attended by three chief ministers of Sindh, KP, Balochistan and Finance Minister of Punjab deliberated the draft of the National Water Policy in detail and decided that the said draft with more inputs from federating units be brought in next meeting for approval.
However, as per the copy of draft of the policy, in procession of this scribe, the authorities in Pakistan will also carve out the plan of reduction of 33 percent in 46 million cares feet river flows that are lost in conveyance. The decision makers will also come up with the plan to increase at least 30 percent in the efficiency of water use by produce more crop per drop ensuring g the gradual replacement and refurbishing of irrigation system.
Mentioning about the agriculture sector, the NWP draft point outs saying that the strategies and action plans shall be prepared to ensure food security of people of Pakistan focusing the concept of ‘More Crop per Drop’ that will be pursued with full determination.
Mr Gandapur, the former chairman of the Irsa, wrote letters to the president and prime minister in which he said: “The IWT ceases to function as Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs have lost 6.6MAF of replacement storage due to silting.” – File Photo
ISLAMABAD: With Pakistan increasingly becoming water deficient, Indus River System Authority (Irsa) has drawn up plans for creating capacity to store an additional 20 million acre feet (MAF) of water on ‘war footing’ to keep the economy floating.
The Irsa finalised recommendations in this regard with input from all its members after a former chairman of the authority, Fatehullah Khan Gandapur, set off alarm bells by declaring that Indus Water Treaty (IWT) of 1960 was almost dead because of excessive losses in storage capacity.
Mr Gandapur wrote letters to the president and prime minister in which he said: “The IWT ceases to function as Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs have lost 6.6MAF of replacement storage due to silting.”
He criticised the team of bureaucrats currently engaged in negotiating the country’s water rights with India and said the officials were simply incapable of handling “an issue of national survival”.
“Blatant violations of the treaty by India by building dozens of low and high dams on all the six rivers and tributaries has exceeded the allowable storage limit of 4.19MAF fixed in the treaty,” he said. So far, the dams have created 10MAF of dead storage and 25-30MAF of live storage, depriving Pakistan of its water rights for Rabi and Kharif crops.
More high dams are under construction.
Sources told Dawn that on the directives of the president and prime minister, the government’s adviser on water and the Irsa members had a marathon briefing session with the former Irsa chairman early this week and finalised recommendations for creation of additional storage capacity. The recommendations would be submitted to the prime minister for approval.
The report on the recommendations says the situation will become worse in the next couple of years. That’s why it is imperative that an additional capacity of 20MAF be created on war footing to protect the agricultural economy.
The Irsa also warned the government about the proposed construction of around a dozen dams by Afghanistan on Kabul river and suggested that talks be initiated immediately with the Afghans for finalising an agreement to protect Pakistan’s water rights.
The Irsa seconded Mr Gandapur’s proposal for construction of the 37MAF Katzarah Dam near Skardu because it was non-controversial and could enhance the expected life of the downstream dams and barrages, including Tarbela and Diamer-Bhasha.
The authority was also in agreement with Mr Gandapur’s suggestion that the multipurpose 8.5MAF Guroh Dop dam on river Panjkora near Chitral should be built for storing every year about 7-8MAF of water that ultimately falls into Kabul river.
This would stop water from Panjkora from going into Afghan territory. It said a water treaty with Afghanistan was important because Panjkora or Chitral river contributed more than 50 per cent of the Kabul flows.
Pakistan statistics: Installed hydropower capacity: 7,320 MW (2016)
Hydropower generation: 34.42 TWh (2016)
A number of hydropower plants were completed or commissioned in 2016 including Ranolia (17 MW), Daral Khwar (37 MW) and Machai (2.6 MW), all located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Several micro hydropower projects were also installed as part of an initiative led by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with the support of the Asian Development Bank, to install some 1,000 micro plants. Expected to have a total installed capacity of 100 MW, these micro projects are designed to support rural, off-grid communities by providing affordable and reliable electricity.
Numerous projects are currently under planning and construction in the private sector, overseen by the Private Power & Infrastructure Board, including Karot (720 MW), Suki (870 MW) and Kohala (1,124 MW). These projects are part of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) – a collection of infrastructure projects supported by the Chinese Government to strengthen Pakistan’s economy and enhance the economic connectivity between both countries.
The run-of-river Patrind hydropower project is another being led by the private sector, a Korean consortium including Star Hydro Power, K-water and Daewoo Engineering & Construction Company.
Scheduled for completion in 2017, the project has also received loans from the Islamic Development Bank, International Finance Corporation, Asian Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of Korea.
The regulatory regime for private sector investors includes substantial incentives such as generous return on equity, tax concessions and hydrological risk cover.
Current public sector projects under construction and overseen by WAPDA include Golen Gol (106 MW), Neelum-Jhelum (969 MW), Dasu (4,320 MW) and the extension of the Tarbela plant.
The construction on the fourth extension of the 3,478 MW Tarbela hydropower plant located on the Indus River continues, with completion likely in 2017. The Tarbela Dam is the largest earth-filled dam in the world, and the fourth extension to the hydropower plant will lift its installed capacity to 4,888 MW. The World Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank have also announced USD 720 million in co-financing to help fund the fifth extension to the plant, which will add a further 1,140 MW in capacity.
GE to refurbish Mangla power station by 2023
General Electric is expecting to finish refurbishing work on 1,000 megawatts of Mangla hydropower plants within the next five years to bring a 35 percent increase in the station’s production capacity, the company’s executive said.
Sarim Sheikh, chief executive officer of GE Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan said the station’s refurbishing would be completed by 2023 with a cost of around Rs15 billion. “After completion, the plants would be able to generate 35 percent more electricity using same amount of water.”
The project is jointly funded by a French development agency and the United States Agency for International Development.
The project is a major component of the Water and Power Development Authority’s (Wapda) plan of adding low-cost hydropower generation to overcome shortage of electricity and maximise share of hydropower in electricity grid.
Mangla power station, located in Kashmir, has an installed capacity of 1,000MW. The existing station has 10 generating units, having capacity of 100MW each with a useful life of 30 years extendable up to 35 years.
The first unit was commissioned in 1967. All units at Mangla have efficiently been working and generating electricity since then in accordance with their installed capacity despite completion of their useful life long ago.
The Wapda planned to refurbish the existing Mangla hydropower station to benefit from additional 2.88 million acres feet of water and 40 feet additional water head available with completion of Mangla dam raising project in 2009.
Sheikh said the modern technology is being used to optimise generation capacity of Mangla hydropower station. “The quantum of water, which generates 1,000MW, will be sufficient to generate over 1,300MW.”
He said GE is expanding its footprints in hydropower, coal, gas and renewable generation across the country. GE is expected to power 40 percent of the country’s overall electricity generation by 2019.
The company’s executive added that “Pakistan’s generation capacity will stand at around 35,000MW by 2019; of which 14,000MW would be generated through GE equipment.”
#USAID, #WAPDA sign $78m deal for #Pakistan #Mangla Dam refurbishment to increase #power generation capacity from 1000 MW to 1310 MW #hyropower | The Express Tribune
Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) signed project implementation letter – 2 (PIL) worth $78 million for Mangla refurbishment project. The USAID grant will be spent for undertaking various works of Package V, VI, VIII and IX of the project.
The PIL-1 of $72 million for Mangla refurbishment project had already been signed between USAID and Wapda in 2014. WAPDA Chairman Muzammil Hussain and USAID Mission Leader Jerry Bisson signed the letter.
Due to the aging factor of the generating equipment and availability of additional water due to the raised Mangla Dam, Wapda is implementing Mangla refurbishment project with an approved PC-I cost of Rs52.224 billion. USAID is providing $150 million as grant and AFD, a french development agency, is providing €90 million as loan for the purpose, while rest of the amount is being arranged by Wapda through loans and from its own resources.
Mangla Refurbishment Project, on its completion, will enhance generation capacity of the existing Mangla hydel power station from 1,000 megawatts (MW) to 1,310MW, thus registering an increase of 310MW. The refurbishment works have been divided into 11 different packages, which will be implemented in various phases.
The generating units will be refurbished by closing down one tunnel (two generating units) at a time. Refurbishment of the first two units will be completed in year 2019, while refurbishment of all 10 generating units is likely to be accomplished by 2024.
It may be mentioned that Wapda has been implementing a two-pronged strategy for optimal utilisation of hydropower resources. Under the strategy, Wapda has not only initiated new hydropower projects but has also been rehabilitating and upgrading its existing hydel power stations.
Pakistan Council Of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) Installs 562 Micro-hydel Power Plants To Electrify 80,000 Houses
Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET), which is working under Ministry of Science and Technology, has installed 562 micro-hydel power plants with total capacity of 9.7 MW during the last five years, electrifying more than 80,000 houses.
An official source from Ministry of Science and Technology told APP that the ministry and its research and development organizations are mandated to develop technologies for socio-economic development of the country.
Technologies have been developed in different sectors like water, renewable energy, electronics, health, Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs), industry, agriculture etc to directly and indirectly benefit a common man.
Listing different technologies developed during the last five years, the official source informed that PCRET has installed 155 small wind turbines in Sindh and Balochistan electrifying 1560 houses and installed 4016 biogas plants.
The council has established 20 KW hybrid system including solar, MHP and wind in collaboration with China for research and training purposes.
PCRET has also designed and stimulated Wind Turbine and solar products including Solar Cooker, Solar Dryer, Solar Water Heater and Solar Desalination.
During the last five years, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) which is also an important department of the ministry has developed Coal Water Slurry Fuel and Reinforced Derived Fuel and solar driven one inch and two inches water pumps. PCSIR has also designed the Solar Powered Reverse Osmosis Plant, the source said.
While National Institute of Electronics (NIE) has developed LED lights, Solar Charge Controller, Automatic Voltage Stabilizer and cascaded multilevel inverter based transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller, it added.
Pakistan finally gives green light to controversial Indus dam in Kashmir
A Chinese-Pakistani joint venture has been awarded a project to build a dam on the River Indus in the disputed Kashmir region between India and Pakistan.
When completed in 2028, the Diamer Bhasha dam, China’s first major civil engineering scheme in Kashmir, will have a 272-metre-high barrage, making it the tallest roller-compacted concrete dam in the world.
The project will be part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), itself part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
It will have a generating capacity variously given as 4.8GW and 6GW, and will be situated in the Pakistan-administered region of Gilgit-Baltistan, about 320km from the Chinese border.
As well as power, the dam will create a 200 sq km reservoir, greatly increasing Pakistan’s water security.
According to the Nikkei Asian Review, the first phase of the dam, worth $2.8bn, has been awarded to a team made up of China’s Power Construction Corporation and the Pakistan Army’s Frontier Works Organisation, with 70% going to the Chinese company.
Muzammil Hussain, chairman of Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda), announced the project at a press conference at the end of last week. He said the Pakistan government would provide 30% funding and “the rest will be arranged by the Wapda” – understood to be a reference to loans from China. Hussein put the total cost of the project at US$8.8bn, but he has previously given a figure of $14bn.
Previous attempts to build the dam on the Indus site have stumbled over the funding issue. In 2011, the US considered a loan of $12bn for the scheme, but withdrew. The Asian Development Bank approved a loan for the scheme but then withdrew its funding in 2016, and a later plan to crowdfund it failed to raise sufficient capital.
In 2016, the project was named as one of the projects in the China-Pakistan Economic corridor. However, in 2017, Pakistan backed out when the Chinese demanded 100% ownership of the completed asset.
India has raised objections to the project, partly on political and partly on engineering grounds.
The political protest is over India’s claim that the project legitimises Gilgit-Baltistan as part of Pakistan’s sovereign territory.
The engineering objection is based on the safety of such a tall roller-compacted dam in an earthquake zone.
Suleman Najib Khan, the convenor of the Water Resource Development Council, notes: “In the history of the world, no roller-compacted dam has ever been built of comparable height in such unforgiving conditions.
“In the event that the dam bursts at its proposed height of 272m during a routine seismic movement, 10 cubic kilometres of water, with the destructive power of a hydrogen bomb, will wipe out everything on the Indus all the way down to Sukkur.”
Roller-compacted dams use a blend of concrete in which fly ash is substituted for Portland cement, reducing the risk of thermal cracking during construction. The highest dam built so far using the method is the Gilgel Gibe III Dam in Ethiopia, at 250m.
#DiamerBhashaDam, world's tallest dam at 272 meters, will change #Pakistan's destiny by addressing its #energy & #water problems. Located in #GilgitBaltistan, it will store 6.4 million acre-feet of water, generate 4,500 MW of cheap #renewable #electricity https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202007/20/WS5f14f269a31083481725a98f.html
Project, to be ready in 2028, expected to meet water, energy needs in Gilgit-Baltistan region
A new mega project in northern Pakistan is expected to meet both water and energy needs of the region, according to officials and experts.
Work on the construction of Diamer Bhasha Dam near Chilas, a city in the Diamer district in the Gilgit-Baltistan region, has started.
"Diamer Bhasha Dam is set to change the destiny of Pakistan by addressing its energy and irrigation problems," Faisal Vawda, Pakistan's federal minister for water resources, said. "It's Pakistan's lifeline."
The dam's reservoir will be 272 meters in height, and it is said to be the tallest roller compact concrete dam in the world.
Roller compacted concrete is a special blend of concrete that has the same ingredients as conventional concrete but in different ratios, and with a partial substitution of fly ash for Portland cement. This reduces thermal loads on the dam and reduces chances of thermal cracking.
The dam has a proposed spillway with 14 gates and five outlets for flushing out silt. The diversion system comprises two tunnels and a diversion canal. It will also include the construction of powerhouses.
Asim Saleem Bajwa, chairman of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Authority, said the dam will generate 4,500 megawatt of hydroelectric power.
It was a historic moment as Prime Minister Imran Khan kicked off the construction work on Diamer Bhasha Dam, he said. "Around 16,000 jobs will be created during the construction of the dam."
Imran Khan officially launched the construction work on Wednesday, with Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff Qamar Bajwa by his side.
"Diamer Bhasha Dam will be the biggest dam in Pakistan's history," the prime minister said while addressing the public during the launch. "The dam will benefit the country both economically and environmentally, especially the people of Gilgit-Baltistan," he said.
The multibillion-dollar project is estimated to be completed in 2028. It is a multipurpose project that will be used for water storage, flood mitigation, irrigation and power generation.
"This is no ordinary project. There is a reason why both Pakistan's prime minister and the army chief were present at the site for the project launch. It will have an impact on Pakistan's economy, security and politics," said Ahmed Quraishi, a senior fellow at Project Pakistan 21, an independent research organization based in national capital Islamabad.
Feather in the cap
It is another feather in the cap for the Chinese engineers who are known for undertaking challenging international projects, he said.
The project is being jointly constructed by Power China and Pakistan's Frontier Works Organization.
The Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan approved the award of civil works for construction of the dam and the 21-MW Tangir Hydropower Project to the joint venture partners.
The two companies signed a contract in June with a local company for the construction of the diversion system, main dam and access bridge as well as the hydropower project.
"We are grateful to our all-weather friend China for its support in the construction of the mega project," said Faisal Vawda, the water resources minister.
Quraishi said the technical specifications of the project suggest it will be something that engineers worldwide will be studying due to the region's terrain. "China's experience in the dam construction is unparalleled," he said.
Pakistan has recently re-entered into some important hydropower project deals with Chinese companies.
On May 13, 2020, Pakistan signed a deal worth 442 billion Pakistani Rupees (USD 2.64 billion) with the Chinese state-run firm China Power for building the 272 meters high DBD. The total financial outlay of the DBD is PKR 1,406 .5 billion (USD 8.3 billion). This project is on the river Indus in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) – which India claims is illegally occupied territory – and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is likely to be completed by 2028.
Earlier, it was a part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project but the tough conditions, particularly regarding the transfer of ownership, were unacceptable and not “doable” for Pakistan. Afterwards, the Pakistani government tried to raise money for the DBD along with the Mohmand dam through crowdfunding. However, Pakistan then re-entered into a deal with the Chinese firm.
Under the new terms of the deal, China Power will hold 70% of the share while the remaining 30% will be with Frontier Works Organisation – a commercial arm of the Armed Forces of Pakistan. The DBD’s construction is expected to create about 16,500 jobs. Once in operation, it will irrigate around 1.23 million acres of agriculture land and generate 18.1 billion units of electricity annually.
The second project the Chinese are constructing in Pakistan is at Kohala. It was listed under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor since August 2014. The Kohala project is on the Jhelum river on the Pakistani-administered side of Kashmir which India claims is illegally occupied territory since 1947-48. This 1,124-Megawatt project was to be developed by the Kohala Hydropower Company Private Limited. Disputes over this project took place in 2019 between Pakistan and China, which they tried to resolve but the Chinese firm refused to accept the dispute resolution plan approved by the government of Pakistan.
On June 25, 2020, a “tripartite” agreement for implementing the Kohala project was signed between the China Three Gorges Corporation, the government of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Private Power and Infrastructure Board. The project is likely to cost USD 2.4 billion. International Finance Corporation and Silk Road Fund are also sponsors of this project.
The third hydropower project agreed upon between Pakistan and China was in July 2020 and is at Azad Pattan. It is located on the River Jhelum near the village of Muslimabad in the district of Sudhnoti, in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK). This will be carried out by the Power Universal Company Limited which is owned and controlled by the China Gezhouba group.
The Indus at the site of the proposed Diamer-Basha dam. Photo: Water and Power Development Authority, Pakistan
For the government of Pakistan, both the Kohala and the Azad Pattan projects are likely to bring about USD 4 billion in the form of investments, produce around 1800 MW of hydel power and create 8,000 jobs.
One of the major reasons Pakistan is entering into such a deal is to use the available water efficiently, as the country is experiencing water shortage and its yearly water availability is now less than 1000 cubic meters per person. Through dams, it is trying to manage its water resources, mainly for agricultural purpose on which the country’s economy depends.
Second, Pakistan faces a shortage of electricity. In 2019, the transmission and distribution capacity of Pakistan was stalled at approximately 22,000 MW while the maximum demand from the residential and industrial areas was about 25,000 MW. This implied a deficit of 3000 MW. Hydroelectricity will add to the total electricity generated and will help in reducing the supply-demand deficit.
#Pakistan: Work On Mega Dams Projects Going On A Fast Pace After 5 Decades. Total #water storage capacity of these dams is about 8.7 million-acre-feet (MAF). Diamer Bhasha #dam would add 35 years of life to Tarbela dam by cutting sedimentation- UrduPoint https://www.urdupoint.com/en/pakistan/work-on-mega-dams-projects-going-on-a-fast-pa-1070663.html
"We can save this water by increasing storage capacity and bring virgin land under cultivation, said Indus River System Authority Chairman Rao Irshad Ali Khan.� He was of the view that�construction of mega dams including Diamer Basha and Mohmand would enable Pakistan to streamline its off-set�water induced variations in water flow.
The Diamer Bhasha dam would add 35 years to the life of� Tarbela dam by reducing sedimentation, he said.� According to Chairman WAPDA Gen retired Muzammil Hussain both the dams would be with cumulative gross water storage capacity of 9.3 million acre feet (MAF) and electricity generation capacity of 5300 mega watts (MW).� He said that Diamer Bhasha Dam was a multi-purpose project aimed at water storage, flood mitigation and power generation.
The project would be constructed across River Indus about 40-kilometer downstream of Chillas town. The 272-meter high Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Dam would have a gross water storage capacity of 8.1 million acre feet (MAF).
The project will generate 4500 MW of electricity with annual energy generation of more than 18 billion units of low-cost and environment friendly electricity.With construction of Diamer Basha Dam Project, the life of Tarbela Dam will be enhanced to another�35 years.
It will also have a positive impact on the annual energy generation of the projects in the downstream areas.
Regarding Mohmand Dam, the WAPDA chairman said that the work on the construction of the dam was going on fast track and would be completed by 2024.
�"The project is of immense importance and it will store 1.2 million acre feet (MAF) of�water�for irrigated agriculture, help mitigate floods in Peshawar, Charsadda and Nowshera and generate 800 mega watt (MW) of green and clean energy.
�The Spokesperson WAPDA told APP that Diamer Bhasha Dam Project would stimulate economic activities in the far-flung and� backward areas of Gilgit-Baltistan, providing as many as 16550 job opportunities to the� locals and Pakistani engineers, he added.
He said that construction of the dam would help bring as many as 1.23 million acres of� additional land under cultivation, following which annual agricultural benefits of the� project had been estimated at Rs. 279 billion.Meanwhile, the Federal government is also providing funds for construction of 60 small, medium,�large and delayed action/recharge dam projects in the country through the Federal Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) aimed at providing water for irrigation/ agriculture, and drinking purposes.
The accumulative live storage capacity of these dams is about 8,683,699 Acre-feet. As many as 17 dams projects are likely to be completed during the current fiscal year and they are small dams in Tehsil Dobandi, Gulistan Killa, Bhundaro storage dam, Dosi dam Pasni, Darah dam Khuzadar, Mangi dam Quetta, Mara Tangi dam Loralai, Tuk dam Tehsil Wadh, Anjeeri dam Nushko, Azdhakhoi dam, Baghi dam Naushki, delay actions dams in Siaro Hazar Ganji Nal, small dam at Sardari Goz Darkhalo, small dam Kunji Ferzabad, and Sukleji dam etc.
During last decade, WAPDA had completed Mangla Dam Raising(2.88 MAF), Gomal Zam Dam (0.892 MAF), Satpara Dam(0.053 MAF) and Darawat Dam (0.089 MAF) to store water.
WAPDA is also planning to construct Kurram Tangi Dam Stage-II (0.90 MAF), Chiniot Dam (0.85 MAF), Shyok Dam (5.0 MAF), Akhori Dam (6.0 MAF), Dudhnial Dam (1.00 MAF), Skardu Dam (3.20 MAF) and Sindh Barrage (2.00 MAF) to cope with the issues of water shortage in the country.
Hydropower plants benefit rural areas of Pakistan
Chinese company built over 13 small, mini and micro hydropower plants in Pakistan
Chinese company Chongqing Savvy built more than 13 small, mini and micro hydropower plants in Pakistan as of 2019. Out of this, seven have finished installation and trial run and started generating power in Gilgit. The remaining eight plants are being installed in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (K-P).
These small, mini and micro hydropower plants have delivered tangible benefits for the well-being of local people in areas which earlier lacked access to electricity.
Chongqing Savvy Industries CEO George Zhou highlighted that power plants such as these could help electrify rural areas which would lay solid foundation for further modernisation and intelligent development given the renewability of hydropower against coal and gas based energy.
“We built a 1000 kW hydro-power station in Gilgit, which is used to supply electricity to the customs department,” he said. “Once the power is generated, the customs office can operate normally and out plant helps in clearance of items.”
Recalling suitable prerequisites for establishment of small, mini and micro hydropower plants in Pakistan, Zhou said they included abundant water resources, massive demand for electricity and the country’s potential for development.
Talking about the reasons behind his company’s investment in Pakistan, he attributed it to the close relationship between the two countries as well as the supporting facilities and potential market of his company’s products in Pakistan. Zhou added that as a large developing country with a population of over 200 million people, Pakistan still faced a vast gap in supply of power to pave way for industrialisation.
“Being an iron-brother, China is willing to offer technical support in this area,” he said. Besides, CPEC has created opportunities and privileges for small and medium enterprises like the company Zhou works for.
It is hoped that new energy, which is indeed a major trend in the world, could also help Pakistan realise massive development in the years to come.
Small dams, a harbinger of resolving Pakistan’s water woes
Known as the home of longest River Indus (3180km) in Asia, Pakistan is a unique country with plenty of small and big rivers gifted with natural sites for construction of more dams to address the longstanding water woes of the country.
The country has more than 24 big and small rivers including five in Punjab, four in Sindh, eight in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and seven in Balochistan had numerous suitable natural sites for construction of small, medium and big dams to fulfill the growing water needs of the people.
Pakistan is also the home of rivers Chanab, Jhelum, Ravi, Sutlaj and Beas in Punjab, Kabul, Swat, Punjkora, Kunhar, Bara, Kurram, Haroo, Gomal, Chitral in KP, Nari, Bolan, Pishin, Lara, Mula, Hub, Zhob, Porali, Hangol, Rakshan, Dasht in Balochistan and four rivers in Sindh province.
These rivers are endowed with a number of potential sites at Diamir Bhasa, Dasu Kohistan, Kalabagh on River Sindh, Mohamad and Kalam on River Swat, Shalman Khyber on River Kabul, Tangi on River Kurram in North Waziristan, Kaghan-Naran on River Kunhar for construction of water reservoirs.
Despite having enormous water potential, Pakistan is gradually moving towards water-scared country where most of living creatures including humans, animals, plants, wildlife, mammals and reptiles are facing the looming threats of water scarcity.
The National Water Policy (NWP) 2018 has revealed that Pakistan was heading towards a situation of water shortage due to lack of water reservoirs, which may lead to food insecurity for all living creatures by 2025.
The policy disclosed that per capita surface water availability has significantly declined from 5,260 cubic meters per year in 1951 to around 1,000 cubic meters in 2016.
This quantity is likely to further drop to 860 cubic meters by 2025, marking Pakistan’s transition from a water stressed country to a water scarce country.
The groundwater situation is expected to further drop in the country mostly in Punjab and Sindh where one million tube-wells are currently pumping about 55 million acres feet (MAF) of underground water for irrigation, which is 20pc more than that available from canals.
Talking to APP, former Ambassador of Pakistan Manzoorul Haq said, “the policy’s findings are alarming. We need to swiftly shift our approach from construction of big dams to small dams that can prove harbinger of self-sufficiency in food and increasing exports of agro-based industries.”
He said water resources were inextricably linked with climate and the impending climate change scenario has posed serious implications for Pakistan’s water resources.
The changing and unpredictable precipitation patterns may have serious consequences, including flash floods in north and increasingly prolonged droughts in the south, he added.
Manzoorul Haq said that the glaciers retreat, more glacial lakes will form, increasing the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) that is already becoming increasingly common and hazardous in northern parts of the country.
The small dams are only remedy to store flood and rainy water mostly in arid areas like Karak, Bannu, Lakki Marwat, Kohat, DI Khan, DG Khan, Bhakkar, Bahawalpur, Multan, Tharparkar besides merged areas of erstwhile Fata to bring maximum dry land under cultivation and minimize impact of natural disasters, he said.
He said 46,000 dams have been constructed worldwide whereas China has built 22,000 dams and India 4,500 dams.
Mujahid Saeed, Director General Small Dams Irrigation Department said feasibility studies and designs of 26 small dams having 166,282 cultivable command area and 555,103 acres feet storage capacity, has been either completed or practical work in progress in different districts of KP.
#Pakistan to issue a $500 million green bonds to boost #hydropower. Engages JP Morgan to underwrite as part of #investment in #renewableenergy for #green #economic stimulus. It’s banning new #coal power plants and planting 10 billion #trees https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-02-18/pakistan-plans-first-green-bond-to-fund-hydropower-projects via @business
Pakistan’s government is planning to issue a $500 million green bond in the next few months to help boost its development of hydroelectric power.
The bond, denominated in euros, will be the government’s first to fund environmental goals, Malik Amin Aslam, an adviser to Prime Minister Imran Khan on climate change, said in an interview. It is set to be issued through the country’s state-owned Water & Power Development Authority, with JPMorgan Chase & Co. advising, he said.
“We’ve got a lot of hydro potential in Pakistan,” he said on Thursday. “The bonds are there to accelerate this.”
Khan’s government is investing in renewable energy to ramp up its economic stimulus in the wake of the pandemic. It’s also promised to ban new coal power plants and is looking to plant 10 billion trees. The nation’s cities rank among the worst globally for air pollution, according to IQAir.
The South Asian nation has a fragile economy that goes through regular boom and bust cycles. It received debt relief during the pandemic, restoring its $6 billion bailout program that it secured from the International Monetary Fund in 2019 to avoid bankruptcy.
Issuance of green bonds globally is seen surging to $375 billion in 2021 by Moody’s Investors Service, after record sales last year. While Europe has led the way, countries from Singapore to Brazil plan to sell their first to tap buoyant investor demand.
JPMorgan, the world’s top arranger of green debt, declined to comment.
Govt releases Rs63,978.21 million for water projects so far
An amount of Rs16,000 million has been allocated for Diamer Basha Dam (Dam Part), Rs5,000 million for Diamer Basha Dam Project (Land Acquisition and Re-settlement), Rs1,443.324 million for Balochistan Effluent Disposal in to RBOD, Rs1,968 million for construction of Basool Dam, Rs1,797 million for construction of Mangi Dam, Rs2,000 million for construction of small storage dams (Sindh), Rs1,500 million for construction of 100 small dams in Balochistan, Rs1,356.346 million for Darwat dam and Rs2,000 million for Garuk Storage Dam. A sum of Rs7,000 million has been earmarked for Mohmand Dam, Rs3,000 million for Nai Gaj Dam, Rs2,500 million for Naulong Storage Dam, Rs1,500 million for Normal/Emergent Flood Programme and Rs3,000 million for construction of Winder Dam. Similarly, Rs2,000 million has been allocated for Kachhi Canal Project (Remaining Works), Rs500 million for construction of 100 dams in Balochistan and Rs30 million for construction of Delay Action Dam at Zarkhune (Quetta).
Why Covering Canals With Solar Panels Is a Power Move
Covering waterways would, in a sense, make solar panels water-cooled, boosting their efficiency.
Scientists in California just ran the numbers on what would happen if their state slapped solar panels on 4,000 miles of its canals, including the major California Aqueduct, and the results point to a potentially beautiful partnership. Their feasibility study, published in the journal Nature Sustainability, finds that if applied statewide, the panels would save 63 billion gallons of water from evaporating each year. At the same time, solar panels across California’s exposed canals would provide 13 gigawatts of renewable power annually, about half of the new capacity the state needs to meet its decarbonization goals by the year 2030.
California’s water conveyance system is the world’s largest, serving 35 million people and 5.7 million acres of farmland. Seventy-five percent of available water is in the northern third of the state, while the bottom two-thirds of the state accounts for 80 percent of urban and agricultural demand. Shuttling all that water around requires pumps to make it flow uphill; accordingly, the water system is the state’s largest single consumer of electricity.
Govt plans to install floating solar panels on dams
They will help reduce evaporation of water, generate clean electricity
He (Minister Omar Ayub) announced that the government was planning to install floating solar panels on the country’s big water reservoirs and along canals in a bid to generate thousands of megawatts of clean energy.
This is part of the government’s plan to give priority to an increase in the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix.
He revealed that floating solar panels would be installed on Tarbela, Mangla, Ghazi Barotha and Khanpur reservoirs besides canals. “It will not only help to reduce evaporation of water but will also generate electricity,” the minister emphasised.
Speaking at a conference on “Water Crisis: An Imminent Danger to Pakistan’s Stability”, Khan warned India that Pakistan would swiftly retaliate if New Delhi violated the Indus Waters Treaty.
“If India tries to make the Indus Waters Treaty as a weapon, then answer from Pakistan will be swift as we will defend our sovereignty.”
He urged the international community to take notice of Indian atrocities in the occupied valley of Kashmir.
He was of the view that if proper investment was made in the water sector, especially in water storages, then it had the potential to take up the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth by one percentage point.
Despite its importance in economic growth, the minister decried, no work was carried out for the construction of dams after Tarbela and Mangla and no big dam was commissioned after 1960.
“Our government is actively working on a plan to harness the water resources in order to add 18,000-20,000 megawatts of hydroelectric power to the system,” he said. The minister pointed out that the current installed power generation capacity from all sources stood at 31,000MW, which would be enhanced to 55,000MW by 2030.
By the year 2025, around 8,000MW of renewable energy would be added to the system and 20,000MW would be added by 2030, he anticipated.
Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) is executing the biggest-ever portfolio of development projects in Pakistan including Diamer Basha Dam, Dasu Hydropower Project and Mohmand Dam worth $26 billion after a span of almost five decades by adopting an innovative financing strategy on the back of a robust capital structure and strong balance sheet footing.
WAPDA Chairman Lt Gen Muzammil Hussain (retd) highlighted this in the meeting with a delegation of JP Morgan comprising senior representatives namely Asif Raza, Managing Director Global Corporate Bank CEEMEA, Imran Zaidi, Managing Director Global Corporate Bank covering Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Amin M Khawaja, Chief Executive Officer Pakistan. WAPDA Member (Finance) Naveed Asghar was also present on the occasion.
Giving a run-down of 10 under construction WAPDA projects, the chairman said that these projects would enhance water storage capacity by more than 11 MAF and add another 9,000 MW of hydel electricity to the system. WAPDA has unparalleled institutional capacity to identify and implement multipurpose hydropower projects. It has adopted a multi-pronged strategy including Green Eurobonds and Syndicate loans etc for implementation of its projects. This was a radical shift from entire reliance on the Government of Pakistan. WAPDA’s business model has an important role to play in the development of a sustainable and lower-carbon economy in Pakistan, he said. The chairman said that WAPDA would continue to approach the international financial and capital market in a staggered mode, to minimise financing cost, in line with its financing requirements and would look forward to bring further investments in the hydropower sector which would go a long way to reduce carbon footprint in the power generation sector of Pakistan. He appreciated the role played by JP Morgan as the lead arranger for WAPDA’s debut Green Eurobond issuance alongside Deutsche, Standard Chartered and HBL Bank.
Fitch Affirms Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority at 'B-'; Outlook Stable
WAPDA is established under a special statute. The Authority has close operational and administrative linkage to the government and is mandated to develop water and power resources in Pakistan. The government exercise strong influence over WAPDA's corporate governance and debt, sanctioned by the government, shall be transferred to the government according to the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Act.
KEY RATING DRIVERS
Status, Ownership and Control: 'Very Strong'
Our 'Very Strong' assessment of 'Status, Ownership and Control' remains unchanged, given the strong statutory support, stable government ownership - which we do not expect to change - and high level of government control. Employees of WAPDA are deemed to be public servants when acting in pursuance of WAPDA activities. The government has strong influence on WAPDA's corporate governance, including budget, accounts, financing activity and new power station investment plans, because the Authority is mandated to execute the government's responsibility of utilising Pakistan's water and power resources.
Support Track Record: 'Very Strong'
The build-up of circular debt in the energy sector exposes WAPDA to external funding. The government aims to mitigate the circular debt issue by providing financial support; it had guaranteed 22% of WAPDA's interest-bearing debt as of June 2021 and 56% of the debt comprises of government loans. The government will be liable for loans passed by the Authority with the sanction of the government under the WAPDA Act. Supportive policies, such as corporate tax exemptions, land acquisitions and a tariff mechanism, also enhance WAPDA's operational stability.
Socio-Political Implications of Default: 'Strong'
Pakistan's policies aim to boost the hydropower generation mix and reduce reliance on fossils. WAPDA's hydropower generation accounted for 27% of the generation mix in 2021, while other renewable energy only accounted for 3%. The government aims for hydro power to contribute over 40% of Pakistan's energy demand by 2030, implying that the development of hydropower generation is of significant strategic importance to the country. We believe WAPDA's installed capacity would be difficult to substitute and that any transition process would lead to severe service disruption.
Financial Implications of Default: 'Very Strong'
We deem WAPDA as a proxy financing vehicle for the government in the energy sector. The Authority still relies on the government to fund its investments, although it is expanding its borrowing capacity, including via recent bond issues. We believe the government's borrowing ability would be significantly impaired if WAPDA come under financial stress due to the high level of funding it receives from international development finance institutions and its debt mix - 78% of interest-bearing debt comprised loans or was guaranteed by the government.
WAPDA's ratings reflect our assessment of government linkage and support incentive and results in a weighted score of 50, based on our Government-Related Entities Rating Criteria. We adopt a top-down approach and equalise WAPDA's rating with those of Pakistan (B-/Stable), regardless of WAPDA's Standalone Credit Profile.
POWERCHINA Celebrates 10th Anniversary of CPEC: Committed to Bringing Pakistan Forward for Green and Sustainable Development
This year will see the 10th anniversary of the China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the 10th anniversary of the launch of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). As one of the key enterprises participating in the construction of the CPEC, POWERCHINA has been active in various fields such as energy, electricity, water management, and infrastructure investment in Pakistan since it entered the Pakistani market as early as 1987.
Over the past 36 years, POWERCHINA has completed the 103 projects in Pakistan, including the first roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dam in Pakistan – the Gomal Zam Dam multipurpose project, and the first mainstream hydropower station on the Indus River – the Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project, the largest installed hydropower station – the Tarbela 4th & 5th Extension Hydropower Project, and the largest wind farm – the Tricon Boston 150 MW Wind Power Project.
In the past ten years, among the first 20 energy and infrastructure projects of the CPEC, POWERCHINA has participated in the investment and construction of 11 projects. POWERCHINA has consolidated the traditional power business, and continued to contribute to the development of new energy and other fields. Pakistan's largest hydropower hub project currently being constructed by POWERCHINA, the Diamer Basha Dam Project, will become the tallest and largest RCC dam in the world, and is expected to provide Pakistan with 18.1 billion KWh of clean electricity every year. As the project progresses, it is expected to provide more than 20,000 job opportunities, which is considered as one of the many positive effects of the project by Nadeem Ilyas, a Pakistani engineer of the project.
As one of the leading enterprises in China, POWERCHINA has carried out high-quality clean energy project construction and operation in accordance with international standards, and is committed to improving Pakistan's infrastructure conditions and alleviating local power shortages. It has not only made important contributions to the sustainable development of Pakistan, but also played a key role in the development of CPEC.
Saudi Arabia signs $240m loan agreement to support Mohmand Dam
The statement noted that the project is expected to enhance water and food security, and improve the standard of living for people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where almost 80 per cent of the population resides in rural areas, boosting the region’s socioeconomic development by creating employment opportunities and reducing poverty levels.
It added that by using renewable energy sources, the project will generate 800 MW of electricity production capacity, contributing to Pakistan’s energy security. In addition, the storage of 1.6 million cubic meters of water will support sustainable agricultural practices, enable irrigation of 6,773 hectares of new land, and increase the total cropping area from 1,517 hectares to 9,227 hectares in the province, facilitating agricultural activities.
Co-financed by the SFD, OPEC, Islamic Development Bank, and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, the project aligns with SDG-2 (Food Security), SDG-6 (Clean Water), and SDG-7 (Clean Energy) and embodies SDG-17 (Partnerships for the Goals).
During the agreement signing ceremony, the CEO of SFD said this initiative is an extension of the fund’s continued support for development projects and programmes in Pakistan since its inception. He also highlighted the significance of joint cooperation between development funds, as evidenced by this project.
For his part, Dr Niaz expressed his sincere appreciation and gratitude to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its unwavering support towards the development sector in Pakistan through the SFD.
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