Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Alaska Permanent Fund--A Model For Balochistan's Mineral Wealth Sharing

The US state of Alaska has a small population of only 680,000 people and vast territory measuring 1.5 million square kilometers. The state is endowed with tremendous mineral wealth--particularly oil and gas. Alaska Permanent Fund was set up in 1976 to ensure that ordinary Alaskans get a share of this natural wealth. Currently the fund has assets of over $38 billion and each Alaskan will receive $1,174.00 in cash from it for 2011.

Pakistan's Balochistan province shares some similarities with the US state of Alaska. It is the largest of Pakistan's four provinces in terms of area (347,190 square kilometers) but the smallest in terms of population (6.6 million). With large reserves of copper, gold and natural gas, it is probably the richest of Pakistan's provinces in terms of its natural resources.



Most of the grievances of the people of Balochistan stem from a sense that they have not benefited from the resources under their land. Powerful tribal chieftains in the province have exploited this sense of deprivation to demand and receive significant funds for themselves while ordinary Balochis have remained among the poorest and most backward in Pakistan.

As Pakistan moves forward with vast new mineral discoveries such as Reko Diq in Balochistan, it's essential that there be a mechanism to equitably share with ordinary Balochis the billions of dollars in revenue expected to flow from these resources.

Balochistan Fund can be modeled on Alaska Permanent Fund. It is a constitutionally established and professionally managed fund which is run by a semi-independent corporation. Shortly after the oil from Alaska's North Slope began flowing to market through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, the Permanent Fund was created by an amendment to the constitution of the U.S. state of Alaska to be an investment for at least 25% of proceeds from some minerals [such as oil and gas] sale or royalties.



Similar funds should be established for other provinces as well. For example, energy-rich Sindh has large coal deposits and huge shale gas reserves which are worth at least hundreds of billions of dollars. Revenues from these resources should be shared equitably to benefit ordinary citizen of Sindh province.

Sharing of the wealth with the people in each province will give them a tangible stake in national development. It will help bring and maintain peace and stability necessary to attract badly needed investments for developing Pakistan's vast mineral resources.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Pakistan's Vast Shale Gas Reserves

Reko Diq Copper & Gold

Pakistan's Mineral Wealth

Thar Coal Deposits

USGS Minerals Overview For Pakistan

US Dept of Energy Report on Shale Gas

Pakistan's Twin Energy Crises

Pakistan's Electricity Crisis

Pakistan's Gas Pipeline and Distribution Network

Lure of Pakistan's Riches Calls

Israel in Alaska?

19 comments:

Shams said...

With TCC, Baluchistan was being guaranteed $400 million per year in direct payments from TCC. With the government of Pakistan, Baluchistan would get squat. The company that Samar Mubarakmund keeps talking about to replace TCC is nowhere in sight. When it does become a fact, the theft and graft prevalent in Pakistan will turn it into a PIA, Railways, Pakistan Steel Mills, Karachi Shipyard, PNSC - you name it.

There is no use of a Baluchistan fund if the entire income from its mining is given away to the Baloch government. Yes, there will be thefts. But the difference between Baluchistan and Alaska is that in Alaska, all oil is going of to the private oil firms, with very little tax back to the Alaskan government, since oil is refined elsewhere, and the royalties at lease time were federally controlled. They were set very low about 40 years ago, and those rates are still in force.

Amjad said...

Along with millions of others, I would immediately establish domicile in Balochistan (and live in California)! Wink

Riaz Haq said...

Amjad: "I would immediately establish domicile in Balochistan"

Why wait? Why not do it now in Alaska, or the lands of some of the native American tribes where wealth is shared right here in America?

Riaz Haq said...

Some readers have raised questions about the differences between Alaska and Balochistan in terms of the native populations being different from the majority of national population.

No two places are ever exactly alike, but both Alaska and Balochistan have small native populations which constitute a minority in each. Alaska has 15% native population and Balochistan has over a third of its population that are ethnic Baloch.

Almost as many ethnic Baloch people live outside of Balochistan province (in Sindh and Southern Punjab) as in Balochistan, according to Anatol Lieven (Pakistan-A Hard Country)....and they are quite well integrated with the rest of the population in Pakistan.

Asif Zardari, the current president of Pakistan, is an ethnic Baloch, as was former President Farooq Laghari.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's the latest from Dawn on Reko Diq license:

LONDON: Pakistan’s Balochistan province has rejected a mining lease application from Chilean copper producer Antofagasta and Canada’s Barrick Gold, raising questions over the future of their Reko Diq copper-gold project.

The two miners’ joint venture, Tethyan Copper, said last month it had filed a “notice of dispute” with the province over Reko Diq, after Balochistan government officials refused to meet the company’s executives or extend a deadline for a response to objections raised over the lease.

The mining lease application, for an area including the Reko Diq deposit, was submitted in February.

“Tethyan strongly believes that the Reko Diq project can contribute significantly to the development of a modern mining industry in Balochistan and will consider its options for further courses of action,” Antofagasta said in a statement on Wednesday.

Reko Diq – only the second significant project in the mineral-rich region and potentially a source of much needed inward investment for Pakistan – holds an estimated 5.9 billion tonnes of mineral resources, with an average copper grade of 0.41 per cent and an average gold grade of 0.22 grams a tonne.

The joint venture partners spent $200 million in 2006 buying the exploration licence from rival BHP Billiton.

Construction has been projected to cost some $3.3 billion, but that is expected to climb given rising costs faced by the mining industry, particularly in remote locations like Balochistan.


http://www.dawn.com/2011/11/16/pakistan-says-no-to-antofagasta-barrick-gold-mine.html

Mike said...

Really a neat idea.

It will be nice if this dividend goes back to the people of Balochistan in the form of free schools and free colleges. Free food program for schools. If they use children for labor, than compensating the parents for taking them off the labor force. Free health care. More development roads and bridges, provide employment but no free welfare.

It will be good for Balochistan and unified Pakistan.

Imran said...

The problem is if its done right, Balochis will become the most advanced ethnic group in Pakistan.

I am serious, what can we do to make this happen, writing letters to the editors ? start a campaign ? what would it take for someone to take notice...

Riaz Haq said...

Mike,

In the Alaska model, 25% of the state's royalty income from oil and gas goes into the Alaska Permanent Fund, with the rest going to Alaska treasury for spending on education, health care, infrastructure and other programs.

Using the Alaska model, at least 25% of the money will go to the independently managed fund and pay dividends to the people directly, thus keeping it out of the hands of corrupt sardar politicians who control power in Quetta and care little about their people.

Imran,

It's not just Balochistan. Sindh is now emerging as a very energy-rich province with billions of tons of coal, about 40 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, tremendous wind energy potential along the coast line, and offshore oil and gas reserves. Unless this expected wealth is shared equitably with the people of Sindh, there could be a Sindhi nationalist insurgency in the province which already contributes the most in taxes to Islamabad from its ports and industries in Karachi.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's an excerpt of a Huffington Post Op Ed on Baloch insurgents:

According to Peters, one of the most serious issues with the Baloch independence movement is "deeply troubling" infighting. In fact, he is emphatic in his condemnation of such bickering; going so far as to assert: "they are quickly becoming their own worse enemies."

In his view, individual Baloch simply don't understand that their personal feuding undermines the larger movement: "Certain Baloch fail to understand that their only hope in gaining independence is if they put their own egos and vanity aside and work together. This is the cold hard fact. They are already outgunned and outmanned. Pakistan will continue to to exploit their differences until they realize this."

So long as the Baloch continue to engage in "petty infighting," including "savaging each other in emails," (Ralph) Peters is pessimistic they can garner widespread support in the West. In fact, he warns that such infighting could eventually put off even their staunchest supporters.

As a result, he recommends that the Baloch leadership and activists set the example and halt their public bickering: "The Baloch leaders need to stop their severe personal attacks on each other and others. In the military, we say that you don't let an entire attack get bogged down by a single sniper. But, there are individuals out there who are causing divisions and attacking people. They tend to look at the debate as if you don't agree with me completely then you're my enemy. This undermines their cause."

Until these leaders and activists "support the big picture," Peters offers little hope that the broader Baloch nation will be able to "work together, put aside their deep divide, and unify." This troubles Peters as he confides: "At this point, do I believe they have a good chance of achieving independence? No. But, it would be much higher in the future if they just start working together. It's frustrating that the leaders can't unite."

Peters is also bothered by the Baloch tendancy to blame such infighting on covert operations by Pakistan's military and security services: "The region as a whole tends to blame conspiracy theories. But, I have come to believe that you never accept conspiracies when something can be explained by incompetence. There are probably a mix of things going on here. The Pakistani military and intelligence services probably have provocateurs working in Balochistan just like they do in Afghanistan. They live by the old rule of divide and conquer and they are good at that. But, the bigger issue is the Baloch's own egos. That's what needs addressed."


http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eddie-walsh/baloch-pakistan_b_1326421.html

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Daily Times Op Ed on oil and gas reserves in Balochistan:

Khattan oil would be more valuable to the railway now than it was formerly. As fuel it was worth not more than 1½ times in weight to Khost coal and so could not possibly compete, but it was mainly as a possible substitute for pitch, the agglomerate used in fuel briquette manufacture, that it is to be now considered. Borings were also commenced in 1891 at Pir Koh near Spintangi, but were abandoned after they had reached a depth of 560 feet as no signs of petroleum were discovered. Gypsum occurs in considerable quantities near Khattan and Tung near Spintangi.

Another detailed, modern, scientific seismic survey was conducted in the mid-1990s, which proved the presence of tremendous gas and oil deposits across Balochistan, including the Marri Bugti areas, near the Quetta Zargoon belt. There are proven big gas fields, very good quality and at a large scale, explored near Barkhan at Jandran in the 1970s, and only require to be linked to the Dera Ghazi Khan pipeline. Oil also has been found at Kingari District Loralai and it needs to be pumped out. In Dera Bugti near Sui three more gas fields with very big deposits; all three estimated to hold about ten trillion cubic meters, have been explored very recently. According to reports, all proven explored gas is estimated to be about 20 trillion cubic meters, whereas Pakistan requires 700 million cubic feet and is clamouring to get it from Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Iran or Qatar.

It is also reported that the cost of imported gas either from Central Asia, Iran or Qatar would be double of local available gas in Balochistan. The important point worthy of attention in any case is that if a pipeline is built to import gas from Central Asia, Iran or Qatar, it has to cross Balochistan. Now the question is, why is the local Balochistan oil and gas not extracted to meet Pakistan’s life and death energy crisis?
------------
The reports observe that this security assessment about shifting trends in the insurgency comes with the warning that the “unthinkable situation” may worsen, which could further aggravate if the political leadership does not wake up to the situation. One high security official in the briefing realises, “Balochistan is no longer a local issue. It has acquired the international limelight.” Now the main question is, whose is the policy failure in Balochistan, politicians or the use of force? If at all the political leadership wakes up to the situation today, what options are left to them? Recently, moderate pro-federation, former chief minister Sardar Ataullah Mengal said that the Baloch are pushed to a position of no return. In this background, the basic question under discussion is how to cope with the energy crisis. In any case, exploration of local Balochistan resources or the pipeline have to be laid across thousand of miles of the Baloch land.


http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012\03\19\story_19-3-2012_pg3_4

Riaz Haq said...

Here's an Economic Times story on the wealth of Balochistan ministers:

A provincial minister in Pakistan owns a tract of land that equals a small town - 24,338 acres to be precise. Another wears diamond-studded Rolex watches while a lawmaker runs seven mines and owns 300 guns.

Balochistan Chief Minister Nawab Muhammad Aslam Khan Raisani drives a luxury sport utility vehicle Hummer H2 that was gifted to him and a Harley Davidson motorcycle brought to Pakistan after a waiver on customs duty, showed statement of assets and liabilities submitted to the Election Commission for 2010-11.

Besides owning a safety and security firm, he also has a mining company with a capital investment of Rs.106.5 million, the Dawn newspaper reported.

But, he is easily overshadowed by his Minister for Home and Tribal Affairs, Mir Zafar Ullah Khan.

Khan owns a staggering 24,338 acres of land, most of which he has inherited. He has Rs.51 million in two bank accounts.

Building Minister Agha Irfan Karim owns four properties, including a farm house, 150 acres of agricultural land and a house in Quetta.

Karim also two diamond-studded Rolex wrist watches, two more with gold and silver, 10 diamond-studded cufflinks and 200 tola of gold.

Pir Abdul Qadir Algilani, a lawmaker, too has a generous land holding.

He owns 3,200 acres of land and an under-construction farm spread over 400 acres.

That's not all.

Algilani's other properties include two coal mines, three manganese mines, one copper mine and one iron ore mine in his own and his wife's name.


http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/et-cetera/a-pakistani-minister-mir-zafar-owns-almost-a-town/articleshow/12368249.cms

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a report of Baloch seeking independence from sardars:

Tribesmen belonging to different Bugti tribes met in United Arab Emirates and demanded for their safe return to Dera Bugti.

According to a handout issued here on Tuesday, Hamoon Khan Bugti, a chief of United Tribes, while addressing the gathering said that they would appeal to Swiss government to reject the application of Brahamdagh Bugti for political asylum. He said that Bugti was the killer of several Bugti tribesmen.

Hamoom said that Bugti had the passport of Indian government. He said that they had been threatened by the separatist leader to shut the mouth. He added that they would continue to expose the real face of Bugti.

He further said that Bugti was a terrorist and still killing innocent Bugtis’ in the Dera.

“We will fight for our basic rights. We need to go back to our homes which were bulldozed by Bugti in 2002,” he said.


http://www.thenewstribe.com/2012/02/29/bugti-tribesmen-urge-swiss-govt-to-reject-brahamdaghs-asylum-appeal/#.T3scZMUQo14

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Gallup survey on Balochistan independence as reported by Khaleej Times:

The support for an independent Balochistan is not popular even among a majority of the Baloch population, a Gallup survey for the UK international official body, DFID, has revealed.

The survey conducted on July 20 says that among the Baloch, 37 per cent favour independence, whereas among the Pashtun population only 12 per cent favour that option. The results of the survey were published by The News on Monday.

The vast majority, according to the survey, opposes the idea of an independent Balochistan. However, 67 per cent of the people of Balochistan, including Baloch and Pashtuns, support greater provincial autonomy.

The survey says that 79 per cent of the Baloch population and 53 per cent of Pashtuns support the idea that the people of Balochistan should have greater control over their political affairs. Balochistan, which is home to Baloch and Pashtun tribes, through this survey reflects Pashtuns’ tilt to national mainstream as against the increased tendency of Balochi separatism in recent years.


http://www.khaleejtimes.com/displayarticle.asp?xfile=data/international/2012/August/international_August432.xml&section=international&col=

Riaz Haq said...

The districts of Awaran and Khuzdar where the earthquake hit are the center of Baloch insurgency in Pakistan, according to Washington Post :
Thousands of Pakistanis ran into the streets praying for their lives Tuesday as a powerful earthquake rocked a remote area in the southwest, killing at least 39 people and possibly creating a small island off the coast.

The Pakistani military said it was rushing troops and helicopters to Baluchistan province’s Awaran district, where the quake was centered, and the nearby area of Khuzdar. Local officials said they were sending doctors, food and 1,000 tents for people who had nowhere to sleep as strong aftershocks continued to shake the region.
--------
The area where the quake struck is at the center of an insurgency that Baluch separatists have been waging against the Pakistani government for years. The separatists regularly attack Pakistani troops and symbols of the state, such as infrastructure projects.

A Pakistani military official speaking on customary condition of anonymity said security officials were fired on while escorting doctors to Awaran. No one was wounded.

The quake was felt as far as New Delhi, the Indian capital, some 1,200 kilometers (about 740 miles) away, but no damage or injuries were immediately reported there.

The quake also jolted Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi, roughly 250 kilometers (155 miles) from the epicenter. People in the city’s tall office buildings rushed into the streets, and Pakistani television showed lights swaying as the earth shook.

“My table and computer started shaking. I thought I was feeling dizziness but soon realized they were tremors,” Karachi resident Mohammad Taimur said.

In Quetta, the capital of Baluchistan, cellphone vendor Matiullah Khan said he was in his shop with a customer when the cabinet and shelves started to shake.

“I along with customers rushed out to the main street. ... Thousands of people were standing, many in fear and reciting Quranic verses,” he said.

Baluchistan and neighboring Iran are prone to earthquakes. A magnitude-7.8 quake centered just across the border in Iran killed at least 35 people in Pakistan last April.

___

Santana reported from Islamabad. Associated Press writers Zarar Khan and Munir Ahmed in Islamabad, Adil Jawad in Karachi, and Ashok Sharma in New Delhi contributed to this report.


http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/pakistani-official-magnitude-77-quake-hits-southwestern-pakistan/2013/09/24/3cd6304a-2513-11e3-9372-92606241ae9c_story.html

Riaz Haq said...

NBC News on relief effort after Balochistan quake:

Most of the food and shelter provided to displaced people is being provided by Jamaat ud Dawa - or Party of the Faithful - the fundraising arm of banned militant outfit Lashkar-e-Taiyeba, whose leadership is wanted by the U.S. for sponsoring terror.

Those difficulties were underlined Thursday when rockets were fired at a government helicopter as it passed over Mushke, an area dominated by militants.

The aircraft was carrying the head of the country's National Disaster Management Authority, a Pakistani army general in charge of relief operations and other officials, The Associated Press reported.
The quake was so powerful that it caused an island to emerge off the coast of the port city of Gwadar, in the Arabian Sea....

Tuesday’s magnitude 7.7 quake struck a remote, under-developed area gripped by separatist militants and the region’s lawlessness is hampering army-led relief efforts.

http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/09/26/20702945-militants-fire-rockets-at-relief-helicopter-as-pakistan-quake-death-toll-hits-349?lite

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Daily Mirror story on a JUI Baloch legislator Abdur Rehman Khetran arrested for running a private prison with people chained in a dungeon:

A local MP in Pakistan has been arrested for running a private dungeon at his home after five people were found chained up.

Some of the captives had been held in Abdul Rehman Khetran's cellar for several years.

The dungeon only came to light after private guards working for the lawmaker attacked police at a checkpoint at the weekend, beating them up and stealing their weapons.

Police then raided the lawmaker's fortified home in lawless Baluchistan province, freed the prisoners, including one woman, and arrested Khetran, his son and six private guards.

Barkhan district police chief Abdul Ghafoor Marri said the prisoners had been mistreated, and a truck packed with ammunition and weapons had also been found.

But Khetran claimed the arrests were politically motivated.

The mineral-rich western region of Baluchistan is deeply impoverished and a haven for smugglers, drug lords, Taliban insurgents and separatist rebels.


http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/pakistani-mp-arrested-after-five-3020456

Riaz Haq said...

People often compare Balochistan with East Pakistan. Balochistan has nothing in common with East Pakistan.

1. Only a third of the population of Balochistan is Balochi speaking. The Baloch Nationalists are too few number, highly disorganized and deeply divided among themselves. They are no more than a nuisance that Pak military can effectively handle. Besides, almost as many ethnic Baloch people live outside of Balochistan province (in Sindh and Southern Punjab) as in Balochistan, according to Anatol Lieven(Pakistan-A Hard Country)....and they are quite well integrated with the rest of the population in Pakistan. Asif Zardari, the current president of Pakistan, is an ethnic Baloch, as was former President Farooq Laghari and recent interim Prime Minister Mir Hazar Khan Khoso. Pakistan's COAS Gen Musa was a Hazara from Balochistan.

2. In East Pakistan, there was an election won by Sheikh Mujib with heavy mandate. Nothing like that has happened nor likely happen with a bunch of fractious Baloch tribesmen who represent only a few districts in Balochistan.

3. East Pakistan was split by an outright foreign invasion which is highly unlikely to happen to nuclear-armed Pakistan.

4. Retired US Army Col Ralph Peters is a CIA guy who knows a lot of Balochistan. Here's an excerpt of a Huffington Post Op Ed on Baloch insurgents:

According to Peters, one of the most serious issues with the Baloch independence movement is "deeply troubling" infighting. In fact, he is emphatic in his condemnation of such bickering; going so far as to assert: "they are quickly becoming their own worse enemies."

In his view, individual Baloch simply don't understand that their personal feuding undermines the larger movement: "Certain Baloch fail to understand that their only hope in gaining independence is if they put their own egos and vanity aside and work together. This is the cold hard fact. They are already outgunned and outmanned. Pakistan will continue to to exploit their differences until they realize this."

So long as the Baloch continue to engage in "petty infighting," including "savaging each other in emails," (Ralph) Peters is pessimistic they can garner widespread support in the West. In fact, he warns that such infighting could eventually put off even their staunchest supporters.

As a result, he recommends that the Baloch leadership and activists set the example and halt their public bickering: "The Baloch leaders need to stop their severe personal attacks on each other and others. In the military, we say that you don't let an entire attack get bogged down by a single sniper. But, there are individuals out there who are causing divisions and attacking people. They tend to look at the debate as if you don't agree with me completely then you're my enemy. This undermines their cause."

Until these leaders and activists "support the big picture," Peters offers little hope that the broader Baloch nation will be able to "work together, put aside their deep divide, and unify." This troubles Peters as he confides: "At this point, do I believe they have a good chance of achieving independence? No. But, it would be much higher in the future if they just start working together. It's frustrating that the leaders can't unite."

Peters is also bothered by the Baloch tendancy to blame such infighting on covert operations by Pakistan's military and security services: "The region as a whole tends to blame conspiracy theories. But, I have come to believe that you never accept conspiracies when something can be explained by incompetence..."

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eddie-walsh/baloch-pakistan_b_1326421.html

Riaz Haq said...

Balochis 40% of #Balochistan's population. #BLA, #BLF, #BRA, #UBA 3-4K fighters fighting #Pakistan are deeply divided http://shar.es/FdNz1

Riaz Haq said...

A few renegade scions belonging to Bugti, Marri and Mengal houses of sardars, on payroll of foreign powers and stationed abroad, are trying to become the face of Baloch nationalism. This reeks of crass opportunism because these very sardars demanding greater political rights, autonomy and control over their natural resources remain in themselves the main stumbling block to preventing the benefits of progress and the fruits of royalty of the natural resources from trickling to the masses.

The sardari system in Baluchistan was abolished in the early sixties, but successive governments failed to translate it into reality due to entrenched resistance by the Baloch sardars. It is a manifestation of their unbridled power that sardars, blatantly and brazenly, maintain personal militias equipped with modern weapons and challenge the writ of the state with impunity. It is heartrending as to how they can trod upon, most inhumanely, on the fundamental rights of their followers, claiming authority drawn from traditions and custom of the Baloch. It may sound unbelievable but while dispensing justice, they can still order people to walk on fire to prove innocence, grant hand of women as compensation in feuds and levy fines amounting to lakhs on perceived misdemeanor at personal discretion. They, manifestly, are a tyrannical relic of an oppressive past, which needs to accommodate change or become extinct in the process. The British treated Baluchistan markedly different than Punjab or Sindh, whereby their interest here, primarily, was not economic, but rather of a military and geopolitical in nature. They were interested in defining the Western frontiers of their empire, station garrisons to defend these frontiers and find a safe passage through the area in case of military expeditions to Afghanistan. By 1854, the Khan of Kalat had accepted the British suzerainty for an annual salary of Rs50,000. In 1876, the Khan and all his sardars signed a treaty paving the way for the implementation of the sandeman system of administration. This system changed the status of the Khan and the Baloch sardars to that of the paid agents of the British Crown. In return for this cessation of sovereignty, the sardars were provided with privy purses covering all their expenses, family needs, personal staff, body guards, tours, hospitality, maintenance of their residences, marriages and all family ceremonies etc. Under the new system, the sardars were now empowered to organize Levies Corps by recruiting tribal personnel and receiving their pays from the British, exercising the discretion of paying whatever salary they deemed necessary or none at all to their tribal members, if they so wished. As the sardars were the extension of the British authority, the system bestowed unlimited powers concerning their ability to impose whatever revenue they deemed appropriate in their tribal area. Assisted by Levies, paid for by the British, the sardars perfected a system of total submission of their tribal members, causing grave economic exploitation and political degeneration of the Baloch society.

Since the British had no economic interest tied in Baluchistan, they promoted the most repressive form of the jagirdari system to consolidate the authority of sardars. The land was collectively given to a tribe, as a whole in which the sardar established an intricate hierarchy of revenue collection and his own law enforcement apparatus constituting the tumandars, the muqaddams, the naibs and the maliks

https://www.facebook.com/notes/wasim-zaidi/sardars-and-baloch-nationalism/10152369537092296