Friday, May 17, 2019

Growing China-Pakistan Collaboration in Science and Technology

With 6,000 Pakistanis working on their PhDs in China, the two countries are enjoying rapid growth in scientific and technological collaboration, according to Journal Nature. Pakistan's scientific output is now growing at the fastest rate in the world. With nearly 3,000 papers jointly authored and published by Chinese and Pakistani researcher, China has now emerged as Pakistan's top partner in scientific collaborations, surpassing Saudi Arabia (about 1,500 papers) and the United States (about 1,200 papers) in 2018, according to an analysis of co-authored papers from Elsevier’s Scopus database. China is co-sponsoring a range of research centers in Pakistan that are studying topics from rice agriculture to artificial intelligence and railway engineering.

Pakistan-China ties are rapidly growing well beyond the economy and the military with tens of thousands of Chinese and Pakistani citizens regularly traveling between the two countries. More Pakistanis than ever are learning the Chinese language.  China with its world class educational institutions is emerging as one of the top destinations for Pakistanis studying abroad. Currently, 6,156 Pakistani students are studying in Ph.D., 3,600 in Masters, 11,100 in Bachelors and 3,000 in Short Term Exchange Programs across China. Pakistan ranks third in the number of international students currently studying in China with 28,023 Pakistani students, according to a statement issued by China’s Ministry of Education. It is becoming a truly multi-dimensional relationship which will help Pakistan rise with China on the world stage.

Pakistan's  Co-authored Research Papers. Source: Nature

Typical of the new Sinophile generation of Pakistani scientists is Dr. Iqbal Choudhary, director of the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences at the University of Karachi. Choudhary’s center is one of the oldest — it celebrated its 50th birthday just a few years ago — and largest institutes in Asia dedicated to the chemistry and biology of natural products.

China's Top Collaborators in Science and Technology Research. Source: Nature

Among the Belt Road Initiative member nations, Pakistan has emerged as the second strongest Chinese partner for science and technology collaboration in terms of Probabilistic Affinity Index (PAI), according to the Journal Nature. So far, China Academy of Sciences (CAS) has invested more than 1.8 billion yuan (almost US$268 million) in science and technology projects as part of the BRI.

CAS is supporting the Digital Belt and Road (Digital BRI), a platform for participating countries to share the data obtained as part of their collaborative projects with each other and with China. These data include satellite images as well as quantitative data on natural hazards, water resources and cultural heritage sites.

As part of Digital BRI/CPEC, an 820-kilometer long China-Pakistan fiber optic cable has already been laid between the city of Rawalpindi, Pakistan in the south and the Khunjerab Pass, China in the north  and operational since July, 2018.

By 2020, the 6,299 kilometers of underwater cables will extend to Djibouti from Gwadar and form the Digital Silk Route between Asia and Africa. At the same time, a space-based Silk Road will provide satellite navigation support to all BRI countries. The first Beidou base station of the Space Silk Road is already operational in Pakistan since 2017.  BeiDou is making rapid progress with 30 BRI countries already linked up.


Related Links:

Haq's Musings

South Asia Investor Review

China-Pakistan Defense Production Coop Irks West

Pakistan's Research Output Growing Fastest in the World

AI Research at NED University Funded By Silicon Valley NEDians

Pakistan Hi-Tech Exports Exceed A Billion US Dollars in 2018 

Pakistan Becomes CERN Member

Digital BRI/CPEC in Pakistan

Rising College Enrollment in Pakistan

Pakistani Universities Listed Among Asia's Top 500 Jump From 16 to 23 in One Year

Genomics and Biotech Research in Pakistan

Human Capital Growth in Pakistan

Educational Attainment in Pakistan

Pakistan Human Development in Musharraf Years

4 comments:

Rks said...

Dear Riaz Bhai. Interesting article from Dawn. Since you live far away in USA, its a must read. Link pasted below. Renowned Nuclear physicist Dr.Parvez Hoodbhoy was the author.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1221057

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan Signs Space Cooperation Agreement With China To Enable First Pakistani Astronaut

https://spacewatch.global/2019/05/pakistan-signs-space-cooperation-agreement-with-china-to-enable-first-pakistani-astronaut/


Pakistan signed a space cooperation agreement with China at a ceremony in Beijing held on 27 April 2019 providing a framework for the training of Pakistani astronauts, space science and exploration, as well as the establishment of a Sino-Pakistani space committee that will discuss other cooperative initiatives in space.

The signing of the agreement by Hao Chun, Director of the China National Space Administration (CNSA), and Amer Nadeem, Chairman of Pakistan’s Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) took place on the sidelines of China’s Belt and Road Summit. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is an important aspect of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), though it has come under international criticism recently because of allegations that the infrastructure projects are over-priced, of poor quality, questionable economic viability, and incurs heavy debt on an already struggling Pakistani economy.

While brick and mortar infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, and ports receive much of the attention in media coverage of CPEC, there is a space aspect to the initiative that has already seen China launch several communication and Earth observation satellites for Pakistan, and in October 2018 it was announced that China will train and send to Earth orbit a Pakistani astronaut by 2022, a geopolitical response to an announcement by India earlier in 2018 that it will send its first indigenously launched astronaut to orbit by 2023.

“China-Pakistan space cooperation will help Pakistan in terms of satellite monitoring of natural disasters and agricultural production, land and resources surveying, and waste handling in a microgravity environment,” said Lan Jianxue, an associate research fellow at the China Institute of International Studies, in an interview with Chinese English-language newspaper the Global Times.

Lan also told the Global Times that beyond the obvious benefits for Pakistani space development, the cooperation agreement will also likely benefit China by allowing it to sell satellite services and applications in China, increase the security of its infrastructure investments there through more active space-based surveillance and connectivity, and burnish its soft power image as a provider of space assistance and public goods to the international community.

During Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan’s visit to Beijing in November 2018, Pakistan and China agreed to expand and deepen their collaboration in the areas of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communications technology, “which can contribute to improved living standards through their applications in the fields of health, agriculture, water, energy and food security.”

Pakistan and China also agreed to promote the 2012-2020 Space Cooperation Outline between the CNSA and SUPARCO. The two countries expressed their satisfaction on the launch of the Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite (PRSS-1) earlier in 2018, and agreed to further strengthen bilateral cooperation in space technology applications.

Riaz Haq said...

Govt schools to be converted into ‘Science technology schools’ : Fawad ch

https://www.brecorder.com/2019/05/16/497447/govt-schools-to-be-converted-into-science-technology-schools-fawad-ch/

He explained the Science School program that with the collaboration of education ministry we would provide modern technology in government schools as it is time to work actively for developing schools as centers of knowledge.

Minister said in the first phase of this program we have selected almost 1500 government schools where government would introduced technology based education for students.

“The program will equip government students to compete with other students from any part of the world”, he added.

While emphasis on digital education in Pakistan, he said , “We have to support our technology companies and facilitate our future generation to acquire scientific and technological education to meet the latest requirements,” he stressed.

Digital education is the key to success in this modern era full of technologies, he added.

There are still very less educational institutes that are providing facilities for digital education but this ratio is expected to improve by upcoming digital initiatives in the future, he hoped.

However, he said there was dire need to improve the standard and quality of government schools in the country as this sector was badly neglected in past but PTI government would utilize all available resources for the promotion of technology in education institutions.

Different technology based apps would be introduced in smart gadgets that will help citizens to understand and get knowledge more easily.

All debit cards and credit cards would also be shifted to the mobile phones within next 6 to 8 months, adding, as China’s all business already shifted to their Mobile phones, he mentioned.

Replying a question about its security , he assured that this system would be secure like ATM cards.

Fawad said , the federal government has also decided to set up science and technology parks in the country and these parks will be established in collaboration of universities.

He highlighted the purpose of these parks was to promote studies and research in science, especially for science students who would get all the facilities related to science and technology under one roof.

‘Lahore Science Park’ which was already in final stages would be inaugurated soon, he also declared.

Talking about Science fair , Chaudhry said the first Pakistan Science Fair will be held in August 2019 in Islamabad.

Riaz Haq said...

#Trump trying to crush one of #China's most high-profile #tech companies is deeply unwise. Companies around the world — including #Huawei’s #American suppliers (#Google, #Intel, #Qualcomm) will lose business incur & significant new costs #5G https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-05-20/huawei-blacklist-trump-and-commerce-make-a-serious-mistake via @bopinion

In its struggle with China over trade and national security, the U.S. has many legitimate grievances, and a variety of weapons for seeking redress. That doesn’t mean it should use all of them.

The nuclear missile the U.S. just launched at Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. is a case in point. Last week, the Commerce Department placed Huawei and nearly 70 of its affiliates on an “Entity List,” which means that U.S. suppliers may now need a license to do business with them. Both Huawei’s mobile phones and its network equipment rely on American components, including advanced semiconductors. If the ban is applied stringently, it could drive one of China’s most high-profile companies — employing more than 180,000 people — out of business.


That would be a serious mistake. The U.S. has long argued that Huawei poses a national-security threat. And there certainly are legitimate reasons to worry that incorporating Huawei gear into America’s networks will leave them vulnerable both to spying and, in the event of a conflict, sabotage. But the U.S. is already taking other prudent steps to prevent Huawei equipment from being used domestically. Seeking to put the company out of business as well is both disproportionate and deeply unwise.

For one thing, it will impose collateral damage. Blameless companies around the world — including Huawei’s American suppliers — could lose business, face disruptions and incur significant new costs. Allies that have resisted U.S. pressure to shun Huawei’s equipment will resent being backed into a corner: Even if President Donald Trump loosens the noose a bit, they can hardly take the chance that restrictions won’t be re-imposed later. China will only redouble its efforts to produce advanced technologies domestically.

As a negotiating strategy, the decision makes even less sense. U.S. officials claim it had nothing to do with stalled trade talks, but it certainly looks like Trump wants to use Huawei as leverage, just as he did last year with ZTE Corp. Trump has already invoked national security far too often in pursuing his scattered trade battles. Doing so here would set another terrible precedent while almost certainly backfiring: It will aggravate the current impasse and give Beijing little incentive to abide by any eventual agreement.

Worse, the decision undermines the implicit point of any U.S.-China trade deal: not just to increase commerce but to stabilize relations between the world’s two most powerful nations. While tensions are inevitable, a healthy trading relationship should in theory restore ballast, reminding both sides of the benefits of cooperation and strengthening constituencies that have reason to prefer peace to war. By contrast, targeting Huawei so nakedly will only further marginalize the few moderates in the Chinese leadership and embolden hawks who see conflict as unavoidable. For ordinary Chinese, it will be hard to avoid the impression that the U.S. is simply trying to limit their economic possibilities.

Even on its own terms, finally, this gambit is likely to fail. To be effective, an assault on Huawei would need to be embedded in a larger strategy with a clearer endgame in mind. That’s nowhere in evidence: Is the aim to cripple China’s tech industry? Teach the country its place? Give a boost to non-Chinese suppliers? Provoke a conflict? End one? Without a more focused goal, Trump risks simply alienating U.S. allies, infuriating average Chinese and raising the chances of confrontation, all to no obvious end.