Sunday, March 20, 2016

Creation of Pakistan: A Great Blessing for Muslims of Sindh & Punjab

As Pakistanis celebrate their national day commemorating the Lahore Resolution of 23 March, 1940, let's look at how the Muslims of Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan's two largest provinces, have fared in the nation founded by Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah on August 14, 1947.

In 1947, most of the agricultural land in the largely agrarian provinces of Sindh and Punjab was owned by non-Muslims.  The urban elites of the major cities of Karachi and Lahore were almost entirely non-Muslims. Muslims were in majority in both provinces but they were mostly poor peasants.

Punjabi Muslims:

In Punjab, two-thirds of the land-holdings and 99% of bank deposits of Rs. 100 crore in Lahore were held by Hindus and Sikhs, according to the British archives researched by Dr. Kirpal Singh, author of "PARTITION of PUNJAB", published in 1972.

Only 3 out of 16 colleges in Lahore were run by Muslims. Of the 15 professional colleges, excluding 3 run by the government, all were run by non-Muslims. All 12 hospitals were operated by non-Muslims. Muslims in undivided Punjab had very low standards of living relative to Hindus and Sikhs, they were poor and backward, and there was no Muslim professional or business class in Lahore of 1947.

Sindhi Muslims: 

In Sindh province, about 60% of the agricultural land was owned by Hindus. The rest of the land was owned by big and small Muslim landowners but they were almost always in debt to Hindu moneylenders who exacted over 100% interest on the money they lent, according to The Imperial Gazeteer of India by W.W. Hunter. These massive debt burdens on Sindhi Muslims were removed when most of the Hindu moneylenders fled to India at the time of the partition in 1947.

Education and health care in Sindh were entirely controlled by non-Muslims, mainly Hindu Sindhis, according to The Imperial Gazeteer of India by W.W. Hunter and Nandita Bhavnani, author of "THE MAKING OF EXILE: SINDHI HINDUS AND THE PARTITION OF INDIA", published in 2014.  The educated elite, including the professional and business classes, were mostly Hindus and a few Parsees.

The partition in 1947 has been tremendous boon for both Sindhi and Punjabi Muslims of Pakistan. They have reaped great benefits from:

1. The departure of powerful non-Muslims landowners and moneylenders to India in 1947.

2.  Massive investments made by Pakistani government in major irrigation projects to create the world's largest contiguous irrigation system for farming since 1947.

3. Large investments in education, health care and urban development that have helped raise standards of living significantly as seen in various health (life expectancy) and wealth (per capita incomes)  indicators after 1947.

Mohajirs:

Mohajirs, the native Urdu speakers who migrated mainly from UP and Bihar to East & West Pakistan around 1947, and their relatives who stayed in India, have paid the biggest price for the partition. Many were killed during migration as detailed by Nisid Hajari in his recent book "MIDNIGHT FURIES".

 Mohajirs made up the backbone of the professionals, the businessmen, the industrialists and the civil servants Pakistan needed to function as an independent state in its early years after the partition.  Those left in East Pakistan after the creation of Bangladesh continue to languish to this day in camps for the "stateless persons". The Muslim relatives they left behind have now become the new untouchables in "Secular" India. Fortunately, Mohajirs and their children in Pakistan are able to help their Muslim relatives in India with remittances that added up to nearly $5 billion last year.

Summary:

The partition of 1947 has been a great blessing for the Muslims of Sindh & Punjab in terms of education and incomes. Both have enjoyed rising standards of living in Pakistan after the departure of powerful non-Muslim landlords who controlled most of the resources in 1947. Mohajirs have paid the biggest price but, fortunately, they are now in a position to help their poor Muslim relatives in India with billions of dollars in remittances every year.

Note: Balochistan and NWFP (KPK) are not discussed here because there was no Hindu domination in these provinces. Both were and are overwhelmingly Muslim.


Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Lahore Resolution of 1940

Midnight Furies of 1947

Pakistanis Remitted $5 billion to Relatives in India

Muslims: The New Untouchables in India

Rising College Enrollment in Pakistan

58 comments:

Majumdar said...

Prof sb,

Fortunately, Mohajirs and their children in Pakistan are able to help their Muslim relatives in India with remittances that added up to nearly $5 billion last year.

I am surprised that this being the case, why the poor Indian relatives of Pakistani Mojos dont all emigrate to Pakiland and enjoy the good life there.

Regards

Riaz Haq said...

Majumdar: "why the poor Indian relatives of Pakistani Mojos dont all emigrate to Pakiland and enjoy the good life there. "


So you share the RSS goal of 100% Hindu Rashtra?

The fact is that millions of Muslims have moved from India to Pakistan after 1947, and I'm sure more would if they could.

Mohammad said...

Great post. Muslims were a massive underclass pre 1947 despite forming the majority primarily due to two reasons:

1) initially intentional British policy in the post 1857 era, wherein Muslims were explicitly targeted as the natives most likely to rebel against British rule. Therefore muslims were pushed down as low as possible.

2) self destruction mode by the Muslims, especially the clergy who denounced western education and science in the hope that Muslims would remain free from the influence of the west. Of course as the Hindus and Sikhs started accepting western education, they began to receive better jobs and as a consequence were more financially stable (as can be seen from the bank deposit example in you'r post). In Lahore if I remember correctly Hindus and Sikhs owned 60-70% of both residential and commrrcial land despite Muslims making up 65% of the population, if not more.

Post 1947, things have turned drastically for the better for the Muslim majorities of these regions. Heck even the communist party of India supported the creation of Pakistan as the Muslim dominated working class would be liberated from the Hindu and Sikh upper class.

Anonymous said...

"I am surprised that this being the case, why the poor Indian relatives of Pakistani Mojos dont all emigrate to Pakiland and enjoy the good life there. "

Forget about that, muslim leaders of India never speak positively about Pakistan, even during Congress rule. Muslims may not be as smart as Hindus or Christians, but they are not this stupid to not know about pak.

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "Muslims may not be as smart as Hindus or Christians, but they are not this stupid to not know about pak."

First, you prove that you are a bigot and a racist, confirming the finding of World Values Survey that India is the most racist nation in the world.

http://www.riazhaq.com/2013/05/world-values-survey-finds-indians-most.html

Second, Indian Muslims know that the litmus test for patriotism in India is denunciation and condemnation of all things Pakistan. This has been shown by sedition charges against Hindus and Muslims by Indian government.

A nationalism unique to #India. #Modi government demands oath of allegiance only from #Muslim #Urdu writers. Aakar Patel.

http://tribune.com.pk/story/1069029/a-nationalism-unique-to-india/ …

Suhail H. said...

Regarding your summary conclusions, I think your contention that mohajirs in Pakistan are "fortunately" in a position to support their relatives in India is misplaced. Pakistan would be having about 20 million mohajirs while India has a Muslim population of about 300 million, according to estimates by some community elders in India. The proportion is too adverse to be of any help to Indian Muslims, particularly with mohajirs getting financially weaker with passing time due to highly Punjabi and Sindhi centric policies of PML(N) and PPP. A $5 billion remittance would work out to about $17 per person per year which is neither here or there.

Ethnic Muslims of territories now in India have self destructed themselves by supporting Pakistan movement. Incidentally, this is what Shams has been propagating and you've now concluded, unexpectedly. I think Altaf Husain has said the same sometimes.

Riaz Haq said...

Suhail: "Ethnic Muslims of territories now in India have self destructed themselves by supporting Pakistan movement. I"

You are assuming that ALL Muslims of South Asia would be better off without partition. I strongly disagree. My contention is that ALL Muslims of South Asia would be worse off than the untouchables in India.

Remember, it was the RSS leader Madhav Golwalkar who warned Indian Muslims in his 1939 book "We" that their fate in India would be like that of Jews in Nazi Germany.

Here's an excerpt from Golwalkar's book:

"To keep up the purity of the Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races--the Jews. Race pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well nigh impossible it is for Races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to learn and profit by."

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistan’s predicted annual growth rate for the next 10 years is 5.07%, according to the Center for International Development at Harvard University (CID) research published recently.

Pakistan's projected growth rate of 5.07% over the next 10 years is the 12th highest in the world, according to Harvard CID.

Pakistan’s two giant neighbors – China and India – are predicted to grow by 4.28% and 6.98% respectively.

Egypt (5.83%) and Philippines (5.68%) are the only economies among Goldman Sachs' group of Next 11 countries that will grow faster than Pakistan's.

Pakistan’s 5.07% growth rate is above China, which is set to grow by 4.28%.

Except for India, Pakistan will beat all regional economies in growth.

Here are some:

Malaysia 4.89%

Indonesia 4.82

Turkey 4.66

Bangladesh 3.27

UAE 2.16

Saudi Arabia 2.20

Sri Lanka 3.57

http://atlas.cid.harvard.edu/rankings/growth-predictions/

r_sundar said...

Pakistan was created so that Begums, Sardars, Chaudrys, zamindars will continue to rule, while using Islam as a bogey, to play with people's mind - and in the process resulted in millions of death in one of the biggest migrations mankind has ever seen.

samir said...

India has made important gains in productive capabilities, allowing it to diversify its exports into more complex products, including pharmaceuticals, vehicles, even electronics.

Riaz Haq said...

samir: "exports into more complex products, including pharmaceuticals, vehicles, even electronics."

So why are India's exports declining for 15 months straight?



Poor performers continued to be engineering goods as well as petroleum products. Outward shipments of petroleum products shrank 28.27% to $1.83 billion, while that of engineering goods fell by 11.22% to $4.56 billion.
Expressing concerns, apex exporters body Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) said that “going by the trend, exports are expected to be around $260 billion” in this fiscal.
Engineering exports body EEPC Chairman T S Bhasin said that even as the rate of decline of exports has come down, as compared to previous months, it has to been seen in the context of a low base. “The situation in the engineering exports remains worrisome with over 11% drop in February which again is on a low base,” Bhasin added.
On a cumulative basis, exports during April-February declined by 16.73% to $238.41 billion, as against $286.3 billion in the same period last year. Imports dipped by 14.74% to $351.8 billion in the 11-month period. The trade deficit for April-February stood at $113.38 billion against $126.29 billion in the same period last year.


http://www.hindustantimes.com/business/exports-slip-for-15th-month-in-row-dip-by-5-66/story-e4yty8V0Z9FitVTo8J9lHI.html

Samir said...

Sir, that was a direct quote from the CID article you referred to (my comment got cutoff). Your response is puzzling however.
Here it is again:

“India has made important gains in productive capabilities, allowing it to diversify its exports into more complex products, including pharmaceuticals, vehicles, even electronics,” said Ricardo Hausmann, Professor of the Practice of Economic Development at Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), the leading researcher of The Atlas of Economic Complexity, and the director of CID.

Shah said...

@r_sundar

Don't Play Dumb If Partition Had Not Happened The Biggest Civil War In The History Of Mankind Would Have Happened

India Would Be Better Off If Instead of Being Obsessed With Pakistan It Concentrates On It's Own Problems.Here Is The "Shining Superpower"

https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjl6aGfx9TLAhXKvBoKHWXBCsMQFgg4MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftimesofindia.indiatimes.com%2Findia%2FSuperpower-230-million-Indians-go-hungry-daily%2Farticleshow%2F11494502.cms&usg=AFQjCNF6Qc44wIFwkTjFRB1CYbAIF5emDw&bvm=bv.117218890,d.bGs

https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjl6aGfx9TLAhXKvBoKHWXBCsMQFghYMAk&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bloomberg.com%2Fnews%2Farticles%2F2012-06-13%2Fearly-death-assured-in-india-where-900-million-go-hungry&usg=AFQjCNEsC1UYEcZP7yDTwZqQqyWyNR2krw&bvm=bv.117218890,d.bGs

https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjl6aGfx9TLAhXKvBoKHWXBCsMQFggyMAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youthkiawaaz.com%2F2015%2F10%2Ften-facts-about-hunger%2F&usg=AFQjCNGSTzalC0-NiYHM-oiTgYit99lL3A&bvm=bv.117218890,d.bGs

https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjO7IvgyNTLAhVJ2xoKHYY-ACsQFghCMAY&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftimesofindia.indiatimes.com%2Findia%2FIndia-is-now-the-worlds-slave-capital-Global-Slavery-Index-2014%2Farticleshow%2F45178623.cms&usg=AFQjCNE9uIZzKKBcG3phJUR7mTsnboImow&bvm=bv.117218890,d.bGs

And I Can Go On And On



Riaz Haq said...

#India "riddled with inequality" says NY Times' Somini Sengupta in "End of Karma" #caste http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/books/review/the-end-of-karma-by-somini-sengupta.html?_r=0 …


In November 1949, India had been independent for slightly more than two years, and through that duration, a drafting committee labored to devise a constitution for the new nation. The work was nearly finished, but critics grumbled about how long it had taken; one pundit thought the panel ought to have been called the “drifting committee.” B. R. Ambedkar, the Columbia-educated lawyer heading the group, defended his colleagues. Their task was difficult. The constitution incorporated 395 articles and 2,473 amendments, a density that reflected India’s complications — its iniquities of caste, its poverty, its various languages and faiths. India already had political democracy (one vote per citizen), but the constitution also needed to foster social democracy. “How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life?” Ambedkar said in a speech. “We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment, or else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of political ­democracy.”

The lives of India’s poor and its lowest castes have improved in many ways, but the country remains riddled with inequality; in fact, over the last 35 years the gulf between the wealthiest and the most impoverished has widened. In “The End of Karma,” Somini Sengupta delivers a portentous warning that echoes Ambedkar’s, updated for the present. A quarter of India’s 1.25 billion people are younger than 15; every month, until 2030, nearly a million Indians will turn 18, raring for more education and employment prospects. The size and energy of such a work force is a nation’s dream — the celebrated “demographic dividend.” But the state’s failure to supply these young people with schools, universities and jobs, and to help them climb into prosperity, will tug India into perilous waters, Sengupta writes. “In the coming years, India can thrive because of its young. Or it can implode. Or both. There’s little time left.”


“The End of Karma” shifts in and out of three modes of narrative. The weakest involves Sengupta’s recollections of a childhood in India and North America, as well as her decision, during the stint in New Delhi, to adopt a baby girl. Her interest in India’s youth, she suggests, was quickened by this entry into her life by her daughter, a bona fide member of these restless generations, a unit of India’s demographic dividend. But much of this feels tenuous, the sort of material an editor commonly asks for, reproaching a writer because her manuscript is Not Personal Enough. The book’s second mode is expository — summations of news, history and statistics, which Sengupta delivers in cool, swift language. Two pages about Laloo Prasad Yadav, a powerful politician in the state of Bihar, are a marvel of economy, laying bare his background, his machinery of caste politics, his wrecking of Bihar, and his folksy charisma.

In the book’s most vibrant sections, Sengupta profiles seven young Indians, shadowing some of them over years. All grew up in poor or lower-middle-class homes — the socioeconomic brackets that hold a majority of India’s populace — and their lives illustrate the ways in which the state is failing its youth.

Shams S. said...

Your arguments are circular and you keep circulating around the same logic even when proven wrong.


You should remember that the richest Indian Muslim Azim Premji is 4 times richer than the richest Pakistani Shahid Khan. The other difference between the two is that the richest Indian Muslim loves to live in India, while the Richest Pakistani has dumped Pakistani citizenship, has not been there for the past 30 years, and lives in the US with his American wife.

Also, Pakistani singer Adnan Sami wants to become Indian citizen and dump Pakistani citizenship. How many Indian singers or artists or anyone have done so?

Riaz Haq said...

Shams: "Your arguments are circular and you keep circulating around the same logic even when proven wrong."

You are stuck in a circular mindset.

You need to free yourself from it to see reality that is as obvious as daylight, the reality that is seen everyday by Justice Sachar, Ex-FM Jaswant Singh, Indian MP Shashi Tharoor, Journalists Pankaj Mishra, Yoginder Sikand, Kapil Komireddy and Arundhati Roy and many other Indians who know better.

Amir said...

Yes Pakistan, based on the "Two Nation Theory", was created for the Muslims of British India. Today only a third of them actually live in Pakistan. That means two-thirds didn't want to or did not like Pakistan. Doesn't that make the Two Nation Theory defunct? Yet these Pakistanis think they speak for Muslims of South Asia. Give it up because you have become irrelevant - 2/3 of us do not care what you think and we are not part of you because we never were.

Riaz Haq said...

Amir: "Doesn't that make the Two Nation Theory defunct?"

No, the two nation theory is thriving in India with the election of Narendra Modi, a chela of Guru Golwalkar who was the first to propound the TNT in 1939 when he wrote in his "We or Our Nation Defined":


"To keep up the purity of the Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races--the Jews. Race pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well nigh impossible it is for Races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to learn and profit by."

Now you have the RSS is pushing harder than ever for 100% "Hindu Rashtra"




Majumdar said...

Prof Riazul Haq sb,

Water Aid has come out with its annual report on access to safe water. India has only 5.9% people without access to safe water against Pakiland (8.6%) and BD (13.1%).

Prof sb, jawab do!!! jawab do!!! jawab do!!!

Regards

Riaz Haq said...

Majumdar: "Prof sb, jawab do!!! jawab do!!! jawab do!!!"

Well, I haven't seen the WaterAid 2016 report.

However, I did see the following excerpt in an Economic Times news report:

The report placed India on the top of 10 countries in the world with the greatest numbers of people living without access to safe water, followed by China and Nigeria. Pakistan figures at the 10th place.


Read more at:
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/51513761.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst

Shah said...

@Amir
We Don't Even Want You A Part Of Us.You Can Enjoy Your India Defacate In The Open Have Your Housing Applications Denied Have Your Mosques Destroyed And Have Your Sisters And Daughters
R*ped By RSS Kar Sevaks.We Don't Care About You Anymore

Oh And Please Get Your Facts Correct in 1947 The Larger Number of Muslims Were In Pakistan.
The "Two Thirds" You Mention Is Not Substantiated Anywhere Indian Muslims Pretty Much Number As Much Pakistanis

Anonymous said...

@shah: yeah sure, all indian muslim sleep on the road.

Also the 2/3 includes Bdesh. Since when creation of BD proves two nation theory right.

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "all indian muslim sleep on the road."

Please watch this:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84-Qz4vFVHs


Anon: "Also the 2/3 includes Bdesh. Since when creation of BD proves two nation theory right."


Did Bangladesh choose to merge with India after 1971? Or did it reaffirm two nation theory bt remaining separate from Hindu India


Read more at http://www.riazhaq.com/2013/09/quaide-azams-death-anniversay-is-two.html

Riaz Haq said...

#India'a Pluralism, Secularism, Freedoms in Danger: Warn Retired Bureaucrats In Open Letter. #Modi #BJP #Hindu http://lsh.re/10541

NEW DELHI: We, the persons listed below, a group of retired civil servants belonging to different All India and Central Services who have worked in the Government of India (GoI), State Governments and a wide range of governmental and other institutions would urge all Constitutional institutions in India, the media and the general public to reflect upon the deeply disquieting trends visible in the public sphere and in our polity today.

These developments are causing deep anguish to us as they question some of the fundamental Constitutional principles and legal safeguards we have long taken for granted. Some of these are mentioned below:

1) The discrimination against Scheduled Caste students and an attempt to clamp down upon Ambedkar study groups as found in IIT, Chennai, and in the University of Hyderabad. The tragic suicide of Rohith Vemula has highlighted the unwarranted interference of the GoI in the University of Hyderabad and its targeting a group of students, who did not subscribe to a narrow concept of nationalism.

2) There is a systematic attempt to silence dissent using the outmoded law of sedition against young idealists like Kanhaiya Kumar and his colleagues, who have given India a wake-up call to address poverty and all forms of exploitation.

3) Law and order agencies like the Delhi police used doctored videos in a blatantly partisan manner against JNU students while an MLA and certain lawyers – who were widely caught on camera beating up Kanhaiya and journalists – were treated with kid gloves. Even the team of senior lawyers nominated by the Supreme Court to monitor the situation reported the atmosphere of threat and intimidation.

4) The atmosphere of intolerance is growing what with the murder of the rationalists and the regular threats of violence against minorities and all who do not accept a very narrow version of ‘nationalism’. Such a concept of nationalism is itself grounded in a biased view of history. This intolerance is a direct attack upon the freedom of speech and expression and is anathema to the pluralism of the Indian Constitution.

5) A Minister in the Central Government, a ruling party MP and local leaders have recently issued terrifying threats against Muslims but the GoI does not find anything objectionable in the Minister’s statements. Other minorities have also expressed their sense of insecurity.

What is listed above is only illustrative. We feel that all told, there is a clear and present danger to the values of the freedom of speech, thought and expression as also the pluralism and the secularism that are basic to the Indian Constitution. We add our voice to the multitude of dissents already expressed and call upon all right- thinking people to register their protest at the current goings-on.

At the same time, we would like to point out that we do not condone similar transgressions by other groups – particularly on the extreme left – which try in like manner to silence opposing views by vicious attacks on social media and/or violence.

We urge a return to the civilised and civilisational discourse of the Constitution of India and a renewed public commitment to the freedom of speech, thought and expression.

Riaz Haq said...

Signatories to Open Letter saying "#India'a Pluralism, Secularism, Freedoms in Danger"

1) Niranjan Pant, IA&AS (R), former Deputy Comptroller & Auditor General, GoI

2) EAS Sarma, IAS (R), former Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, GoI

3) Ruchira Mukerjee, Indian P&T Accounts & Finance Service (R), former Adviser (Finance), Telecom Commission, Department of Telecom , GoI

4) Kalyani Chaudhuri, IAS (R), former Additional Chief Secretary, Govt. Of West Bengal

5) Keshav Desiraju, IAS (R), former Secretary, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, GoI

6) Amitabha Pande, IAS (R), former Secretary, Inter-State Council, GoI

7) Ardhendu Sen, IAS (R), former Chief Secretary, Govt. Of West Bengal

8) Pranab Mukhopadhyaya, IAS (R), former Director, Institute of Port Management, GoI

9) Surjit Das, IAS (R), former Chief Secretary, Govt. of Uttarakhand

10) Anup Mukerji, IAS (R), former Chief Secretary, Govt. of Bihar

11) Vibha Puri Das, IAS (R), former Secretary, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, GoI

12) SS Rizvi, IAS (R),former Joint Secretary to the GoI

13) Sundar Burra, IAS (R), former Secretary, Govt. of Maharashtra

14) Harish Chandra, IAS (R), former Prinicipal Adviser in the rank of Secretary, Government of India (GoI)

15) Kamal Jaswal, IAS (R), former Secretary, Ministry of Information Technology, GoI

16) Meena Gupta, IAS (R), former Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, GoI

17) Hirak Ghosh, IAS (R), former Principal Secretary, Govt. Of West Bengal

Anonymous said...

"Did Bangladesh choose to merge with India after 1971? Or did it reaffirm two nation theory bt remaining separate from Hindu India "

Two nation theory predicated on the assumption that muslims will remain one. It did not say that muslims will remain separate but many countries among themselves.

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "Two nation theory predicated on the assumption that muslims will remain one. It did not say that muslims will remain separate but many countries among themselves."

Read the Lahore Resolution of 1940. Here's what it says:

"Resolved that it is the considered view of this Session of the All-India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designated on the following basic principle, viz. that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern Zones of India should be grouped to constitute "Independent States" in which the Constituent Units shall be autonomous and sovereign"

Clearly, the Pakistan Resolution called for "Independent States" (plural, not singular) of Muslim majority areas in the "North Western and Eastern Zones of India" in which the "Constituent Units shall be autonomous and sovereign".

http://www.riazhaq.com/2013/09/quaide-azams-death-anniversay-is-two.html

Amir said...

Muslims are roughly divided in 3 countries. West to east Pakistan India Bangladesh. Do your maths please.

Riaz Haq said...

Commenting on the parade, analyst, author and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad, Brian Cloughley, said there were “no equipment surprises, but the main thing about the parade is that it took place at all, which is a positive indicator concerning the never-ending fight against terrorism.”

The (Pakistan Day) parade (2016) had generally been an annual event, but the deterioration in the security situation led to a seven-year break from 2007 until last year. It has also been notable in the past for the public debut of new equipment.

The JF-17 Thunder made its debut in 2007, and last year the FM-90 SAM system was displayed for the first time. The Z-10 and Shaheen (Falcon) III made their debuts this year.

The Z-10 has been in the country undergoing an operational evaluation since last year. Official details of this have not been revealed, but what unofficial information is available indicates the army is impressed with the machine.

Pakistan has a requirement to replace the AH-1F Cobra helicopter gunship currently operated by the 31st, 33rd, and 35th Army Aviation Combat Squadrons, and is awaiting delivery of the AH-1Z, but is also pursuing up to 20 MI-35 Hind gunships from Russia.

The Hind appears to have been acquired to fulfill the requirement for an armed and armored helicopter also capable of carrying troops.

It was announced today that the Z-10 was in service with the 35th "Mustangs" Squadron of the Army Aviation Corps, which would paradoxically see Pakistan operating three types of helicopter gunships.

A spokesperson for the Ministry of Defence Production, which also handles procurement, declined to provide confirmation of the purchase of the Z-10 and how many were to be obtained.

In spite of the other gunship purchases, Cloughley believes there is still room for the Z-10.

“It seems that Pakistan has firmed on 15 AH-1Zs and will probably get 20 Hinds. So there is certainly room for the Z-10, which does seem to be in squadron service,” he said. “It's much cheaper than the [AH-1Z] Viper, of course, and the Hind, though cost-effective, is a big machine.”

Though it would seem dated over today’s battlefield, members of the Army Aviation Corps have acknowledged it is the best counterinsurgency gunship available. Cloughley says the Hind also has one other clear advantage.

“The main thing with the Hind is economy in maintenance — it's probably the best in the world from that aspect for its type,” he said.

Nevertheless, he believes the Z-10 will be the mainstay of Pakistan’s gunship capability. “My assessment is that the Z-10 will be acquired in larger numbers.”

There has been speculation regarding the presence of the Chinese Harbin WZ-19 armed scout in Pakistan, but the spokesperson for the Ministry of Defence Production also declined to comment on this.

Cloughley says the presence of the medium range Shaheen III amounts to some predictable signaling that was aimed squarely at India, Pakistan’s main security threat.

The solid-fueled, multi-stage Shaheen III was tested for the first time in March 2015 and is Pakistan’s longest range missile with a stated delivery limit of 2,750 kilometers, though this is believed by many analysts to be an understatement.

Nevertheless, the range allows it to cover all parts of Indian territory with a worthwhile payload, even the Indian strategic military facilities in the Andaman and Nicobar island chain in the Bay of Bengal/Andaman Sea.

Mansoor Ahmed, a Stanton nuclear security junior faculty fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center and expert on Pakistan's nuclear deterrent and delivery systems, said that “the Shaheen III is in service, but more user trials or batch/training tests might take place as is the usual practice with other similar missile systems.”

http://www.defensenews.com/story/defense/international/asia-pacific/2016/03/23/z10-shaheen-ballistic-missile-chinese-helicopter-pakistan/82174498/

Anonymous said...

You have forgotten to mention the case of the Muslims of East Bengal. They were at the bottom of the pit. No Muslims in the entire Hindustan were as desperate as them to get rid of the overwhelming Hindu domination in all spheres of life. So, thanks to Mr. Jinnah for getting the most difficult job done. Although one might wonder why then Bangladesh has recently become like "by the Mushrik, of the Mushrik and for the Mushrik", believe me, this Hindu domination will again be eradicated like in 1947. Bangladeshi Muslims show sudden burst of energy followed by prolonged inertia. However, when that burst occurs no amount of RAW or Indian military muscle will be enough, as was the case in 1975. A few hours of operation sent that RAW agent to Jahannam along with the most of his family members..

Arvind Ghosh said...

{You have forgotten to mention the case of the Muslims of East Bengal. They were at the bottom of the pit. No Muslims in the entire Hindustan were as desperate as them to get rid of the overwhelming Hindu domination in all spheres of life}

That was the Zamindari system of the early 1900s. All people at the lower strung suffered and each side saw religious violence.

You can continue with this India vs Pakistan bickering but Pakistan is at the short end of it for few simple reasons. First, there are 6 Indians for every 1 Pakistani. The ratio is even higher in big multinational corporations and in Western governments especially US & UK.

Pakistan believes China is it's close friend but even China called Pakistan off during the Kargil war. All the Southeastern countries and Japan are getting bitter with China and by association that may not be good for Pakistan in the long run.

Lastly, the track record (international sponsor of terrorism) of Pakistan has not been the greatest. That image will hang around for years to come.

You can continue this sort of blogging but it's fruitless. My two cents that's all.

Anonymous said...

Arvindh Ghosh:

I am from Bangladesh.

Ghosh said...

That was a close T20 game!

Riaz Haq said...

#China to build its first overseas naval base at #Djibouti. #India #Pakistan #Africa #CPEC #Gwadar http://reut.rs/1UHH5b7 via @Reuters

China has launched an unusual charm offensive to explain its first overseas naval base in Djibouti, seeking to assuage global concerns about military expansionism by portraying the move as Beijing's contribution to regional security and development.

The message is in stark contrast to Beijing's more bellicose stance on the South China Sea, where its claims on a vital trade waterway have raised hackles across Asia and the United States.

China has repeatedly said it does not seek a U.S.-style "hegemony" by extending its military reach, including through bases abroad.

Now that it appears it may be doing precisely that, the government has been quietly briefing on its rationale for the Djibouti base and using state media to address fears of China's aims.

"China is explaining it as part of the 'one road, one belt' strategy, to help link Ethiopia to the sea," said one Western diplomat who has been briefed by Chinese officials on the Djibouti base, referring to China's New Silk Road strategy.

That involves opening trade corridors across continents that will help bolster the Chinese economy and connect it with the rest of the world.

A $4 billion railway will connect Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa to Djibouti's new Chinese-invested port, where a military facility will be located, according to Chinese media.

A second diplomat, also been briefed by China on the plans, said it was an "unusual" move by the normally secretive Chinese government to try and bring a degree of transparency to its plans.

"China does not want to be seen as a threat," the diplomat said.

INDIAN ALARM

In a lengthy statement to Reuters, China's Defence Ministry confirmed it had communicated its intentions about Djibouti to "relevant countries and international organizations", reiterating the facility was mostly for resupply purposes for anti-piracy, humanitarian and peacekeeping operations.

"What needs to be stressed is that China upholds a path of peaceful development ... and has never engaged in an arms race or military expansion. This will never change."

Djibouti, which already hosts military facilities for the United States and France, has echoed Beijing's line that the base will be used for refueling and other logistical support to fight piracy and protect trade routes.

But it also says the West should not be worried if China seeks "military outposts", given that Western nations have had them for years around the world.

Construction began in February in the country of fewer than a million people, striving to be an international shipping hub.

Djibouti's location on the northwestern edge of the Indian Ocean has fueled worries in India that it will become another of China's "string of pearls" of military alliances and assets ringing India, including Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

Indian military officials told Reuters that China's naval presence in Djibouti would add another dimension to India's military contingency planning, so far confined to land and air operations stemming from a decades-old border dispute with China across the Himalayas.

Together with China's involvement in Pakistan's Gwadar port, another potential military base, the role of China's navy would be greatly enhanced and posed a threat to the Indian navy, Indian army brigadier Mandip Singh said in a paper for the government-funded Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses.

"Djibouti also enables China to base its long-range naval air assets there. And these are capable of maintaining surveillance over the Arabian Sea as well as India's island territories off the Western coast," he wrote.

The Western diplomat briefed on the Chinese plans added: "If I were Indian I would be very worried about what China is up to in Djibouti."

Man of Action said...

RH: "reality that is seen everyday by Justice Sachar, Ex-FM Jaswant Singh, Indian MP Shashi Tharoor, Journalists Pankaj Mishra, Yoginder Sikand, Kapil Komireddy and Arundhati Roy and many
other Indians who know better."
So you think opposition leaders and leftists or their relatives can give any positive response?
And opinion of rest(majority) must be dropped. Very nice logic.

People who filled foreign market with black money are saying truth. Others are false.
Then, Pakistan's position must be determined by views of Hassan Nisar, Tarek Fateh and Najam Sethi.
Riaz Haq: "Chinese military base in Djibouti and other countries".
India is also building in Seychelles, Kazakhstan and now trying for other countries.

By the way, I didn't knew that you that you blog about India's strategic aspects as well.

Riaz Haq said...

MofA: "So you think opposition leaders and leftists or their relatives can give any positive response?..Hassan Nisar, Tarek Fateh and Najam Sethi."


Let's see...Justice Sachar is a leftist or opposition? Really? He is a former chief justice of Delhi High Court. He headed a government commission to investigate the state of Indian Muslims that found that Muslims in India are worse off than Dalits.

Jaswant Singh is a leftist? How many leftists are there in the right-wing BJP? How many leftists have served in union cabinet headed by a BJP PM? Here's what he has said: "Look into the eyes of the Muslims who live in India and if you truly see the pain with which they live, to which land do they belong? We treat them as aliens...without doubt Muslims have paid the price of Partition. They could have been significantly stronger in a united India...of course Pakistan and Bangladesh won't like what I am saying"

And Tarek Fatah is a leftist? How any leftists make common cause with the RSS and other right-wing hate groups as Tarek Fatah does? And how many leftists in India argue for disintegration of India?

Riaz Haq said...

MoA: "India is also building in Seychelles, Kazakhstan and now trying for other countries."

We're talking about naval bases. India having a naval base in Seychelles in the India Ocean is no surprise. On the other hand, China having a naval base in the Indian Ocean, far from its South China Sea home, is something new. Djibouti is part of China's MSR, Maritime Silk Route, that also includes Gwadar in Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

Shocking video of two naked ‘#Dalit women’ in #India beaten by ‘upper caste’ women goes viral. #Modi http://ambedkar.in/ambedkar/news/?p=652 … via @drambedkar

A shocking video of two ‘Dalit women’ being subjected to merciless thrashing and public humiliation allegedly women from upper caste has gone viral on social media platforms.

The video is so graphic in nature that we at jantakareporter.com have decided not to broadcast here because of poor taste and decency issue.

In the two naked ‘Dalit women’ can be seen lying in water while two women are constantly thrashing them.

We don’t know where the incident took place and what the reason for their public humiliation was. But nothing will ever justify the humiliation meted out to the victims.

What’s worse is that they are being surrounded by a group of men with most of them busy filming the incident.

Source : http://www.jantakareporter.com/india/shocking-video-two-naked-dalit-women-thrashed-upper-caste-women-goes-viral/40939

Riaz Haq said...

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index: Rising Poverty and Social Inequality in India

In South Asia, Afghanistan has the highest level of destitution at 38%. This is followed by India at 28.5%. Bangladesh and Pakistan have much lower levels. The study placed Afghanistan as the poorest country in South Asia, followed by India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal.

India had the second-best social indicators among the six South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan) 20 years ago. Now it has the second worst position, ahead only of Pakistan. Bangladesh has less than half of India’s per-capita GDP but has infant and child mortality rates lower than that of India.

Writing this week in India’s Deccan Herald, Prasenjit Chowdhury notes that according to two comparable surveys conducted in Bangladesh and India in 2006, in Bangladesh, 82% of children are fully immunised, 88% get vitamin A supplements and 89% are breastfed within an hour of birth. The corresponding figures for Indian children are below 50 per cent in all case and as low as 25%t for vitamin A supplementation.

Moreover, over half of the population in India practices open defecation, a major health hazard, compared with less than 10% in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has overtaken India in terms of a wide range of basic social indicators, including life expectancy, child survival, enhanced immunisation rates, reduced fertility rates and particular schooling indicators.

What has gone wrong?

In recent times, India has experienced much publicised high levels of GDP growth. So what is going wrong? Amartya Sen and the World Bank’s chief economist Kaushik Basu have argued that the bulk of India’s aggregate growth is occurring through a disproportionate rise in the incomes at the upper end of the income ladder. To use Arundhati Roy’s term, the poor in India are the ‘ghosts of capitalism’: the ‘invisible’ and shoved-aside victims of a now rampant neoliberalism.

The ratio between the top and bottom 10% of wage distribution has doubled since the early 1990s, when India opened up it economy. According to the 2011 Organisation for Cooperation and Economic Development report ‘Divided we stand’, this has made India one of the worst performers in the category of emerging economies. The poverty alleviation rate is no higher than it was 25 years ago. Up to 300,000 farmers have committed suicide since 1997 due to economic distress and many more have quit farming.

Assets such as airports, seeds, ports and other infrastructure built up with public money or toil have been sold off into private hands.

Secretive Memorandums of Understanding have been signed between the government and resource extraction-related industries, which has led to 300,000 of the nation’s poorest people being driven from their lands in tribal areas and around 50,000 placed into ‘camps’. As a result, naxalites and insurgents are in violent conflict with the state across many of these areas.

Where have the benefits been accrued from the 8-9% year on year GDP growth in recent times?

Sit down and read the statistics. Then step outside and see the islands of wealth and privilege surrounded by the types of poverty and social deprivations catalogued by the MPI.

Global Finance Integrity has shown that the outflow of illicit funds into foreign bank accounts has accelerated since opening up the economy to neoliberalism in the early nineties. ‘High net worth individuals’ (ie the very rich) are the biggest culprits here. Crony capitalism and massive scams have become the norm. It is not too hard to see what is going wrong.

India’s social development has been sacrificed on the altar of greed and corruption for bulging Swiss accounts, and it has been stolen and put in the pockets of the country’s ruling class ‘wealth creators’ and the multinational vultures who long ago stopped circling and are now swooping.


http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-global-multidimensional-poverty-index-rising-poverty-and-social-inequality-in-india/5398001

Riaz Haq said...

@ValueWalk: #Pakistan Arrests #India’s RAW Agent In #Balochistan http://www.valuewalk.com/2016/03/raw-agent-arrest-pakistan-balochistan/ …

Amid ongoing tensions with India, security forces in Pakistan have reportedly arrested an Indian serviceman.

Pakistan has long maintained that India is using underhand tactics to try and destabilize the country. This includes attempts to paint a negative picture of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations in order to create tension between the two neighbors.

Indian spy (RAW agent) arrested in Balochistan province

Now security forces in Balochistan have arrested a man who is reportedly a serving officer in the Indian Navy and also works for the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), the Indian intelligence agency.

The arrest was made as a result of a raid in the region, according to a security official. The man has since been transferred to the Pakistani capital of Islamabad for questioning.

It is thought that the man was involved in various acts of terrorism and other subversive activities in Balochistan. Baloch nationalists have long been engaged in an armed struggle against the Pakistani national government.

Pakistan says officer confessed to creating unrest

“The spy had links with separatist elements in Balochistan,” said the security official. He later added that the Indian operative was also involved in sectarian terror attacks in Karachi.

Indian involvement in Balochistan has long been suspected.

“It has been our contention that RAW has been involved (in creating unrest) in Balochistan,” said Balochistan Home Minister Mir Sarfaraz Bugti. “The arrest has proved Indian involvement in Balochistan,” Bugti said.

“I congratulate Pakistan Army and FC for this successful operation,” he said.

In 2015 Bugti accused RAW and Afghan intelligence agency NDS of supporting the Baloch Republican Army (BRA), and other separatist outfits. It is alleged that they provided both weapons and training.

Pakistani officials have made similar accusations on multiple occasions. RAW has also been accused of providing money and weapons to Baloch insurgents operating in Afghan territory.

It has also been accused that the Baloch separatist leader Brahamdagh Bugti has been living in Indian consulates in Afghanistan, with the go-ahead from RAW.

Pakistan-India relations continue to suffer

The Indian officer, identified as Kul Bushan Yadav by local media sources, apparently confessed to sectarian terrorist activities in Karachi and Balochistan during initial questioning.

The arrest was made at a crucial time. Pakistani officials are set to travel to India to discuss the Pathankot incident. On January 2 gunmen attacked the Pathankot air base in Punjab, leaving 7 Indian servicemen dead.

Pakistan has offered to collaborate with India in investigating the attack. Officials in New Delhi have provided evidence linking Pakistan to the attack, including phone calls made by the terrorists using Pakistani phone numbers.

India blames Jaish-e-Mohammad chief Maulana Masood Azhar and his group for the attack. However an investigation by Pakistani officials reportedly revealed no evidence of their involvement.

“We searched their homes, seminaries, hideouts and also examined their call records for past three months and found nothing dubious,” a security official with links to the investigating team said.

Despite the proposed visit of Pakistani officials to India to discuss the attack, India maintains that Pakistan is not serious about collaborating. The relationship between the two countries is defined by a distinct lack of trust from both sides which makes meaningful progress difficult to achieve.

Tensions continue to bubble on multiple fronts, with unstable neighbor Afghanistan providing fertile ground for shady operations. It must be hoped that tensions can be decreased by high-level talks.

Riaz Haq said...

@ValueWalk: #Pakistan Arrests #India’s RAW Agent In #Balochistan http://www.valuewalk.com/2016/03/raw-agent-arrest-pakistan-balochistan/ …

Amid ongoing tensions with India, security forces in Pakistan have reportedly arrested an Indian serviceman.

Pakistan has long maintained that India is using underhand tactics to try and destabilize the country. This includes attempts to paint a negative picture of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations in order to create tension between the two neighbors.

Indian spy (RAW agent) arrested in Balochistan province

Now security forces in Balochistan have arrested a man who is reportedly a serving officer in the Indian Navy and also works for the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), the Indian intelligence agency.

The arrest was made as a result of a raid in the region, according to a security official. The man has since been transferred to the Pakistani capital of Islamabad for questioning.

It is thought that the man was involved in various acts of terrorism and other subversive activities in Balochistan. Baloch nationalists have long been engaged in an armed struggle against the Pakistani national government.

Pakistan says officer confessed to creating unrest

“The spy had links with separatist elements in Balochistan,” said the security official. He later added that the Indian operative was also involved in sectarian terror attacks in Karachi.

Indian involvement in Balochistan has long been suspected.

“It has been our contention that RAW has been involved (in creating unrest) in Balochistan,” said Balochistan Home Minister Mir Sarfaraz Bugti. “The arrest has proved Indian involvement in Balochistan,” Bugti said.

“I congratulate Pakistan Army and FC for this successful operation,” he said.

In 2015 Bugti accused RAW and Afghan intelligence agency NDS of supporting the Baloch Republican Army (BRA), and other separatist outfits. It is alleged that they provided both weapons and training.

Pakistani officials have made similar accusations on multiple occasions. RAW has also been accused of providing money and weapons to Baloch insurgents operating in Afghan territory.

It has also been accused that the Baloch separatist leader Brahamdagh Bugti has been living in Indian consulates in Afghanistan, with the go-ahead from RAW.

Pakistan-India relations continue to suffer

The Indian officer, identified as Kul Bushan Yadav by local media sources, apparently confessed to sectarian terrorist activities in Karachi and Balochistan during initial questioning.

The arrest was made at a crucial time. Pakistani officials are set to travel to India to discuss the Pathankot incident. On January 2 gunmen attacked the Pathankot air base in Punjab, leaving 7 Indian servicemen dead.

Pakistan has offered to collaborate with India in investigating the attack. Officials in New Delhi have provided evidence linking Pakistan to the attack, including phone calls made by the terrorists using Pakistani phone numbers.

India blames Jaish-e-Mohammad chief Maulana Masood Azhar and his group for the attack. However an investigation by Pakistani officials reportedly revealed no evidence of their involvement.

“We searched their homes, seminaries, hideouts and also examined their call records for past three months and found nothing dubious,” a security official with links to the investigating team said.

---

Before this arrest in Balochistan, there have been other Indian spies arrested and jailed, including Ravinder Kaushik, Sarabjit Singh, Surjit Singh, Kashmir Singh


http://www.tribuneindia.com/2013/20130505/pers.htm

http://www.ibnlive.com/news/india/12-tales-the-spies-who-came-back-from-pakistan-and-those-who-didnt-641424.html

Riaz Haq said...

Overreacting to #Terrorism? #BrusselsAttacks #Obama #Trump #Cruz2016 #Islamophobia http://nyti.ms/1XPfJOn

Are terrorists more of a threat than slippery bathtubs?

President Obama, er, slipped into hot water when The Atlantic reportedthat he frequently suggests to his staff that fear of terrorism is overblown, with Americans more likely to die from falls in tubs than from attacks by terrorists.

The timing was awkward, coming right before the Brussels bombings, but Obama is roughly right on his facts: 464 people drowned in America in tubs, sometimes after falls, in 2013, while 17 were killed here by terrorists in 2014 (the most recent years for which I could get figures). Of course, that’s not an argument for relaxing vigilance, for at some point terrorists will graduate from explosives to nuclear, chemical or biological weapons that could be far more devastating than even 9/11. But it is an argument for addressing global challenges a little more rationally.

The basic problem is this: The human brain evolved so that we systematically misjudge risks and how to respond to them.

Our visceral fear of terrorism has repeatedly led us to adopt policies that are expensive and counterproductive, such as the invasion of Iraq. We have ramped up the intelligence community so much that there are now seven times as many Americans with security clearances (4.5 million) as live in Washington, D.C. Meanwhile, Donald Trump responded to the Brussels attacks with crowd-pleasing calls for torture or barring Muslims that even Republican security experts agree are preposterous.

On the same day as the attacks, a paper by James E. Hansen and other climate experts was released arguing that carbon emissions are transforming our world far more quickly than expected, in ways that may inundate coastal cities and cause storms more horrendous than any in modern history. The response? A yawn.

Hansen is an eminent former NASA scientist, but he’s also an outlier in his timing forecasts, and I’m not qualified to judge whether he’s correct. Yet whatever the disagreement about the timeline, there is scientific consensus that emissions on our watch are transforming our globe for 10,000 years to come. As an important analysis in Nature Climate Change put it, “The next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large-scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far.”

To put it another way, this year’s election choices may shape coastlines 10,000 years from now. Donald Trump and Ted Cruz have both mocked the idea of human-caused climate change, with Trump suggesting that it is a hoax invented by China to harm the American economy (he now says that last point was a joke).

The upshot is that Brussels survived this week’s terrorist attacks, but it may not survive climate change (much of the city is less than 100 feet above sea level).

Doesn’t it seem prudent to invest in efforts to avert not only shoe bombers but also the drowning of the world’s low-lying countries?

----

Daniel Gilbert, a professor of psychology at Harvard, says that the kind of threats that we evolved to deal with are those that are imminent rather than gradual, and those that involve a deliberate bad actor, especially one transgressing our moral code. Explaining our lack of concern for global warming, he noted,“Climate change is caused by the burning of fossil fuels, not flags.”

In short, our brains are perfectly evolved for the Pleistocene, but are not as well suited for the risks we face today. If only climate change caused sharp increases in snake populations, then we’d be on top of the problem!

Yet even if our brains sometimes mislead us, they also crown us with the capacity to recognize our flaws and rectify mistakes. So maybe we can adjust for our weaknesses in risk assessment — so that we confront the possible destruction of our planet as if it were every bit as ominous and urgent a threat as, say, a passing garter snake.

Riaz Haq said...

#Pakistan ranks 8th with its 6 million strong diaspora sending $20 billion home in remittances http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/?p=503292 via @ePakistanToday

Pakistan stands on the eight place among the top 10 recipients of remittances this year at $20.1 billion, according to a report.

According to Khaleej Times, the World Bank estimates that more than 247 million people, or 3.4 per cent of the world population, live outside their countries of birth among which more than six million are Pakistanis.

These Pakistanis, between July 2015 and January 2016, have sent an estimated $11.2 billion a marked increase of about 6 per cent compared with July 2014 to January 2015.

Overseas Pakistanis are remitting more than $1.5 billion a month, making a significant contribution to their families and bringing about a socio-economic change. The State Bank of Pakistan expects remittances to cross $20 billion this financial year, the highest ever and these expectations are in line with the World Bank’s calculations that place Pakistan on the eight rung among the top 10 recipients of remittances this year at $20.1 billion.

“The inflows from remittances (at current levels) now fully cover the country’s petroleum imports. Currently, international remittances are moving six per cent of the total GDP of Pakistan,” says Rizwan Wyne, a Pakistan-based expert on international remittances from Middle East to South Asia. The Migration and Remittance Factbook 2016 produced by the World Bank notes as of 2015 international migrants are expected to have sent $601 billion to their families in their home countries, of which developing countries like Pakistan received $441 billion.

At more than three times the size of development aid, international migrants’ remittances provide a lifeline for millions of households in developing countries. In addition, migrants hold more than $500 billion in annual savings. Together remittances and migrant savings offer a substantial source of financing for development projects that can improve lives and livelihoods in developing countries, says the report.

Riaz Haq said...

#India seeks consular access to #RAW agent arrested in #Balochistan #Pakistan http://www.geo.tv/…/102903-India-seeks-consular-access-to-R… …

India’s foreign ministry on Friday said it has sought consular access to an undercover agent of the country’s intelligence agency RAW arrested by Pakistan from Balochistan.

In a statement issued today, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs admitted that the officer was an officer in the Indian Navy, but claimed that he had taken an early retirement from service.

“He (alleged RAW officer arrested in Pakistan) has no link with the government since his premature retirement from the Indian navy,” the Indian Ministry of External Affairs said in the statement.

“We have sought consular access to him. India has no interest in interfering in internal matters of any country,” said the statement.

Pakistan summoned the Indian ambassador on Friday to protest against the illegal entry of the Indian spy.

"(Pakistan) conveyed our protest and deep concern on the illegal entry into Pakistan by a RAW officer and his involvement in subversive activities in Baluchistan and Karachi," Pakistan’s foreign office said in a statement, referring to the message conveyed to India’s ambassador.

The capture of the RAW agent is the latest evidence of Islamabad's claim that the neighbouring country is actively trying to destabilize Pakistan.

In a media statement here today, Balochistan Home Minister Mir Sarfaraz Bugti said that the captured agent is an active Indian serviceman who was active in Balochistan with an aim to destabilise Pakistan.

According to details obtained by Geo News, RAW agent Kul Bhashan Yadav was arrested by a Pakistan’s intelligence agency in Balochistan three days ago and he was later shifted to Islamabad for investigation.

The arrested agent of RAW had contacts with separatist groups operating in Balochistan, sources said, adding that he is a commander in the Indian Navy.

During preliminary investigations, the undercover Indian agent revealed that his main agenda was to sabotage the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) through propaganda and to create disharmony among the Baloch nationalist political parties.

Riaz Haq said...

Stanford scholar Audrey Truschke on #Muslim rule in #India: #Mughal rulers were not hostile to #Hindus https://shar.es/1YGNDz via @Stanford

Truschke, one of the few living scholars with competence in both Sanskrit and Persian, is the first scholar to study texts from both languages in exploring the courtly life of the Mughals. The Mughals ruled a great swath of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, building great monuments like the Taj Mahal.

Over several months in Pakistan and 10 months in India, Truschke traveled to more than two dozen archives in search of manuscripts. She was able to analyze the Mughal elite's diverse interactions with Sanskrit intellectuals in a way not previously done.

She has accessed, for example, six histories that follow Jain monks at the Mughal court as they accompanied Mughal kings on expeditions, engaged in philosophical and religious debates, and lived under the empire's rule. These works collectively run to several thousand pages, and none have been translated into English.

Truschke found that high-level contact between learned Muslims and Hindus was marked by collaborative encounters across linguistic and religious lines.

She said her research overturns the assumption that the Mughals were hostile to traditional Indian literature or knowledge systems. In fact, her findings reveal how Mughals supported and engaged with Indian thinkers and ideas.

Early modern-era Muslims were in fact "deeply interested in traditional Indian learning, which is largely housed in Sanskrit," says Truschke, who is teaching religion courses at Stanford through 2016 in association with her fellowship.

Hybrid political identity
Truschke's book focuses on histories and poetry detailing interactions among Mughal elites and intellectuals of the Brahmin (Hindu) and Jain religious groups, particularly during the height of Mughal power from 1560 through 1650.

As Truschke discovered, the Mughal courts in fact sought to engage with Indian culture. They created Persian translations of Sanskrit works, especially those they perceived as histories, such as the two great Sanskrit epics.

For their part, upper-caste Hindus known as Brahmins and members of the Jain tradition – one of India's most ancient religions – became influential members of the Mughal court, composed Sanskrit works for Mughal readers and wrote about their imperial experiences.

"The Mughals held onto power in part through force, just like any other empire," Truschke acknowledges, "but you have to be careful about attributing that aggression to religious motivations." The empire her research uncovers was not intent on turning India into an Islamic state.

"The Mughal elite poured immense energy into drawing Sanskrit thinkers to their courts, adopting and adapting Sanskrit-based practices, translating dozens of Sanskrit texts into Persian and composing Persian accounts of Indian philosophy."

Such study of Hindu histories, philosophies and religious stories helped the Persian-speaking imperialists forge a new hybrid political identity, she asserts.

Truschke is working on her next book, a study of Sanskrit histories of Islamic dynasties in India more broadly.

Indian history, especially during Islamic rule, she says, is very much alive and debated today. Moreover, a deliberate misreading of this past "undergirds the actions of the modern Indian nation-state," she asserts.

And at a time of conflict between the Indian state and its Muslim population, Truschke says, "It's invaluable to have a more informed understanding of that history and the deep mutual interest of early modern Hindus and Muslims in one another's traditions."

- See more at: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2015/september/sanskrit-mughal-empire-090915.html#sthash.Y7zZog9s.dpuf

Ravi Krishna said...

You must read Will Durant's "story of civilization" ( an effort which took nearly two decades) to know about the islamic rule in India.

Nawaz said...

There was a great deal of inter faith marriages among the Mughal nobility and the upper class during the Mughal period. It was Aurangzeb who imposed the jirya tax on non Muslims which infuriated many. Inter faith marriages continued after Aurangzeb. Bhutto's mother was Lakhi Bai

Anonymous said...


Christine Fair ‏@CChristineFair 6h6 hours ago
Christine Fair Retweeted Vikas Lohia
CPEC is a myth. MAYBE...at most...Pak will get some megawatts out of it. Beyond that? Illusions. Delusions. Christine Fair added,

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "CPEC is a myth. MAYBE...at most...Pak will get some megawatts out of it. Beyond that? Illusions. Delusions. Christine Fair added,"

Such wishful thinking coming from them is not a surprise. We'll all see it implemented in just a few years' time. And these wishful thinkers are too shameless to acknowledge how any times they've been wrong.

Riaz Haq said...

Nawaz: "It was Aurangzeb who imposed the jirya tax on non Muslims which infuriated many.'

There's a of propaganda in India about Aurangzeb's rule.

Here's a view that challenges it:

Of all the Muslim rulers who ruled vast territories of India from 712 to 1857 CE, probably no one has received as much condemnation from Western and Hindu writers as Aurangzeb. He has been castigated as a religious Muslim who was anti-Hindu, who taxed them, who tried to convert them, who discriminated against them in awarding high administrative positions, and who interfered in their religious matters. This view has been heavily promoted in the government approved textbooks in schools and colleges across post-partition India (i.e., after 1947). These are fabrications against one of the best rulers of India who was pious, scholarly, saintly, un-biased, liberal, magnanimous, tolerant, competent, and far-sighted.

Fortunately, in recent years quite a few Hindu historians have come out in the open disputing those allegations. For example, historian Babu Nagendranath Banerjee rejected the accusation of forced conversion of Hindus by Muslim rulers by stating that if that was their intention then in India today there would not be nearly four times as many Hindus compared to Muslims, despite the fact that Muslims had ruled for nearly a thousand years. Banerjee challenged the Hindu hypothesis that Aurangzeb was anti-Hindu by reasoning that if the latter were truly guilty of such bigotry, how could he appoint a Hindu as his military commander-in-chief? Surely, he could have afforded to appoint a competent Muslim general in that position. Banerjee further stated: "No one should accuse Aurangzeb of being communal minded. In his administration, the state policy was formulated by Hindus. Two Hindus held the highest position in the State Treasury. Some prejudiced Muslims even questioned the merit of his decision to appoint non-Muslims to such high offices. The Emperor refuted that by stating that he had been following the dictates of the Shariah (Islamic Law) which demands appointing right persons in right positions." During Aurangzeb's long reign of fifty years, many Hindus, notably Jaswant Singh, Raja Rajrup, Kabir Singh, Arghanath Singh, Prem Dev Singh, Dilip Roy, and Rasik Lal Crory, held very high administrative positions. Two of the highest ranked generals in Aurangzeb's administration, Jaswant Singh and Jaya Singh, were Hindus. Other notable Hindu generals who commanded a garrison of two to five thousand soldiers were Raja Vim Singh of Udaypur, Indra Singh, Achalaji and Arjuji. One wonders if Aurangzeb was hostile to Hindus, why would he position all these Hindus to high positions of authority, especially in the military, who could have mutinied against him and removed him from his throne?

http://www.albalagh.net/general/0093.shtml

Riaz Haq said...

Here's more on Aurangzeb:

Some of the Hindu historians have accused Aurangzeb of demolishing Hindu Temples. How factual is this accusation against a man, who has been known to be a saintly man, a strict adherent of Islam? The Qur'an prohibits any Muslim to impose his will on a non-Muslim by stating that "There is no compulsion in religion." (surah al-Baqarah 2:256). The surah al-Kafirun clearly states: "To you is your religion and to me is mine." It would be totally unbecoming of a learned scholar of Islam of his caliber, as Aurangzeb was known to be, to do things that are contrary to the dictates of the Qur'an.

Interestingly, the 1946 edition of the history textbook Etihash Parichaya (Introduction to History) used in Bengal for the 5th and 6th graders states: "If Aurangzeb had the intention of demolishing temples to make way for mosques, there would not have been a single temple standing erect in India. On the contrary, Aurangzeb donated huge estates for use as Temple sites and support thereof in Benares, Kashmir and elsewhere. The official documentations for these land grants are still extant."

A stone inscription in the historic Balaji or Vishnu Temple, located north of Chitrakut Balaghat, still shows that it was commissioned by the Emperor himself. The proof of Aurangzeb's land grant for famous Hindu religious sites in Kasi, Varanasi can easily be verified from the deed records extant at those sites. The same textbook reads: "During the fifty year reign of Aurangzeb, not a single Hindu was forced to embrace Islam. He did not interfere with any Hindu religious activities." (p. 138) Alexander Hamilton, a British historian, toured India towards the end of Aurangzeb's fifty year reign and observed that every one was free to serve and worship God in his own way.


Now let us deal with Aurangzeb's imposition ofthe jizya tax which had drawn severe criticism from many Hindu historians. It is true that jizya was lifted during the reign of Akbar and Jahangir and that Aurangzeb later reinstated this. Before I delve into the subject of Aurangzeb's jizya tax, or taxing the non-Muslims, it is worthwhile to point out that jizya is nothing more than a war tax which was collected only from able-bodied young non-Muslim male citizens living in a Muslim country who did not want to volunteer for the defense of the country. That is, no such tax was collected from non-Muslims who volunteered to defend the country. This tax was not collected from women, and neither from immature males nor from disabled or old male citizens. For payment of such taxes, it became incumbent upon the Muslim government to protect the life, property and wealth of its non-Muslim citizens. If for any reason the government failed to protect its citizens, especially during a war, the taxable amount was returned.

It should be pointed out here that zakat (2.5% of savings) and ‘ushr (10% of agricultural products) were collected from all Muslims, who owned some wealth (beyond a certain minimum, called nisab). They also paid sadaqah, fitrah, and khums. None of these were collected from any non-Muslim. As a matter of fact, the per capita collection from Muslims was several fold that of non-Muslims. Further to Auranzeb's credit is his abolition of a lot of taxes, although this fact is not usually mentioned. In his book Mughal Administration, Sir Jadunath Sarkar, foremost historian on the Mughal dynasty, mentions that during Aurangzeb's reign in power, nearly sixty-five types of taxes were abolished, which resulted in a yearly revenue loss of fifty million rupees from the state treasury.

http://www.albalagh.net/general/0093.shtml

Anonymous said...

"
Such wishful thinking coming from them is not a surprise. We'll all see it implemented in just a few years' time. And these wishful thinkers are too shameless to acknowledge how any times they've been wrong.
"

I have full faith in Pakistani to bungle it up royally. They have a history for that. Besides few small explosions can blow up few numerous bridges that CPEC has to pass through via disputed territory of PoK. RAW is known for doing such things. It is nothing but a white elephant, lately China is doing this a lot. That Island reclaim and now here CPEC. China is drawing her enemies together and making new ones, consequences will follow.

Ravi Krishna said...

Let's face it. Pak is a gone case. Another blast today. 53 died (so far). The worst thing is that we keep hearing that the operation to kill terrorist is 90% complete. And remember this is suppose to be a better year where terrorism is just a minor nuisance (Copyright Riaz Haq 2016)

Riaz Haq said...

Religious extremists will never succeed in taking over #Pakistan. #LahoreBlast http://gu.com/p/4hqhy/stw

Religious minorities are an indelible part of the fabric of Pakistani society; they are represented by the white stripe on the Pakistani flag. This is echoed in the words of founding father Mohammed Ali Jinnah’s most famous speech: “You are free; you are free to go to your temples. You are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state.”

While Jinnah’s message of secularism never caught on in Pakistan, religious coexistence has always had a well-defined place in the Pakistani way of life. The horrific suicide bombing in Lahore on Easter Sunday once again reminded us of the vulnerability of Pakistan’s Christians, and of the fragility of coexistence.

A suicide bomber stood next to the children’s rides in Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park and blew himself up, killing at last count 70 people and injuring 300, many of them Christians, most of them women and children.

The group that claimed responsibility for the bombing, the Jamaat ul-Ahrar, is a splinter group of the Pakistani Taliban. Last year they killed 15 and injured 70 in an attack on two Catholic churches in a predominantly Christian neighbourhood in Lahore.

The sights and sounds in the immediate aftermath of the attack were staggering, though sadly these apocalyptic scenes are now becoming familiar global images, in Ankara, Brussels and Iskandariya this week alone.

Women holding each other and wailing in shock, the blood of dead children staining their parents’ clothes, a young man with an open head wound running into the hospital carrying a wounded child in his arms

The Jamaat ul-Ahrar soon issued a statement: their target had been Christians celebrating Easter, although they said they never intended to hurt women or children, only Christian males. Their words belied the indiscriminate cruelty of their attack.

They also reflect the fact that the Pakistani Taliban have been weakened by the continued military operation against them in the tribal belt and in Karachi. They have now splintered into smaller groups, acting not as a cohesive unit but as lone wolves and renegades that hit soft targets like schools and parks because they can no longer reach military targets or security installations.

But jihadis are not representative of all Pakistanis. One thing to understand about Pakistan is that most of its people are socially conservative Muslims, but only a minority actually advocates and enacts violence.

The majority of Pakistanis are peaceful and would not act violently towards religious minorities even if they do not share their religious beliefs. Indeed, in times like these, Pakistanis forget about who is a Christian or a Muslim, and only think about helping the injured.

As word of the bombing spread through television and social media, people in the immediate vicinity rushed to take the wounded to hospital in their cars, taxis and rickshaws before ambulances reached the scene.

Pakistan’s answer to Uber, a car service called Careem, offered free rides to anyone wanting to donate blood at the hospital. One of the most widely tweeted images was of a young doctor on call with a cannula in his arm; he was donating blood in between treating patients. People from as far away as Karachi stood ready to donate food and water to afflicted families.

Religious extremists will never succeed in taking over Pakistan, even if they maintain deadly effectiveness in spreading the virus of terrorism all over the world.

As with any epidemic, the weakest are always the ones to fall first. Yet humanity is the one thing that inoculates us against its reach. As long as we have our humanity, we will still remain united as Pakistanis, no matter who we choose to call our God.

Riaz Haq said...

#India's economy like 'one-eyed' king in land of blind: #RBI chief Raghuram Rajan. #Modi #BJP http://toi.in/owDojY2 via @timesofindia

With India being often described as 'the bright spot in the global economy', Reserve Bank governor Raghuram Rajan sees this as a case of "the one-eyed man" being king in the land of the blind.
Amid gloomy global economic conditions, Indian economy has been described by many as one of the few bright spots, including by IMF, while RBI under Rajan has also been credited with necessary steps to minimise the impact of external shocks on the country's financial system.
"I think we have still to get to a place where we feel satisfied. We have this saying — 'In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king'. We are a little bit that way," Rajan said when asked for his take on the 'bright spot' theory and what was his "secret sauce" to ensure this positioning.
Rajan, a former chief economist of the International Monetary Fund and an on-leave professor of finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, was here for spring meetings of the World Bank and the IMF, as also for the G20 meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors.
"We feel things are turning to the point where we could achieve what we believe is our medium-run growth potential. Because things are falling into place. Investment is starting to pick up strongly. We have a fair degree of macro-stability. Of course, not immune to every shock, but immune to a fair number of shocks," Rajan said in an interview to MarketWatch.

Rajan, known to have frank views on state of affairs in the Indian and global economy, said "a bunch of good things have happened" in India, but there were "still some things to do".
He listed out achievements on fronts like current account and fiscal deficit and said inflation has come down from 11 per cent to below 5 per cent, making room for interest rates to come down.
"Of course, structural reforms are ongoing. The government is engaged in bringing out a new bankruptcy code. There is goods and services tax on the anvil. But there is a lot of exciting stuff which is already happening," he said.
Rajan recalled a new platform he launched last week that allows mobile-to-mobile transfers between any two bank accounts in India.
"It is a public platform, so anybody can participate. It is not owned by any one company unlike Apple Pay or Android Pay or whatever. I think it is the first of its kind.
"So, technological developments are happening and making for a more, hopefully, reasonable life for a lot of people. Let's see how it goes," he said.
Asked about his views on comparison between India and China, the RBI governor said India was nearly a decade behind in terms of start of the reform process and this reflects in the relative size of the two economies.
"We are about a quarter to a fifth their size. I think that we could catch up if we do the right things over a period of time.
"It is extraordinary what good policies they (China) followed to get where they are, so we have to be very good at our policy-making as well as our implementation. I think what people admire China for is how they have managed to get things done.
"Now we have some strengths of our own, and we should emphasize those — I think there is a significant amount of flair and creativity in the Indian economy and we have to try and capitalise on those as we are trying to grow. We shouldn't follow the same path that others have followed.
"But that means working very hard and creating the appropriate infrastructure, creating the human capital that we need to succeed. Building up a good regulatory environment, light but effective, and, of course, building adequate access to finance."

Riaz Haq said...

Why #India should be worried about North India’s #demographic time-bomb via @firstpost #Modi #BJP #youth #violence

http://m.firstpost.com/india/why-we-should-be-worried-about-north-indias-demographic-time-bomb-2731954.html


North India is being literally turned on a skewer. Punjab had to be restrained by the Supreme Court as it sought to stop further construction of the Sutlej Yamuna Link (SYL) canal. Haryana went on a rampage earlier demanding minority status for the Jats. There are war cries surrounding the alleged gang rape at Murthal. Intemperate pronouncements by political and religious leaders in the North have increased in frequency and shrillness.
It was therefore appropriate for Ambit Capital to talk about North India becoming a ticking demographic time bomb (Sizing India's demographic bomb, April 5, 2016).
Look closely at this region and you will understand why. The instances of violence, abuse and even sex-related crimes could just be for starters. The nightmare of the past few months could get worse. This is India's badland. It accounts for the most votes in the country. It has a very young population. It is also, collectively, the most backward.

This territory has little education, and has fewer women and jobs than most other parts of the country. This collective absence is a sure recipe for violence, lawlessness and even anti-national activities.

Watch how the all-India average of 933 females for every 1,000 males has climbed to 944 between 2001 to 2011 (when the last Census was taken). But the figures for some states are hardly flattering. Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has dipped from 892 to 883. It could be a key factor for the violence that threatens to spiral out of control. The figures for Bihar are not very flattering either. They've fallen from 919 to 916.
But delve a bit deeper, and the signs become even more disturbing. It is then that you realise that things aren't right with many other states. Take Uttarakhand. Or Delhi. Or Uttar Pradesh (UP). Or Chhatisgarh. Or Madhya Pradesh (MP). They are additions to the two states mentioned above. They are all ticking time bombs where the skewed sex ratio will mean more allegations (or actual instances) of rape and brutality.
Then take literacy levels. Here it is wise to begin with the precautionary warning. India's average literacy levels are reported to be around 74 percent. But this figure can be quite misleading. India's definition of literacy remains the same for the six decades or so - anyone who can read and write the letters of his or her name, in any language - is presumed to be literate. Thus, if a person's name is "Ram” and he can write and read the three letters of his name, he is classified as being literate. It is the most convenient way to perform a statistical fudge, and could easily classify as one of the worst fudges in the world.
So where would you peg India's literacy level? It is quite hard to tell, because each state has its own board examination. This is compounded by the fact that Kapil Sibal, the former Union home minister, had steered a legislation through Parliament, which compelled students to automatically and compulsorily promote students each year, up to the Class Seven level. Since around five percent of the students on an average are filtered out each year on grounds of non-performance on various counts, the automatic promotions policy ensures that, at the Class Eight level, each class would have around 40 percent of students who ought not to have been there.
As no school would like to face the combined onslaught of parents and society by detaining 40 percent of students at the Class Nine level, most managements of schools promoted them further (automatically). Some good schools that attempted to detain students at this stage were warned by education ministers (as in Maharashtra) not to detain them. Thus, almost all students who enrolled for Class One could be expected to appear for Class 10 exams.

Riaz Haq said...

Only 27% of Pakistanis identify themselves as Pakistanis first while 51% of Indians see themselves as Indians first. On the other hand, 43% of Pakistanis (vs 17% of Indians) say their religious identity comes first.

Three countries stand out in the way their populations think about self-identity. Spaniards are by far the most likely to identify with world citizenship (54%). For 56 per cent of Indonesians, belonging to their local community is the strongest defining identity. And for Pakistanis, a strong plurality (43%) identify first as a member of their religion.

The poll, conducted by GlobeScan among more than 20,000 people worldwide between December 2015 and April 2016, is being released as part of the BBC World Service Identity Season—a Spring season of broadcasts on the World Service’s 27 language services exploring stories about how people identify themselves around the world.

Among all 18 countries where this question was asked in 2016, the poll suggests more than half (51%) see themselves more as global citizens than citizens of their country, against 43 per cent who identify nationally. This is the first time since tracking began in 2001 that there is a global majority who leans this way, and the results in 2016 are driven by strong increases since 2015 in non-OECD countries including Nigeria (73%, up 13 points), China (71%, up 14 points), Peru (70%, up 27 points), and India (67%, up 13 points).


http://www.globescan.com/news-and-analysis/press-releases/press-releases-2016/103-press-releases-2016/383-global-citizenship-a-growing-sentiment-among-citizens-of-emerging-economies-global-poll.html

Riaz Haq said...

Most people choose not to migrate in spite of poverty and oppression as obvious from lowest rates of migration out of sub-Saharan Africa.

Results show that despite increase in the absolute number of migrants, Africa, particularly SubSaharan Africa has one of the lowest rate of emigration in the world and a majority of them migrate to other African countries signifying the importance of south-south migration. Poorer countries generally have lower rate of emigration and higher rate of intra-African migrant. Bad socio-economic conditions generally seem to lead to higher rate of emigration by highly skilled individuals. Generally, migration is driven by motives to
improve livelihoods with notable evidence on changes in labor market status. Often, self-employed or unemployed émigré ended up in wage employment. The paper outlines policy issues emerging from the migration trend in Africa.


http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Procurement/Project-related-Procurement/WORKING%20119%20word%20document%20AA.PDF

t is often said that the only way to reduce migration from poor countries is to boost development, but this ignores the inconvenient fact that development is generally not associated with lower levels of emigration. Important emigration countries such as Mexico, Morocco, Turkey and the Philippines are typically not among the poorest countries. Meanwhile – and against popular perceptions of a “continent on the move” – Sub-Saharan Africa is the least migratory region of the world.

Development drives migration

In fact, when you examine the data, human and economic development is initially associated with increasing emigration. Any form of development in the poorest countries of the world is therefore likely to lead to accelerating emigration. Such findings contradict conventional thinking and force us to radically change our views on migration. Such rethinking can be achieved by learning to see migration as an intrinsic part of broader development processes rather than as a problem to be solved, or the temporary response to development “disequilibria”.

http://theconversation.com/explainer-what-makes-people-migrate-21442