Thursday, October 25, 2012

Pakistan Among Top Meat Consuming Nations

Media coverage of Pakistan's brisk Eid-ul-Azha livestock sales are a reminder that the nation is among the world's top ten consumers of goat meat and beef based on USDA data.

Pakistan's goat meat consumption of 779,000 tons in 2011-12 ranks it among the top 3 in the world. 1.7 million tons of beef consumption in Pakistan is ranked  9th among beef consuming nations. In addition, 834,000 tons of poultry meat consumption puts it among world's top 20.

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2011-12
Along with rising meat consumption, there has also been a big surge in milk consumption with the ongoing livestock revolution in Pakistan. Pakistanis consumed nearly 39 million tons of milk in 2011-12, according to Economic Survey of Pakistan. This translates into 223 Kg of milk consumption per person which is about the same as the developed world's per capita milk consumption and more than twice that of neighboring India's 96 kg per capita.

Although meat consumption in Pakistan is rising, it still remains very low by world standards. At just 18 Kg per person, it's less than half of the world average of 42 Kg per capita meat consumption reported by the FAO.

Being mostly vegetarian, neighboring Indians consume only 3.2 Kg of meat per capita, less than one-fifth of Pakistan's 18 Kg. Daal (legumes or pulses) are popular in South Asia as a protein source.  Indians consume 11.68 Kg of daal per capita, about twice as much as Pakistan's 6.57 Kg.

Another ingredient popular in South Asian cuisine is vegetable oil.  It's an important source of fat and protein for a nutritious and tasty diet. Edible oil consumption soars during the holidays as hundreds of millions of people eat sweets and fried foods during the September-December festive season.   Pakistanis use about 20 Kg of oil, the per capita amount recommended by the World Health Organization, while Indians consume about 13 Kg per capita.

Source: USDA Report 2013

Celebratory occasions like Eid or Diwali push sugar consumption in South Asia. Pakistan's per capita sugar consumption is about 23 Kg while India's is about 20 Kg per person per year.

Fish Farming Growth in Pakistan. Source: FAO

Although still below average relative to the world, per capita consumption of meat, milk and edible oil is rising with rising incomes and standards of living in both India and Pakistan. As the dietary habits change, it'll be important for policy makers and health and fitness professionals to watch the changes and help educate the people about healthy eating.

Here's a video of MeatOne, a meat packer in Karachi:

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Livestock and Agribusiness Revolution in Pakistan

Pakistan's Rural Economy Showing Strength

Solving Pakistan's Sugar Crisis

Food, Clothing and Shelter in India and Pakistan 

Is India a Nutritional Weakling?

India Tops World Hunger Charts


Anonymous said...

most of the milk people buy, is used in tea, not consumed seperately

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "most of the milk people buy, is used in tea, not consumed seperately"

Milk is consumed in many different forms in Pakistan...liquid milk, yogurt, lassi, sweets (mithai), butter, desi ghee, ice cream, cheese, etc etc

Riaz Haq said...

Here's Poultry Production News report o chicken meat and egg consumption in Pakistan:

Pakistan poultry meat consumption up 239% from 2000
These numbers equate to just 0.7% of global poultry production, but represent an infrastructure exceeding Rs300 billion (US$3.41 billion) and an annual commercial turnover of Rs40 billion (US$454.5 million). Pakistan has a total of 105 hatcheries that produce 820 million broiler chicks annually, as well as the capacity for the production of 8.69 billion commercial eggs and 3.74 million rural eggs.
Numbers are growing, but according to Pakistan Poultry Association former chairman Abdul Basit, there is a need to increase poultry production further to become more competitive in the global market.

Najam said...

Animal prices have gone very high this year overall business was low.I had not read the references you mentioned.

Riaz Haq said...

Najam: "Animal prices have gone very high this year overall business was low.I had not read the references you mentioned"

High prices is a routine story line by the Pak media every it Eid or Ramadan. The bottom line is that consumption of all types of food---beef, goat, poultry, milk, edible oil, etc--is rising every year.

Naveed Siraj said...

Dear Riaz sb

A very happy Eid to you. I read this letter in the Dawn in the morning and thought you may like it.

Riaz Haq said...

Naveed: " I read this letter in the Dawn in the morning and thought you may like it. "

Very uplifting, indeed!

Thanks for sharing.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's the text of the Dawn letter Naveed Siraj shared here:

MOST of the times we read and talk all the stuff that is against our sweet homeland. Here, I tell you a true story that is to thank Pakistan.

I was born in a very poor family in 1952 in Mirpurkhas district. My maternal uncles were educated up to the final class (i.e., equal to Class VII).

That inspired my mother to send me to school. At my village, ‘Dengan Bhurgri’, the birthplace of Raees Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bhurgri (the first graduate of Sindh), I studied up to Class VI. The great and selfess teachers taught very well. I studied from Class VI to Class X at Tando Jam Muhammad.

To earn for my studies, I started working when I was in Class V. The first wage was 25 paisa for a half day. It increased to Rs15, Rs50, Rs125 and finally to Rs200 a month in 1975.

Domestic circumstances compelled me to marry at the age of 20. I could not continue my engineering classes after HSC (Pre – Engineering) because of financial constraints. I did many odd jobs — at a restaurant, a fruit shop, a paan – bedi shop, a shoe shop, a cotton factory, a flour mill and at a trading company.

In January 1975 I took a bold step of quitting the job that meant losing Rs200 a month and sought admission in M.A. English literature at the University of Sindh. It all became possible because of Mr Fayaz Ahmad — my best friend — who gave me Rs200 a month for two years. His salary was only 350 and he was married too.

I studied 14 hours a day at the university hostel because there was no room for any sluggishness. I did my MA and got second position.

The great Principal, the late Capatin Shukuruddin, and the late Prof. Tariq Mustafa Khan selected me for the post of lecture in English in 1977 on merit.

I taught English at Cadet College, Petaro, for 35 years, and retired as Vice Principal this year.

The boy who earned Rs25 a day in 1962 was receiving Rs133,000 a month in 2012. Now, I am receiving a pension of Rs55,000 a month.

My head bows down to God Almighty, all the time.

Thank you, my dear Pakistan. Thank you, Cadet College, Petaro. Thanks to all those who helped me, especially Mr Fayaz and my late mother.

The moral of the story is: never be without hope, never be discouraged. Just keep working hard with a total faith. Time does not remain the same. Stop talking and writing against Pakistan.

We have, recently, been declared the 16th happiest country in the world while India is 32nd and the US is 105th.

We do have our problems but it is we who have to rise above the self and steer the ship out of the troubled waters to the island of safety, happiness and prosperity. Just keep the faith. Things have changed for the better — you must try further to make more good changes to make Pakistan great and strong.


Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Dawn OP Ed by Michael Krepon after his recent Pakistan visit:

THERE is no shortage of young talent with restless intellectual energy and entrepreneurial skills in Pakistan. Natural resources are untapped. Despite its economic travails, Pakistan has a middle class that can grow if markets grow.

A Pakistani diaspora in the West could come to the country’s aid. These positive notes within Pakistan cannot become music until governance improves and the writ of the state extends to its borders.


The deaths of innocent civilians from drone strikes represent a small fraction of this carnage. The Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) didn’t begin this reign of terror because of drone strikes, and they won’t end it if the drone strikes stop. The strongest linkage between these disparate phenomena is that some US drone strikes are directed at those who plan and direct this carnage on Pakistani soil. No one in authority in Pakistan appears willing to acknowledge this.

My advice, freely and repeatedly given, has been for the Obama administration to fundamentally reassess its policy on drone strikes, and to make them exceptional, rather than common occurrences in Pakistan. As was evident in the foreign policy debate between President Obama and Gov Mitt Romney, this is unlikely to happen. As long as US and Nato forces in Afghanistan are being targeted by Afghan Taliban fighters who take refuge on Pakistan’s soil, drone strikes will continue.

When US forces are mostly withdrawn from Afghanistan, and if the Afghan Taliban leadership move themselves as well as their operations across the Durand Line, drone strikes in Pakistan may be significantly reduced — but not until then.

In my view, a qualified suspension of drone strikes within Pakistan is still warranted, even in the aftermath of the attempt to kill Malala. What are the qualifications?

First, if Pakistani authorities privately request them and if the targets are legitimate. Second, if extremist groups continue to plan and carry out attacks on US and Nato forces, Washington would reserve the right to respond — not at lieutenants, but at their leaders, wherever they may be — a difficult standard for Washington and Islamabad to swallow. Third, if there is actionable intelligence about plans to carry out attacks on US or allied territory, the United States would reserve the right to disrupt them.

A secondary reason for this proposal is that it would clarify the wrongheaded conclusion that drone strikes make every one of Pakistan’s problems worse. I disagree.

Drone strikes had nothing to do with the attempt to kill Malala. Nor did drone strikes factor in the ill-fated deal between the Pakistani government and the TTP in Swat, or its predictable demise. Horrific Muslim-on-Muslim violence in Pakistan will continue as long as political leaders look the other way while seeking ‘consensus’, and as long as poor governance, economic stagnation, corruption, flimsy social services, and a deteriorating educational system hold sway.

Even if civilian casualties are kept to an absolute minimum, there are three primary reasons for a reassessment of US policy regarding drone strikes. First, they are unlikely to make a significant difference in Afghanistan’s future dispensation. Second, they can help Pakistan’s armed forces only marginally to reclaim their country’s periphery. Third, drone strikes ruin America’s standing in Pakistan, and decent US-Pakistani relations are one essential condition for a reversal of Pakistan’s fortunes.
Afghanistan may remain unsettled for some time to come, blocking Pakistan’s economic growth via Central Asia. Increased trade with India is far more feasible. If leaders in both countries can keep increased trade on course, despite explosions intended to stop progress, radical elements can be marginalised and Pakistan can hope for a brighter future.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Fresh Plaza news report on fruits and vegetables production in Pakistan:

Pakistan produces over 14 million tonnes of fruits and vegetables of which almost one-third is wasted and never reaches the consumer. High post-harvest losses not only lower incomes of producers and traders, but also reduce the quantity available in local market as well as for export. Despite large production, our fresh produce exports are negligible (three per cent) and also fetch lower prices in international markets. So far Pakistani exporters have not been able to penetrate into high end supermarket chains, which account for about 80 per cent of the fruits and vegetables sales in the EU and other developed countries. Mango export earns about $24 million annually and around 60-70 per cent of good quality varieties is exported to the Middle East and 15-16 per cent to Europe.

The export of fresh produce, particularly mango is limited by enormous cost of air freight as compared to sea freight. The interest in sea freighting of mangoes is growing and probably it is the only commercially viable option for export to distant places in the future. However, it needs extended time and specific protocols to be developed for maintaining fruit quality, which is only possible using Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Technology. Mangoes from South America are being successfully shipped to the EU using CA Technology. Looking at the need and demand of the sector, Punjab Agricultural Research Board (PARB) initiated a project on “Exploiting Control Atmosphere Technology potential for extended storage and shipping of fresh produce to international markets”. The project was managed by Dr Aman Ullah Malik, Professor of Horticulture, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) to increase shelf life of fresh vegetables and fruits for the export to distant markets.

The project was executed with collaboration of National Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFS&T), Plant Pathology department of UAF and METRO Cash & Carry Pakistan.The specific problems addressed were: optimum CA-conditions for different fruits and vegetables; extension of shelf life and maintenance of quality of mangoes and facilitating sea-freighting for reducing cost of shipment to high end markets. Chief Executive PARB Dr Mubarik Ali says the successful establishment of the SOP for CA technology for fresh produce would greatly benefit exporters in future”. It will generate a good return of money invested on research, enhance our exports and create sound recognition for Pakistani fresh products in international markets.
Dr Amanullah said the usefulness of this project has been demonstrated by arranging seminars, trainings, workshops, meetings and visits for the local growers/ store keepers/ cold store operators/ traders and exporters. Another remarkable achievement is publication of two research papers in the 7th International Post-harvest Symposium in Malaysia. A modern Controlled Atmosphere R & D infrastructure has been developed at Institute of Horticultural Sciences to meet the long-term national needs.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's an excerpt from The Hindu story on Tendulkar's eating preferences:

The first time in Pakistan was a memorable experience. I used to just have a couple of keema parathas and lassi for breakfast, skip lunch and have nothing till dinner as it used to be so heavy and delicious and one wouldn’t think of having lunch in the afternoon. But on that tour I was 16 and was growing up. It was a phenomenal experience and when I came back from Pakistan to Mumbai and stood on the weighing scale I couldn’t believe myself. Whenever we have toured Pakistan, the food has been simply delicious and one has to be careful about not putting on weight. When you are 16 though, you can afford to, but not any longer.’’

Riaz Haq said...

At just 2.4 Kg, Pakistan's per capita fish consumption is among the lowest in the world. It's only half of India's 4.8 Kg and just one-fifth of Bangladesh's 11.6 Kg, but higher than Nepal's 1.3 Kg and Mongolia's 0.2 Kg.


Riaz Haq said...

Here's a BR story on Pak-Aus collaboration in horticulture and dairy sectors:

FAISALABAD: Australian and Pakistani scientists are striving to boost productivity of mango, citrus and dairy.

This was stated by Dr John Spriggs, a professor of Australian Institute for Sustainable Communities, University of Canberra, while addressing participants of Australia-Pakistan Agriculture Sector Linkages Program (ASLP II) research group meeting at Syndicate Hall of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) here on Friday.

He said horticultural and dairy sectors of Pakistan had great productivity potential, which was not being exploited as per capacity. He emphasized scientists to device farmers friendly solutions and packages.

He maintained that ASLP-II project would provide guidelines towards destination of prosperity and rural development. He was of the view that the three-year duration project had been initiated under developed areas of Sindh and Punjab.

ASLP 2 will:

Enhance selected value chains that benefit the rural poor through improved productivity market and employment opportunities
Support analysis that improves economic and natural resource management
Build the capacity of government, private and civil sectors to service the needs of stakeholders across the program.

ASLP 2 features:

implementation within value-chain frameworks, with additional attention to benefiting the poor and marginalized
focus on horticulture (mango and citrus) and livestock (dairy) sectors, with scope to later extend to other industries
attention to underlying policy, and institutional and technical capacity building
support for baseline assessment of the poverty and gender dimensions, and the modalities and technologies for modern communication within the industries, to broaden improvements and to enhance benefit flows to the poor and marginalised
poverty, gender and communication studies to strengthen capacity for better targeting of effort and extension delivery, and enhance intra- and inter-project collaboration and engagement with industry.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's HBS case study outline for Pakistan's K&N poultry:

In 2011 Khalil and Adil Sattar are considering growth opportunities for K&N's, their family business that is the market leader for processed chicken and value-added chicken products in Pakistan. This position has been built through a strategy of vertical integration, product innovation, and branding. K&N's has also developed its own chain of retail "Chicken Stores" to promote their products. Growth opportunities include contained expansion in Pakistan, exporting to nearby markets, and/or developing a global Halal food brand.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a report on Pak poultry sector:

Vice Chancellor of the University of Veterinry and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Professor Dr Talat Naseer Pasha has said the poultry sector was most attractive for investment as it had become the second largest industry after textile in the country.

Dr Pasha said that livestock growth was not satisfactory a decade ago. When the university was established, the government as well as investors paid due attention with the association of university’s academia, reports the Nation.

It brought about a revolution in poultry and dairy sectors. Farmer also have to realize the importance of the livestock sector, he added.

Ten years ago the share of livestock in agriculture GDP was 39 per cent which has now risen to 55.1 per cent, according to Dr Pasha.

The vice chancellor said the private sector had also contributed a lot to the livestock sector and set up modern slaughter houses.

However, the vice chancellor called for setting up joint laboratories to ensure the quality of food and feed of livestock. He said the government should evolve a joint system to gauge the quality of food and feed as well as meat.

Riaz Haq said...

There are worries about carbonated drink consumption in South Asia. I think these are overblown considering the fact that per capita consumption in Pakistan is just 5 liters and in India 3 liters.

Compare this with milk, a healthier alternative, whose consumption in Pakistan is 223 Kg per person and 96 Kg in India.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a recent Seekingalpha piece on Pepsi growth in South Asia:

Pepsi depends heavily on emerging markets for growth. It experienced a growth of 14% in emerging markets for the quarter. Organic net revenue in Europe grew by 7%, and in Asia, Middle East and Africa it grew by 10%. The company has significant international exposure, which means that the company's top and bottom lines are affected by foreign currency movements. This is made evident by a 5% decrease in company revenues due to foreign currency movement in the recent third quarter.
Asia, Middle East & Africa (AMEA) unit experienced strong growth for the quarter. Organic net revenue grew by 10%. Within this unit, snacks experienced double-digit volume growth rate. Beverages' volume experienced high single digit growth rate. India and Pakistan experienced snacks volume growth of 12% and 27%, respectively. Beverage volume for India and Pakistan was up 23% and 25%, respectively. Constant currency operating profit for the unit grew by 14%.

Riaz Haq said...

International frozen yogurt franchises Tutti Frutti and Fruz are coming to Pakistan, according to news reports:

Business Recorder on Tutti Frutti:

Tutti Frutti is a specialty brand available in various world markets, including the USA, Canada, Brazil, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong, China, France, Pakistan and the United Kingdom. Work is in progress to open up outlets in countries like India, Bangladesh, Russia, Romania, Spain and various Middle Eastern countries.
17 outlets already opened in Pakistan. There are five outlets in Karachi, three each in Lahore and Islamabad, two in Rawalpindi, two at Bhera Motorway rest area and one each in Abbottabad and Faisalabad. Another 19 are under-construction in different cities. We are targeting about 100 branches by the end of the year 2013, reaching customers in nearly every city of Pakistan.

The Nation on Yogen Fruz:

LAHORE (PR) – Yogen Fruz, the world’s leading frozen yogurt chain opened its first outlet in DHA amidst much fanfare on Sunday. The master franchise of the Canadian desserts chain has been acquired by MFK Foods in Pakistan, and the local business group is already working on a plan to open outlets and franchises all across Pakistan.“When we received a query for bringing Yogen Fruz to Pakistan, we all were very excited. Pakistan is a huge consumer market and if the conditions are right, this country can attract a lot of foreign investments. We all flew in from Canada to be a part of this launch”, said Carlos Campo who is the Director Operations for Yogen Fruz worldwide, and is in Pakistan with his team to assist in the launch of this giant food and desserts chain.“Frozen yogurt is freshly prepared, is rich in probiotics, and is available in endless flavours,” added Basir Syed, CEO MFK Foods and master franchisor for Yogen Fruz Pakistan. “Yogen Fruz is here, and soon it will be available in all parts of Pakistan. We have an aggressive business development plan and we have received numerous franchise requests and sold many as well. We will also be opening outlets in other parts of Lahore as well.”

Anonymous said...

What is the price of beef per kilo in Pakistan, Riaz? Here in India, with it's huge population of cattle, we have to fork out between INR 150-200 per kg for just a regular cut of beef, and INR 250-300 for something like Undercut. It's too much, I feel. Besides, in most places it's not openly displayed or available.

Riaz Haq said...

Anon: "What is the price of beef per kilo in Pakistan, Riaz? Here in India..."

Beef boneless is selling between Rs400 – 450 and with bone above Rs350, and mutton skyrocketing over Rs600 per kilo in Pakistan, according to Dawn.

What you usually get in India is not real beef but carabeef (buffalo meat). India is among the biggest producers and exporters of carabeef.

Anonymous said...

Anon: "What is the price of beef per kilo in Pakistan, Riaz? Here in India..."

Beef boneless is selling between Rs400 – 450 and with bone above Rs350, and mutton skyrocketing over Rs600 per kilo in Pakistan, according to Dawn.

What you usually get in India is not real beef but carabeef (buffalo meat). India is among the biggest producers and exporters of carabeef.

November 21, 2012 7:58 AM
--------------------------------- Thanks Riaz! It seems that our beef and mutton prices are about the same. Mutton is very expensive here, and very bony! Stretching this thread a bit, over the past 3 months or so, the price of rice here in India seems to have been hiked by almost 30%. Likewise, sugar, which has gone up from INR30 per kg to INR40. A Committee set up to look into the Food Subsidy set-up here has recommended a drastic cut in subsidies. The media is silent over these issues. How the world has changed! Another constant irritant faced by the Indian consumer is the lack of small change in circulation. Instead of being given a rupee or two in change you get a "chocolate" - which could be anything from a boiled sweet, a toffee or a cough lozenge.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Bloomberg story titled "Pakistan, Land of Entrepreneurs":

On a warm Sunday morning in November, Arif Habib leaves his posh home near the seafront in southern Karachi and drives across town in a silver Toyota Prado SUV. About half an hour later, he arrives to check up on his latest project: a 2,100-acre residential development at the northern tip of this city of 20 million. He hops out, shakes hands with young company call-center workers who are dressed for a cricket match, and joins them at the edge of the playing field for a traditional Pakistani breakfast of curried chickpeas and semolina pudding. After a quick tour of the construction site, he straps on his leg pads, grabs his bat, and heads onto the field. “The principles of cricket are very effective in business,” says Habib, 59. “The goal is to stay at the wicket, hit the right balls, leave the balls that don’t quite work, and keep an eye on the scoreboard. I feel that my childhood association with cricket has contributed to my success.”

Habib, who started as a stockbroker more than four decades ago, has expanded his Arif Habib Group into a 13-company business that has invested $2 billion in financial services, cement, fertilizer, and steel factories since 2004. His group and a clutch of others have become conglomerates of a kind that went out of fashion in the West but seem suited to the often chaotic conditions in Pakistan. Engro (ENGRO), a maker of fertilizer, has moved into packaged foods and coal mining. Billionaire Mian Muhammad Mansha, one of Pakistan’s richest men, is importing 2,500 milk cows from Australia to start a dairy business after running MCB Bank, Nishat Mills, and D.G. Khan Cement.

These companies have prospered in a country that, since joining the U.S. in the war on terror after Sept. 11, has lost more than 40,000 people to retaliatory bombings by the Taliban. Political violence in Karachi has killed 2,000 Pakistanis this year, and an energy crisis—power outages last as long as 18 hours a day—has led to social unrest. Foreign direct investment declined 24 percent to $244 million in the four months ended Oct. 31, according to the central bank.

At the same time, some 70 million Pakistanis—40 percent of the population—have become middle-class, says Sakib Sherani, chief executive of Macro Economic Insights, a research firm in Islamabad. A boom in agriculture and residential property, as well as jobs in hot sectors such as telecom and media, have helped Pakistanis prosper. “Just go to the malls and see the number of customers who are actually buying in upscale stores and that shows you how robust the demand is,” says Azfer Naseem, head of research for Elixir Securities in Karachi. “Despite the energy crisis, we have growth of 3 percent.”

Sherani of Macro Economic Insights estimates the middle class doubled in size between 2002 and 2012. “Those who understand the difference between the perception of Pakistan and the reality have made a killing,” Habib says. “Foreigners don’t come here, so the field is wide open.” The KSE100, the benchmark index of the Karachi Exchange, has risen elevenfold since mid-2001. Shares in the index are up 43 percent this year alone. Over the past decade, stocks have been buoyed by corporate earnings, which were bolstered in turn by rising consumer spending.
Today, Habib has 11,000 employees and annual revenue of 100 billion rupees. He plans to expand into commodities trading and warehousing. “I’ve created all my wealth in Pakistan and reinvested all of it here,” says Habib, who drives himself to his cricket matches and is never accompanied by security guards. In 1998, when Pakistan’s share index fell to a record low after the government tested nuclear weapons, Habib bought shares even though “people thought I was mad.”...

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a PakObserver report on German packaging form Multivac entering Pakistani market:

Sunday, December 02, 2012 - Karachi—The overall food and beverage trade in Pakistan has surged to $ 6 billion during 2011. Keeping in view the potential in the food sector of Pakistan a German company MULTIVAC has started operations in Pakistan.

The company moves the market with innovative packaging solutions, individual consultation and exceptional service. Said Amir Sotoudeh, MD MULTIVAC Middle East.

The company manufactures machines for the packaging of fresh or processed food, sterile goods and other medical products, today the company has a worldwide organization with more than 3,300 employees in 55 countries, he added.

We want to facilitate food sector of Pakistan with better packaging facilities in sectors especially ready-to-eat meal, fresh and frozen meat, seafood and bakery products, he further said.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's an excerpt of an ET piece on Pak agriculture:

The country produced 24 million tons of wheat in 2010, compared with 11.6 million tons a year in the early 1980s. Wheat has helped feed a population that has grown to 174 million people from 85 million in 1980. Rice production has more than doubled over the same period, rising to seven million tons from 3.3 million tons, and is now a major export crop earning $2.2 billion in foreign exchange.

Cotton has become a major industrial feedstock, with production increasing to 12 million bales in 2010, up from 4.5 million bales in the early 1980s. Livestock production has also substantially increased to a value of $758.604 million from $51.51 million in 1980. Livestock exports totalled $37.46 million in 2010, compared to $1.170 million three decades ago.

If we take into account the case of wheat, it is a major success story for Pakistan that has moved from being a net importer in 1980 to having a sustained presence on export markets during the last decade. Wheat accounts for two-thirds of national cereal production, and is the most important contributor to overall food security.

However much remains to be done. The yield gap is substantial between leading farmers getting six tons per hectare, and the average farmer getting 2.6 tons. Increased adoption of proven agronomic improvements can help reduce this gap. These improvements include provision of quality seed through the private and public sector, timely sowing and availability of inputs, adoption of a more balanced fertilisation, modification of irrigation regimes to more closely match actual crop water requirements and stage of development. Opportunities to increase productivity exist through system improvements such as increased development of conservation agriculture approaches, use of green manuring, development of rice-wheat cropping systems, reduction in soil tillage and use of selective herbicides for weed control offer opportunities to increase productivity.

Pakistan also faces some challenges like the breakdown in resistance to some key diseases which will require further investment in development of new crop varieties, as well as varieties adapted to abiotic stress associated with climate change events. Water availability is becoming a major issue in the major wheat growing regions and while engineering improvements can reduce transmission losses, much remains to be done on improving water use efficiency from the agronomic standpoint in the crop field.

There is no policy of crop rotation. Therefore, the fertility of the soil is decreasing. The average thickness of fertile layer of soil in Pakistan is more than six inches but the average yield is lower than other countries where the layer of fertile soil is only four inches.

Water wastage is very high. Flood irrigation is still in practice which wastes almost 50 to 60% of water. Drip irrigation is the answer.

Pakistan has low yield per acre that means the average crop in Pakistan is just 25% of that of advanced states. Even Saudi Arabia has a higher wheat yield than Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's Daily Times on wheat seed resistant to rust disease:

The above wheat seed variety has the potential to resist the virus UG99, said PARC Chairman Dr Iftikhar Ahmad while briefing the committee. He further said, “Experts say it is only a matter of time before wind carries a deadly wheat stem pathogen into Pakistan, the ninth largest wheat-producing nation in the world. Known as UG99, the disease could potentially decimate the country’s highly vulnerable wheat crop and cause a huge food security problem.”

Crop scientists say that next destination of this ‘time bomb’ is obviously Pakistan and then India.

UG99 originated in Uganda in 1999 and has migrated to many countries. It has reached Iran and become a regional threat that now confronts wheat production and stability. The PARC has established the UG99 resistance variety and multiplied and provided to farmers at the time of wheat sowing. For this year, the PARC chairman said 72 tonnes UG99 resistance wheat seed is available and being provided on demand. Every year, the seed is multiplying and soon the country will be able to fully protect against the UG99 deadly disease.

Apart from, Ahmad said that PARC is coordinating with all research institutes across the country. We have commodities base coordination on wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, pulses, oilseed crops, fodder crops, rice and rice hybrid and sugar crops. The PARC also helps the government in mechanisation and coordinattion between private sector and concerned departments. Apart from it, there are a number of collaborations with Punjab in promotion of agriculture research and projects.

The committee was also briefed about the livestock department in federal government after devolution process in the country. Livestock Department Head Dr Khurshid told the committee that livestock has 55.1 percent contribution to agriculture value addition and 11.6 percent share in national gross domestic product. During the year 2011-12, the livestock share in total foreign exchange earning is 8.3 percent. During the year 2012-13, the livestock population is; cattle 38.3 million, buffalo 33.7 million, sheep 28.8 million, goat 64.9 million, camels 1.0 million, horses 400,000, asses 4.9 million and mules 200,000 million.

He told the committee that livestock sector’s prospective role towards rural economic development may well be recognised from the fact that nearly 8.0 million families involved in livestock raising are deriving more than 35 percent income from livestock production activities. He said the government has taken a number of measures to improve the pace of development in livestock sector with focus on value addition.

The import of agro based machinery and equipment including machinery and equipment related to livestock farming and dairy processing units is allowed at zero tariff. Import of high-yielding exotic dairy and beef animals and their semen and embryo are allowed. He also informed the committee that sales tax exemption has been allowed to processed milk, yogurt, cheese and flavored milk, butter and cream.

About future plan, he said the department is planning to persuade the polices to achieve 5.0 percent more growth in meat and 8.0 percent or more in milk production through shifting from subsistence livestock farming to market-oriented and commercial farming with a focus on entire market chain. The future road map is to enter into global Halal food trade market, controlling trans-boundary animal diseases of trade and economic importance through provincial participation and rural socio-economic uplift....\01\08\story_8-1-2013_pg5_9

Riaz Haq said...

Here's bloomberg on fast food craze in Pakistan:

...Local and overseas business groups are queuing up to buy franchise rights in Pakistan for an array of popular food sold from Los Angeles to Kuala Lumpur, driven by rising demand from a booming middle class in South Asia’s second-biggest economy after India. Pakistanis increasingly flock to American food outlets even as ties between the two nations are strained by U.S. drone missile strikes in the northwest of the country.

Johnny Rockets Group Inc., another American fast-food group based in Aliso Viejo, California, that operates or franchises 68 hamburger restaurants in 16 countries, Second Cup Ltd., a coffee shop chain based in Missisauga, Canada, with over 360 cafes and Malaysia’s MammaRoti and PappaRoti are set to open their first stores in Pakistan this year.


Fatburger joins Hardee’s Food Systems Inc., headquartered in St. Louis, Atlanta-based cinnamon roll maker Cinnabon International Inc., The Noodle House of the United Arab Emirates, and five foreign frozen yoghurt chains that opened their first outlets in the world’s sixth-most populous nation since 2011. Consumer spending in Pakistan has increased at a 26 percent average pace the past three years, compared with 7.7 percent for Asia, according to data compiled by Euromonitor International, a consumer research firm.

...Pakistan’s middle class has doubled to 70 million people in the past decade as booms in agriculture and residential property, as well as jobs in telecom and media have helped people prosper, according to Sakib Sherani, chief executive officer at Macroeconomic Insights in Islamabad.

Franchising is also booming as businesses battling Pakistan’s record energy outages seek alternatives to factories that can’t run without adequate power, said Samiullah Mohabbat, chief executive officer of Fatburger Pakistan and the country representative for the World Franchise Association. Mohabbat received over 100 queries this year from entrepreneurs wanting to buy franchise rights for international food chains.

The number of foreign food franchises in Pakistan will “easily double” in the next two years as more coffee houses and casual dining outlets enter the country, Mohabbat said. About two dozen foreign food franchises operate in Pakistan since Louisville, Kentucky-based Yum! Brands Inc.’s Pizza Hut opened two decades ago, followed by the same company’s KFC in 1997 and Oak Brook, Illinois-based McDonald’s Corp., the world’s largest restaurant chain, the following year.

KFC plans to open 40 more stores in Pakistan over the next five years to expand its network of 64 outlets in 18 cities, said Rafiq Rangoonwala, chief executive officer of Cupola, the company with the franchise rights for KFC, the biggest fast-food chain by outlets in Pakistan.
Salt Lake City-based Mrs Field’s Original Cookies Inc., that opened an outlet in Lahore in 2011, plans to start 15 more this year, said Rashed Siddiqui, franchise owner.

Second Cup will open its first outlet in Islamabad within the next six months and Red Mango Inc., a Dallas-based frozen yoghurt retailer, will enter Pakistan this year, Mohabbat said.

Fullerton, California-based Tutti Frutti Frozen Yoghurt, that has 20 outlets in Pakistan since opening in late 2011, plans to start 100 more this year, said Naeem Niazi, director for international business development at Wellspring Industry Inc., owner of Tutti Frutti.

Pakistanis spend 90 billion rupees ($924 million) a year on eating out at the 20,000 restaurants nationwide because of a paucity of other entertainment facilities, said Nauman Mirza, founder and chief executive officer of Food Connection Pakistan, an online restaurant guide.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a BR story on Tetrapak growth in Pakistan:

Tetra Pak sees tremendous potential for growth in Pakistan as its liquid packaged food industry (dairy and beverage) will grow on an average compound annual growth rate of 15 to 16 percent over the next five years. Pakistan is the 6th largest market in terms of population and for the past several years has consistently registered one of the highest growth rates globally.

Tetra Pak factory will meet the rapidly growing demands of Pakistan's dairy and beverage industries as well as growing demand from other emerging markets in the cluster 'greater middle east', said Tetra Pak factory Production Manager Ihsan Ullah Khan while talking to members of the Agricultural Journalists Association (AJA) at factory premises on Wednesday.

He said that the factory which was constructed with an investment of over Rs 10 billion started its operations on December 01, 2010 has been declared 'Factory of the Year Award' in recognition of its achievement in operational efficiency, environment and safety performance within two years since it commenced operation. The factory has production capacity of eight billion packages per year, with the potential to double production to 16 billion packages.

He said hard work and dedication of local people have proved Tetra Pak administration right in their taking decision of investment in Pakistan. By pursuing continuous improvement in operation, our factory has outperformed previous benchmarks in world class performance and productivity. "I am pleased to be a part of the winning team and I believe, passion of our people and mental fortitude is the driving force behind our success in such a short span of time," remarks Tahir Hafeez, Factory Director.

The selection process for the Factory of the Year Award is based on a selection of key performance indicators, employee satisfaction and management voting. The Lahore factory is World Class Manufacturing (WCM) certified, following manufacturing best practices, for leaner production such as limiting waste level to a minimum, reducing energy consumption by almost 20 percent from 2011. The factory has successfully established a working environment that aims at zero accidents.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Sky News story on the colors of Spring (Basant) in Pakistan:

Pakistan has turned the bright yellow colour of spring as mustard flowers bloom across the countryside.

Pakistan's Punjab mustard flowers draw travelers and city dwellers to the fields to marvel at the beautiful sight.

'Our hearts are soothed by the sight of these yellow flowers and the beautiful landscape. We enjoy the beauty of the countryside. It makes us so happy,' college student Imran Ali from Lahore told Reuters.

According to Reuters, agriculture offers jobs for 48.4% of Pakistan's workforce and accounts for 24% of the nation's GDP, .

Second only to cottonseed, rape-seed mustard is one of the country's major sources of oil and covers over 500,000 acres of land in the provinces.

Mustard is easily cultivated, so farmers lacking proper agricultural tools often sprinkle mustard seed along the fields in late November, seeing the plant sprout within weeks.

'In our local dialect this month is called 'phagan'. In 'phagan' everything flowers and gives fruit. Flowers and fruits sprout everywhere,' farmer Mohammad Aslam told Reuters.

'Basant', meaning 'spring' in Sanskrit, heralds a number of festivals in Pakistan where revelers dress in yellow and compete flying kites.

Mustard plants come in a variety of species and are extremely important in many parts of the world: Greek history shows mustard being used to soothe toothaches, improve circulation and increase appetite; while Indian and Danish cultures use the seeds to sprinkle around homes, protecting the dwellings from evil spirits.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's PakTribune on promoting livestock revolution in FATA:

PESHAWAR: To bring white revolution and fulfill people's meat demands, the government has decided to launch two mega projects for uplift of livestock sector in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) areas shortly to bolster income of tribal people especially of women folk.One of the mega projects is “Calves Fattening Project” that would be launched this month to fulfill the demands of quality meat of the ever growing population of the country. Official sources in Fata Livestock and Dairy Development told APP on Sunday that Calves Fattening Project would be launched in Frontier Regions of Peshawar, Kohat and Khyber, Kurram and Orakzai Agencies this month and would later be extended to other tribal agencies. He said it was a two-year project that would be completed with an estimated cost of Rs. 68 million.

A registered farmer/livestock owner, having cows or buffalos' calves (male) between 10 to 50 numbers would be provided free of cost technical support in formation of farms houses besides medicines, insemination, vaccination and fodder's services at their doorsteps, he added. It will be mandatory for the registered beneficiary livestock owner/farmers to look after and keep its calves in his/her farm for at least three months for provision of above services on constant basis by the Livestock Department. He said at least 3000 calves would be fattened in next two years under this Project.This would help improve the income of tribal people besides generating employment opportunities in Fata and will provide healthy and quality meat to consumers. Another project that is establishment of a model farm in Khyber Agency was also in pipeline and hopefully its PC-I would be completed this month and would be launched after completion of codal formalities, he added.

Under this project, 50 cows would be kept in the model farm for cross-breeding that would not only help produce quality and healthy breed but also increase per kilogram meat and milk production in Fata. The estimated cost of this project is Rs.100 million that would be launched in Khyber Agency on pilot basis soon. He said negotiations were underway with donor agencies for establishment of Milk Processing Plant in Fata to improve quality of milk and earn valuable foreign exchange for the country besides bringing economic improvement in the lives of tribesmen.These project will help support national efforts for poverty alleviation by providing a model for sustainable rural development through livestock-based income generating activities at the rural community level and will help reduces poverty, enhances development opportunities for women and poor farmers, improves household food security and nutrition.

In addition to capacity building of doctors and veterinary assistants, he said mobile clinics project was successfully underway in Orakzai, Kurram, Khyber and Bajaur Agencies wherein specialist doctors and vetarnary assistants were providing quality services to farmers and livestock owners living in remote areas.These projects are aimed at to exploit the vast potential of livestock and dairy development in Fata and make it income-generating ventures for tribesmen to improve their life style.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's PakObserver on US help to improve Pak agri productivity:

Tuesday, March 12, 2013 - Islamabad—The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) launched a new project to expand the use of modern technologies in Pakistan’s agriculture sector.

“Boosting Pakistan’s economy is one of our top assistance priorities. That’s why this project will work to modernize agricultural practices to increase the production and quality of livestock and horticultural goods. This in turn will enhance economic development in the country,” said USAID Country Director Jonathan M. Conly at the launch of the project in Islamabad on March 8.

Innovative technologies, introduced in Pakistan with support from the U.S. Government, spurred the Green Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s. The adoption of improved rice and wheat varieties, combined with strategic policies and investments, led to a doubling of yields and output in those two decades. With investment in research, Pakistan transformed its agricultural sector into a driver for economic growth.

Currently, Pakistan’s agricultural sector is growing at a much slower pace than other sectors. “Pakistan’s agricultural productivity has fallen behind comparable countries with similar agro-ecologies,” said Thomas Lumpkin, Director General of CIMMYT. “There is a tremendous potential for growth, but we must act now.”

Through its new four-year, $30 million project, USAID will sponsor research to encourage adoption of new technologies in agriculture, such as laser land leveling, zero tillage, residue management, introducing short duration legumes into rice-wheat cropping systems, and custom service systems for machinery.

The project will also offer short and long-term training. The U.S.-funded project will be implemented by CIMMYT and PARC in cooperation with the International Livestock Research Institute, the World Vegetable Center, the International Rice Research Institute, and the University of California, Davis.

Promoting economic growth is one of the many ways that the United States is helping to create a brighter future for the people of Pakistan. The United States funds large-scale energy projects that will provide electricity to two million households by the end of 2013. The U.S. has rebuilt and renovated 800 schools and has provided scholarships to 12,000 students to attend universities in Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's Ashby Monk of the Institutional Investor:

Pakistan: Qatar's Hassad Food is apparently interested in some food assets in Pakistan, as it's just opened an office in Lahore. This comes on the heels of the announcement yesterday that the Kuwait Investment Authority has signed an MoU with Pakistan’s Board of Investment. Is Pakistan the hot new frontier market? Or is this about food security?

- Emerging Markets: Survey shows emerging markets are the key for pensions trying to meet their return expectations. ...

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Washington Post piece on popularity of camel milk in Pakistan:

During the evening rush hour in central Karachi, Nadeem Mutloob can barely keep up with demand at his curbside Marhaba milk bar, a popular stop for workers on their way home.

Customers line up for cool bottles of what Mutloob and some medical researchers tout as an unbeatable health supplement: camel milk, or as the label says, “the world’s next super food.”

“It’s useful; that’s why they buy it,” Mutloob said.

He and others think camel milk can treat a range of ailments, including liver problems, hepatitis and diabetes.

“I use it for ‘man power,’ ” said Mohammad Ashfaq, a 36-year-old gas station employee, referring to virility.

As he bellied up to the shop’s counter, Ashfaq said his wife drinks the milk and gives it to their children, too.

And there might be something to the hype surrounding the age-old nostrum. The milk, indeed, is often used by diabetics and hepatitis patients. It has three times more vitamin C than cow’s milk and is a rich source of iron.

Nomadic Bedouins have relied on camel milk as a staple for eons; today Somalia and Saudi Arabia are the biggest producers. Processors are also developing markets in countries such as Kenya, Australia and the United States.

Karachi is at the center of the trend imported from Africa and the Middle East. Several camel-milk vendors have set up shop in the past year or so.

They range from small stalls like the Marhaba shop to a family operation called Wondermilk that offers flavors such as chocolate, banana and strawberry and takes Internet orders.

The white frothy liquid’s resemblance to its bovine equivalent does not extend to its flavor or its price.

“Tastes salty,” said Syed Sanaullah, proprietor of a shop called al-Habib, when asked to describe the beverage. The shopkeeper, 36, sells single-serve plastic bottles of milk at a roadside stand next to his small convenience store.

He said camel milk costs nearly five times more than regular milk because of shortages in supply — about $3.60 for about 35 ounces, while regular milk fetches only 80 cents. But customers who can afford it continue to purchase the milk because they are convinced of its efficacy.
The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization has noted the commercial value of camel dairy products, saying they could provide nomadic herders “a rich source of income.” The organization estimates a potential world market of $10 billion for the product.

The FAO notes that doctors are prescribing camel milk to patients in Russia, Kazakhstan and India and might be recommending it for people living with AIDS in Africa.

London’s Guardian newspaper recently reported that in Kenya, camel milkshakes and “camelcinos” (camel cappuccinos) are selling in cafes. It said camel-milk production is on par with the country’s coffee industry.

In addition to cosmopolitan Karachi, camel-milk consumption is catching on elsewhere in Pakistan, in cities such as the far less hip capital, Islamabad. There, individual sellers have been seen parking camels at the side of the road near bustling shopping centers.

While the bottled product is often boiled or pasteurized, these dairy entrepreneurs sell the milk in plastic baggies — or even offer “it-doesn’t-get-any-fresher” squirts directly from the source.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Nation report on Nestle's $104 million investment in Pakistan:

AHORE – SALMAN ABDUHU - The Nestle Pakistan has announced the completion of its new milk powder drying facility plant with additional investment of $104 million at Nestle Sheikhupura factory.

Nestlé Executive Vice President and Operations and Globe System In-charge Joze Lopez, who is on three three-day visit to Pakistan, inaugurated the $104 million Egron Project and visited the whole plant.

Lopez, addressing the opening ceremony, said that the existing Milk Powder Plant has now been modified with new technology and has an additional yearly capacity of 30,000 tons. The power generation capacity and waste water management system have also been upgraded and additional filling lines have been set up, he added.

He stated the Nestlé is the largest food and beverage company in the world and the Sheikhupura dairy, juice and water factory embodies Nestlé’s increased investment in Pakistan. As part of its three-year plan to expand the production capacity in the country, Nestlé has invested a total of $148 million over the past two years in various factory expansion projects to meet rising consumer demands.

He added that wherever Nestlé is present, the company works and invests in the long term. We are convinced that in order to be successful in the long-term we have to create value for our shareholders, as well as for society. This Creating Shared Value approach encourages businesses to create economic and social value simultaneously by focusing on the social issues that they are uniquely capable of addressing. He observed that Nestlé Pakistan is committed to creating shared value for the communities it works and lives with. The company has made many contributions in this regard, by providing free technical and veterinary advisory and training support to thousands of dairy farmers in the milk districts who now have more sustainable opportunities to gain their living.

Lopez said, “Pakistan is an important growth market for us and we are dedicated to meet the growing demands of our consumers. Major capacity increases, such as the one just inaugurated in Sheikhupura, allow us to constantly upgrade our facilities to the latest standards in global technology.”

MD Magdi Batato, on this occasion said that Nestlé Pakistan is the leading food and beverage company in Pakistan and meets international standards in the manufacturing of its products. In 2012, the company grew by 22 per cent to reach an annual turnover of Rs79 billion (Approximately $800million). Nestlé Pakistan is serving the Pakistani consumers since 1988 and it also associates itself with 200,000 farmers in collecting milk and engages in a number of rural development programme for community development.

“Our reality is ‘Har Dam Pakistani’, (Every Moment Pakistani) and we are delighted to provide our consumers with products manufactured in Pakistan. More than one million Pakistanis, mostly dairy farmers, participate in our value chain and this investment is a further commitment to Pakistan and its people, and to our vision of providing Behtar Kal Hamara, (A Better Tomorrow For Us) to all,” said Magdi Batato, Managing Director, Nestlé Pakistan.

Riaz Haq said...

Junaid Jamshed, former Vital Signs singer, has started Meat One, a branded meat service in Pakistan.

Here's the link to it:

Here's a description from its website:

With a vow to supply supreme quality meat, Meat One is the very first of a new, specialized chain of meat stores in Karachi. Meat One is a subsidiary of the Al Shaheer Corporation, a very successful venture that has been exporting meat to the Middle East and GCC countries since 2008. We presently operate 12 outlets across the city of Karachi with plans to open additional shops. Retailing export quality beef, lamb and mutton, Meat One is the first of its kind in the meat shop space. The meat is supplied by our own abattoir located in Karachi, which currently exports beef and mutton to the Middle East. This plant is certified by health and food import departments of most Middle East and GCC countries. The free range, lean meat that Meat One offers you every day is natural and wholesome!

Riaz Haq said...

Here's NY Times on Argentina beef consumption:

It is hard to overstate beef’s centrality to the Argentine way of life for more than a century. Novels and poems extol the art of cattle ranching on the vast pampas, long a touchstone of national pride. Cafes in this city bulge with diners feasting on steaks washed down with glasses of malbec. At lunchtime, it is still possible to see construction crews preparing slabs of beef on makeshift grills, the smoky smell of this ritual permeating their work sites.

Argentines ate about 129 pounds of beef a person last year, far surpassing Americans, who mustered a mere 57.5 pounds by comparison. But Argentina’s current level is a pale shadow of its peak: 222 pounds of beef for every man, woman and child, achieved in 1956.

Reasons vary for these doldrums. Beef prices have surged with inflation, but cattlemen contend that government price controls aimed at preventing domestic beef consumption from falling further have wreaked havoc by making it costly to maintain large herds. Others, eying China’s rising demand for grains over the last decade, say it is simply more profitable to farm soybeans than to raise cattle.

“We are witnessing a historic decline in our beef industry,” said Ernesto Ambrosetti, chief economist of the Argentine Rural Society, the country’s largest farming association. “Now our smaller neighbors, Paraguay and Uruguay, have passed us” in the export rankings.

Government officials contend that their policies to lift beef consumption, including export restraints and price controls intended to make the meat more affordable, are turning the tide. Indeed, domestic consumption has recovered slightly from a record low in 2011.

But while Argentina has experienced swings in beef consumption in the past, some see the latest drops as evidence of a broader paradigm shift: many Argentines are simply opting for a more varied diet.

The shift — reflected in a rising demand for foods like poultry, pasta and pizza; a greater awareness of the health risks associated with eating beef; and even the emergence of an insurgent vegetarian dining scene in Buenos Aires — does not sit well with some Argentines.

“Beef consumption is threatened by modern trends of healthy eating, mainly the exaltation of what’s natural and ecological, stimulating vegetable consumption,” the Argentine Beef Promotion Institute warned in a 2006 report, warily acknowledging a “new age culture and the appearance of cooking fads incorporating other products.”

For some Argentines who were raised in a society so focused on beef, the adjustment was long overdue. “I almost don’t eat meat now,” said Susana Carfagna, a 61-year-old retiree, as she walked out of a butcher shop with some ground chicken as an alternative to beef burgers. “It’s not healthy. I have high cholesterol and need a more balanced diet.”

At Buenos Aires Verde, a vegetarian restaurant with a pastel orange and lime green color scheme, diners can choose from options like patties made from yamani rice and adzuki beans, or cannelloni made with dehydrated fruit and flax seeds.

“Argentines are demanding a change,” Mauro Massimino, 33, a vegetarian who owns the restaurant, said as his predominantly svelte clientele ate their meals. “Around five years ago, vegetarianism started to gain traction here, and the growth since has been incredible.”

The growth of vegetarian restaurants in Argentina’s capital has unfolded at a time of big change — some say upheaval — in the countryside. As recently as 2007, Argentina had about 55.6 million head of cattle, according to the United States Department of Agriculture. That number fell to 48.1 million in 2011, before recovering somewhat this year to an estimated 51.2 million. (That is still more cows than people, given the country’s population of more than 40 million.)

Riaz Haq said...

Onion index may be more appropriate for India rather than Big Mac Index....Dawn excerpt:

In the past one week, Indian consumers in New Delhi paid 80 rupees per kg for onions as compared to the current rate of 60 Indian rupees.....In local markets, there is a difference in wholesale price as quoted by Waheed Ahmed at Rs27.50 to Rs32.50 per kg in wholesale vegetable market new Subzi Mandi while a leading vegetable dealer at Subzi Mandi quoted whole...He quoted the export price of $400-450 per tonne or Rs40-45 per kg. “We are actually missing a great opportunity to fully exploit the Indian market potential as rains have played havoc with our local onion crop quality in Balochistan,” he said. He added that export made to India cannot be termed as ‘good exportable quality’.

Carabeef (buffalo meat) regulated price in India is INR 160 while real beef (cow meat) regulated price in Pakistan is PKR 360.

Actuals can run higher...INR 260 in India and PKR 500 in Pakistan according to news reports below:

Riaz Haq said...

Here's a Gulf News report on Eid al Azha economy in Pakistan:

Karachi: Pakistan is likely to sacrifice millions of cattle on Eid Al Adha, to be observed on Wednesday generating significant economic activity worth $3-4 billion (Dh11-15 billion) besides performing their religious duty, analysts Tuesday said.
Pakistanis expected to slaughter around six million goats, sheep, cows and camels worth an estimated price of roughly Rs200 billion (Dh7 billion). The animals’ hides and skins, besides offal, horns and hooves also stir tens of billions of rupees into business.
“It is a good opportunity for the rural farmers and breeders who bring their animal to the cities where the people slaughter them in large number on Eid,” Mohammad Sohail, chief executive of Topline Securities said.

“To a rough estimate, Eid adds value into the economy to the tune of up to $4 billion,” he said.

In Karachi, one of the largest cattle markets is set up in the northern outskirts of the city where people started visiting. The slaughtering also poses a challenge to the civic agencies in the city as collection of offal has been a big task.
Emergency control rooms have been set up in 18 zones of the city which with the central complaint cell at the Civic Centre, in the central city. The control rooms remain functioning round the clock for the three days of Eid.
The municipal offices estimated that over one million animals would be slaughtered in this mega city.
The metropolitan chief also called upon the people to dump the offal at their nearest garbage collection point so that the sanitary staff could lift it timely and properly. The people were also called upon to not throw offal and casings onto roads, streets, public parks, empty plots of land or into sewage lines.

Riaz Haq said...

2250 calories intake is in the normal recommended rage for an individual anywhere in the world, including the USDA guidelines for Americans. What is more important is where those calories come from.

Being mostly vegetarian, neighboring Indians consume only 3.2 Kg of meat per capita, less than one-fifth of Pakistan's 18 Kg. Daal (legumes or pulses) are popular in South Asia as a protein source. Indians consume 11.68 Kg of daal per capita, about twice as much as Pakistan's 6.57 Kg.

Along with rising meat consumption, there has also been a big surge in milk consumption with the ongoing livestock revolution in Pakistan. Pakistanis consumed nearly 39 million tons of milk in 2011-12, according to Economic Survey of Pakistan. This translates into 223 Kg of milk consumption per person which is about the same as the developed world's per capita milk consumption and more than twice that of neighboring India's 96 kg per capita.

Another ingredient popular in South Asian cuisine is vegetable oil. It's an important source of fat and protein for a nutritious and tasty diet. Edible oil consumption soars during the holidays as hundreds of millions of people eat sweets and fried foods during the September-December festive season. Pakistanis use about 20 Kg of oil, the per capita amount recommended by the World Health Organization, while Indians consume about 13 Kg per capita.

Riaz Haq said...

Another indicator of being well-fed or not is Body Mass Index.

In terms of average BMI (Body Mass Index), Pakistanis and Chinese are at 23, Indians 21 and Bangladeshis 20.5, all within normal range of 18.5 to 24.9. The average values of BMI for Europe, Middle East and North and South America are much higher.

Riaz Haq said...

Nature Magazine published a recent study which showed India and China are driving meat consumption growth in the world.

The researchers calculated the human trophic level for each year from 1961 to 2009 using a data on 102 types of food compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.The metric puts plants and algae, at trophic level 1, and polar bears and orcas, on top positions at levels of up to 5.5.

India's trophic level has now risen to 2.1 while Pakistan's is 2.4.

The countries with the highest trophic levels include Mongolia, Sweden and Finland, which have levels of 2.5, and the whole of Western Europe, USA, Australia, Argentina, Sudan, Mauritania, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan, which all have a level of 2.4.

Riaz Haq said...

Here's an excerpt from USDA report on rising meat consumption in developing world as incomes rise:

Over the next decade, increases in meat consumption in developing countries are projected to average 2.4 percent annually, compared with 0.9 percent in developed countries. Per capita poultry meat consumption in developing countries is projected to rise 2.8 percent per year during 2013-22, much faster than that of pork (2.2 percent) and beef (1.9 percent).

Imports of meat by developing countries will also rise rapidly because consumption is expected to increase faster than domestic production. Imports are projected to rise 3.4 percent per year for poultry, 2.9 for pork, and 4.1 percent for beef.

Poultry meat imports are projected to rise steadily in nearly all developing countries in the next decade, particularly in the Africa and the Middle East region, which is expected to account for 64 percent of the rise in world poultry imports. While population and income growth in the region will boost demand, concerns over animal disease outbreaks in a number of countries are expected to slow growth in poultry production and further increase demand for imports. As a result, the region’s poultry imports will grow more than the combined rate for the rest of the world, and by 2022, Africa and the Middle East will account for over half of world poultry imports.

Since 2009, pork imports by China have risen sharply and are projected to continue rising steadily, accounting for over half of the growth in world pork imports in 2013-22. Asian countries, excluding China and Japan, and Mexico are likely to account for most of the rest of the increase in world pork imports during the period. Some higher income countries in East Asia, such as Korea and Taiwan, are expected to increase pork imports to satisfy rising demand for selected cuts of pork.

Some developing countries are also meat exporters. Exports of lower priced beef from India and Brazil to a number of low- and middle-income countries are expected to account for nearly two-thirds of the projected increase in world beef exports in 2013-22.

Demand for Livestock Feed Also Expands

The expansion of livestock production in feed-deficit countries continues to be a major driver of trade in coarse grain and protein meal, particularly in the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia. Larger and more effectively managed livestock production facilities and improved feeding practices have played a large role in the growing dominance of corn in international feed grain markets. Ruminants, such as cattle and sheep, are capable of digesting a broad range of feedstuffs, making demand sensitive to prices across alternate feed sources. However, the shift of pork and poultry production to larger and more modern operations will likely result in the use of higher quality feed, boosting demand for corn and soybean meal.

Coarse grain consumption in developing countries is projected to increase by 22 percent and account for 82 percent of the gain in world coarse grain consumption over the next decade. To meet this demand, imports by developing countries are projected to increase 34 percent and account for 93 percent of the growth in coarse grain imports worldwide....

Riaz Haq said...

From FAO on Pak Aquaculture growth:

Aquaculture in Pakistan is a recent development and in many parts of the country the management of the sector is still poor with culture practices varying across the different provinces. Two Asian Development Bank (ADB) assisted projects have assisted in strengthening the institutional structure, with infrastructure development such as the development of hatcheries and juvenile production, model farms, transfer of technology, human resource development as well as the strengthening of extension services.

Aquaculture has also received a substantial amount of government investment over the past decades and facilities are now in place that can provide the basis for a major future expansion in aquaculture production.

With the exception of trout culture in NWFP and the northern region, virtually all aquaculture currently carried out in Pakistan is pond culture of various carp species. Pakistan has not yet begun any coastal aquaculture operations although there is good potential all along Pakistan's 1 100 km coastline. Efforts have been made in the past to start shrimp farming along Sindh coast, which did not succeed, the main constraints being the non-availability of hatchery produced seed and a lack of expertise.

Freshwater fish culture in earthen ponds, both small and large reservoirs as well as community ponds was initiated in late 1960s by the provincial fisheries departments. From 1980 onwards the polyculture of Indian major carps and Chinese carps has been carried out in Punjab, Sindh and to some extent in NWFP.

According to the latest estimates, the total area covered by fish ponds across all provinces is about 60 470 ha, with Sindh having 49 170 ha, Punjab 10 500 ha, NWFP 560 ha and the other provinces (Balochistan, Azad Jammun Kashmir [AJK] and Northern Area [NA]) 240 ha.1.2Human resources:About 13 000 fish farms have so far been established across Pakistan, the size of these farms varies considerably, however, the average farm size ranges form 5-10 ha. No direct data on the number of fish farmers employed in this sector is available as fish farming in most parts of the country is carried out as an integral part of crop farming. According to a best estimates, about 50 000 people are either directly or indirectly employed in the sector.
About 13 000 fish farms have so far been established across Pakistan, the size of these farms varies considerably, however, the average farm size ranges form 5-10 ha. No direct data on the number of fish farmers employed in this sector is available as fish farming in most parts of the country is carried out as an integral part of crop farming. According to a best estimates, about 50 000 people are either directly or indirectly employed in the sector.
There has been a decreasing trend in inland fish production during the period between 2001 and 2003 resulting from severe drought and degradation of natural resources through pollution. Production from the inland capture fisheries has been affected most, inland aquaculture has, however, witnessed a relatively rapid increase....

Riaz Haq said...

Hindu vigilantes set fire to one of Shah’s trucks in December as it carried six water buffalo to a government-owned slaughterhouse outside Mumbai, he said. They beat up the driver and set the animals free, according to Shah. ..... “The atmosphere in the abattoir is very tense,” said Shah, 38. “We’re being harassed everywhere and the attacks are worsening. The industry doesn’t know how to deal with this and everyone from transporters to dealers and farmers is scared.”....Vigilantes haven’t made any distinction between buffalo and dairy cows, targeting transporters of both. Trucks carrying cattle are often blocked by the activists, who snatch drivers’ phones, beat them up and hand over the cattle to animal welfare centers, according to the All Maharashtra Cattle Merchants Association. Attacks have increased since the May election of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, whose Hindu-backed Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) favours tighter restrictions on cow slaughtering, which is legal in five of India’s 29 states. “Our demand is to ban cow slaughter in India,” Surendra Kumar Jain, joint general secretary of Vishva Hindu Parishad, a religious group affiliated with BJP, said 25 February by phone from Rohtak.

Riaz Haq said...

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has approved Phase Two of the American Soybean Association’s (ASA) World Initiative for Soy in Human Health (WISHH) FEEDing Pakistan program to further develop Pakistan’s aquaculture sector and its use of feeds made from U.S. soy.

The additional one-year of funding allows WISHH to create even more demand for soy-based feeds, building upon the success of local fish farmers as well as private investment by the Pakistani feed industry.

“USDA support of FEEDing Pakistan boosts the growing soy-based feed industry in Pakistan, which has the sixth largest population in the world,” said WISHH Vice Chairman Lucas Heinen, a Kansas soybean grower. “WISHH’s strategy complements the U.S. Soybean Export Council’s work as Pakistan’s poultry industry now buys U.S. soybean meal and processing industry leaders import U.S. soybeans.”

Launched in 2011, WISHH’s FEEDing Pakistan has assisted approximately 2,000 Pakistani fish farmers and helped increase the market value of fish produced—tilapia—from zero at the beginning of the project to an estimated 450 mill rupees ($4.5 million USD) in 2014.

Photo: ASA WISHH’s FEEDing Pakistan project develops Pakistan’s aquaculture sector and its use of feeds made with soy. A 2013 U.S. Department of Agriculture Report projected a 525 percent increase in aquaculture production in Pakistan and a complementary increase in the demand for fish feed between 2012 and 2022.

FEEDing Pakistan tilapia averaged 600 grams per fish–double the weight of traditional Pakistan fish harvests.

“Pakistani fish farmers had never seen such results,” said R.S.N. Janjua, who leads the project as ASA/WISHH Country Representative. “The tilapia received a premium in the local market place and increased enthusiasm for further development of Pakistan’s aquaculture industry with soy-based fish feeds.

“Phase One of FEEDING Pakistan also demonstrated that Pakistan’s fish farmers, academics, private sector, and government officials are ready to help aquaculture fill the protein gap in Pakistan where 44 percent of children under the age of five experience stunting,” Janjua added.

The Kansas Soybean Commission supported WISHH’s Phase One work in Pakistan. Kansas State University conducted training courses on fish feed manufacturing and best management practices. A trainee and co-owner of a Pakistani company learned about potential for growth in the aquaculture industry. As a result, he ordered feed extrusion equipment from Extru-Tech International of Sabetha, Kansas and formally inaugurated Pakistan’s first extruder for the production of floating fish feed in July 2013. USDA’s funding allowed WISHH to ship 25 metric tons of U.S. hi-protein soybean meal, which jump-started the floating fish feed manufacturing.

A 2013 USDA Global Agricultural Information Network report projected a 525 percent increase in aquaculture production in Pakistan and a complementary increase in the demand for fish feed. Aquaculture production would increase from 120,000 tons in 2012 to 750,000 tons in 2022. The demand for fish feed will increase from 210,000 tons to 1.3 million tons, and soybean meal demand from 42,000 tons to 260,000 tons.

Phase Two will allow WISHH to provide additional training to improve feed management and increase feed production as well as feed demand, largely in Punjab and Sindh. Training will reach both large-holder farmers with 20-200 acres of ponds as well as farmers with 1-2 acres. WISHH will also assist the private sector that is interested in expanding feed manufacturing.

Riaz Haq said...

OECD data on per capita meat consumption in Pakistan (12.5 Kg per person)

Pork 0 (World 12.6 Kg)

Goat 2.1 Kg (1.7 Kg)

Poultry 4.2 Kg (13.2 Kg)

Beef & Veal 6.2 Kg (6.5Kg)

Riaz Haq said...

An Overview of Poultry Industry in Pakistan by J. HUSSAIN, RABBANI, S. ASLAM and H.A. AHMAD:

Pakistan industry still attained 127% growth in the total number of birds produced, 126% growth in the total meat production and 71%growth in terms of total eggs produced between 2000 and 2010 (GOP, 2013). The reason behind this extraordinary growth is the existence of the strong base of this industry inPakistan. Presently the cheapest available sources of animal protein in Pakistan are the eggs and meat from the poultry sector (PPA, 2013a).

Despite showing excellent potential and growth over the years, per capita availability of poultry meat in Pakistan is still 5 kg and 51 eggs per year, compared to developed countries where these figures are 41 kg meat and 300 eggs (PPA, 2013b). According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the average daily requirement for animal protein is 27 g per person, whereas in Pakistan it is only 17 g (Memon, 2012). Out of this 17 g,the share of proteins from poultry is just 5 g, causing a gap of 10 g per person per day. If calculated on an annual basis, bearing in mind the present population of Pakistan (180million), this gap is 788,000 t of meat. In the national meat pool the share of beef and mutton is either constant or decreasing steadily and the poultry sector has the potential tofill this gap

Poultry production has increased its share steadily in the total meat pool of the country(Figure 5). In 1971, the market share of beef was 61%, mutton was 37%, and poultry meat a mere 2-2.5% (GOP, 2013). In 2010 the market share of poultry meat had increased to 25%, whereas beef and mutton had reduced to 55% and 20%respectively (GOP, 2013). It was this dynamic increase in the overall magnitude of poultry sector that decreased the gap between the supply and demand of animal proteins in Pakistan, and also assisted in stabilising beef and mutton prices, making meat affordable to most of the Pakistani population.

Riaz Haq said...

Pulse (Daal) crops in Pakistan:
Understanding the importance of pulses United Nations ‘s(UN) 68th General Assembly declared “2016” as “International Year of Pulses”.
Pulses are cultivated all over the world but in Pakistan it is being cultivated on 5% of total cultivated area of crops and chickpea,black gram,mung bean.pigeon pea, mash,masoor and few others are grown.
In Pakistan pulses are grown on 1.5 million hectors of land. Chickpea play a vital role in country’s pulses production as it is cultivated on 73% of the total area occupied by pulses cultivation and its contribution to the total pulses production is 76% while mash and masoor consumes 2%( each )of
area under pulses cultivation and share 1.4% in total pulses production.
Mung Bean an easily digestible item is one of the important pulse crop of Pakistan, it is mainly grown in southern parts of Punjab and Sindh. Punjab alone provides 88% area for its cultivation and share 85% in its total production in the country.
On an average every Pakistani consumes 6-7 kg of pulses annually which shows the interest of Pakistani people in pulses which is increasing demand and supply gap as Pakistan doesn’t have enough domestic production to meet the requirement of its country men, its domestic production of pulses was 0.45 million tonnes in 2014 which was 0.75 million tonns in 2013 much lower than demand.
Pakistan spent $139.096 million of foreign exchange in the fiscal year 2010-2011 to meet the domestic requirements of pulses by importing 628.508 thousand tonnes of pulses. 444.7776 thousand tonnes were imported during 2009-2010 according to available reports, these reports show increasing import trend as country spent $224.135 million in July2014-january 2015 and imported 370,181 metric tonns compared to $165.160 million in July2013-January2014 and imported volume of 262,509 metric tonnes, Country’s import volume of pulses was raised by 32.41 % as 63,130 metric tonnes were imported in January 2015 compared to 47,679 metric tonnes in same period of 2014.
Pakistan is mainly depended on Canada,Australia,Burma,Tanzania,Euthiopia to full fill the domestic requirement of pulses which is about 0.6 metric tonnes every year.
Major challenges faced by pulses sector in Pakistan are, farmers get lower prices for their outputs due to this farmers are switching to another crops for their bread and butter, role of middle men, lack of modern technology, machinery ,improper harvesting, improper sowing,delay or early sowing of seeds, non certified seeds, less resistant varieties of pulses, lack of interest of Government or improper Government policies and lack of research on pulses to increase productions. if work is done on these issues Pakistan will be able to produce and full fill domestic needs and it will also create more employment opportunities where other cash crops cant be grown.

Riaz Haq said...

Pakistanis to sacrifice over 10 million animals this Eid

Muslims in Pakistan celebrating Eid-ul-Azha will sacrifice over 10 million animals this year, officials at the Tanners' Association said on Monday.

According to Gulzar Feroz, the central chairman at the Tanners' Association, more than 2.7 million cows/bulls, four million goats, 800,000 lambs, and up to 30,000 camels will be sacrificed this year.

He said that the hides of cows/bulls were expected to fetch a price of Rs1,600 in the market, while goat hides would fetch a market price of Rs250 each.

He said that hides of sacrificial animals fetched a total of Rs8 billion last Eid, but due to fall in prices this year, hides of sacrificial animals are expected to fetch around Rs7 billion this year.

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Online sales of sacrificial animals

A trader at a leading online portal hopes to sell 100,000 sacrificial animals this year, up from 75,000 last year and 67,000 a year before that
Traders are frequenting between Karachi and the rural areas of Sindh or Punjab with greater ease and are bringing in truckloads of sacrificial animals to the city’s main market on Super Highway.
The cut in petroleum prices effective from September 1 has also come as a blessing for them, as they believe that it will help them contain the cost of transporting animals from rural areas to city and town markets.
Meanwhile, the online sale of animals is also expected to rise. People at say they hope to sell 100,000 animals this year, up from 75,000 last year and 67,000 a year before that. People can buy a goat via this online facility for $225 or about Rs23,000 and a cow for $710 (a little over Rs72,000).
The Al-Shaheer Corporation, which owns the Meat One brand, has also offered the facility of qurbani to its customers for Rs22,000 per goat and Rs99,000 per cow. The deal includes the delivery of meat.
Online services for buying sacrificial animals and for participating in collective sacrifices are offered by several other web portals as well. And young investors are also using and similar websites to sell animals on a limited scale.
At Karachi’s main market on Super Highway and in some other markets across the city, the prices of goats and sheep of average height and weight ranged between Rs20,000-30,000 and between Rs15,000-Rs25,000 respectively (till last Tuesday). Meanwhile, cows and calves of average height and weight were priced at Rs60,000-Rs100,000.
The welfare arms of political parties and charities have set their rates for goats at Rs15,000-Rs20,000 and for cows and calves at Rs49,000-Rs72,000 depending upon the size and weight of the animals and the places where the collective sacrifice would take place.
“Animal prices for end-buyers may rise further as Eid-ul-Azha gets closer. But investors would earn no big profits this year,” says a Karachi-based livestock broker who booked 300 cows and bulls in Bahawalpur and 300 goats in Tando Adam in the last week of June.
“I made bookings at an average rate of 60,000 per cow or calf and Rs12,000 per goat and the prices also covered the upkeep and grazing charges for three months,” he told this writer. He said half of the total price of all animals was paid at the time of booking and the remaining 50pc is being paid per truckload of animals on their arrival in Karachi.
This investor is expecting a maximum 30pc return on his investment (Rs22.5m paid as 50pc of the total price of animals in June), which works out at 10pc per month. Since the remaining 50pc price would be paid out of the money he is receiving from local traders, the 10pc net monthly return would not be diluted. “But then it’s not too big, as I have earned higher returns in previous years.”
He represents a class of investment-hoppers, charities, once-a-year-formed groups of crowd financers, NGOs, online traders, and the welfare arms of political parties and religious seminaries. They book sacrificial animals several months before Eid-ul-Azha and earn better returns on their investment owing to lower animal prices due to their bulk forward buying.
No credible estimate is available about such investment, but it certainly runs into tens of billions of rupees.
People had spent Rs350-400bn on purchasing sacrificial animals last year, according to a conservative estimate based on the post-Eid collection of hides and skins (7.4m reported by tanneries but close to 10m by other guesstimates). This year, such spending is expected to remain either unchanged or rise modestly, say sources associated with the cattle trade.
Meanwhile, individual animal-selling arguably fetches higher returns because it is at this stage that the animals are categorised not only by their weight and size but also by their breed or looks, with their prices set accordingly.

Riaz Haq said...

Eid ul Adha spending on sacrificial animals: $2.8 billion in 2016 in Pakistan

Cows: 2.7mX $600= $1.6 billion

Goats: 4mX $200= $0.8 billion

Lambs: 0.8mX $200= 0.16 billion

Camels: 0.3 million X $800= 0.24 billion